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Śrīmad bhagavad gītā | gnana vignana yoga ~ Sarga 7 of 18

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Sarga (or) Chapter 7 of 18 : gnana–Vignana yoga

śloka (verses): 30

Abstract: Krishna describes the absolute reality and its illusory energy Maya.

Audio Recitals:

in Sanskrit by Sri Vidyabhushana     
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in Telugu by Ghantasala     
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in English Unknown     
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गीतोपदेश

Gitopadesh (Sanskrit: गीतोपदेश)


Introduction:

In chapter seven Lord Krishna gives concrete knowledge of the absolute reality as well as the opulence of divinity. He describes His illusory energy in the material existence called Maya and declares how extremely difficult it is to surmount it. He also describes the four types of people attracted to divinity and the four types of people who are opposed to divinty. In conclusion He reveals that one in spiritual intelligence takes exclusive refuge of the Lord without reservation in devotional service. Thus this chapter is entitled: Knowledge of the Ultimate Truth.

Sloka 7.1 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रीभगवानुवाच |
मय्यासक्तमनाः पार्थ योगं युञ्जन्मदाश्रयः |
असंशयं समग्रं मां यथा ज्ञास्यसि तच्छृणु ||७- १||

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha |
mayyAsaktamanAH pArtha yogaM yuJNjanmadAshrayaH |
asa.nshayaM samagraM mA.n yathA GYAsyasi tachchhR^iNu || 7-1 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.1

Anvaya: sri-bhagavan uvaca–the Supreme Lord said; mayi–unto Me; asakta-manah–mind attached; partha–O son of Prtha; yogam–self-realization; yunjan–so practicing; mat-asrayah–in consciousness of Me (Krsna consciousness); asamsayam–without doubt; samagram–completely; mam–unto Me; yatha–as much as; jnasyasi–you can know; tat–that; srnu–try to hear.

Translation: Now hear, O son of Prtha [Arjuna], how by practicing yoga in full consciousness of Me, with mind attached to Me, you can know Me in full, free from doubt.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

In the preceding chapters the true nature of the atma or soul has been delineated along with descriptions of different processes of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Now Lord Krishna will describe the Divine transcendental form to be worshipped. At the conclusion of chapter six he stated that the yogi imbued with full faith who dedicatedly worships the Supreme Lord by being completely immersed in meditation upon in Him is the most elevated. Now the question that may arise is what is the nature of the Supreme Lord to whom such worship is to be given. To answer this possible question the Blessed Lord with a view of describing His own nature for the devotees whose minds are exclusively engrossed in Him, taking total refuge in Him while practising yoga. To these devotees He is saying listen to this special knowledge which will reveal His eternal attributes and manifestations and by which one will know His true nature alleviating all doubts.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Hari OM! The previous six chapters known as the section on karma yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by selfless actions, the method of acquiring spiritual wisdom was described. Now the next six chapters known as the bhakti yoga section or the yoga of devotion primarily describe the glories and greatness of the Supreme Lord. The words asakta-manah means an extremely attached mental disposition. Utilising this attachment a person takes complete shelter of the Supreme Lord understanding that Lord Krishna is the ultimate controller, the ultimate protector and the ultimate refuge of all living entities. Understanding this reality fully with asamsayam or free from doubt without any reservation is the special meaning here.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

In the first six chapters of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita comprising the first division known as the Karma Yoga section which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by the performance of prescribed Vedic activities with detachment. There the subject matter primarily delineated was with reference to how an aspirant may achieve atma tattva or realisation of the soul by adopting the path of karma yoga. Atma-tattva is essential and ancillary to constant devotion and the continuous meditation necessary by which communion with the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures as well as His eternal associates. He is the ultimate and the supreme goal to be attained, one without a second and worthy of everyone’s endeavour for devotion to. He is Parabrahma the Supreme Being. He is niravadya or perfect, He is the sole causeless cause of the entire creation and the total cosmic manifestation. Omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent, infallible and eternal. The Supreme Soul of all living entities and the Supreme Controller for all of existence.

Now the middle section of six chapters from seven to twelve comprising the second division of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita known as the Bhakti Yoga section which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by loving devotion to the Supreme Lord. The subject matters revealed are the nature of Parabrahma the Supreme Being of All, Parama Purusa the Supreme Spirit of all and the method and modes of loving devotion and meditation are to be offerred to Him. This is known as bhakti. The mode of such devout love called bhakti is summarised in the final chapter eighteen, with the verses XXXXVI where Lord Krishna states: That humans attain perfection by rendering devotional service to the all pervasive Supreme Lord from whom all created beings have come into existence and from whom all created beings receive their life impulses. In verse LIII He states: That being completely detached from all designations, free from false ego, lust for power, arrogance, desire and anger while being completely equipoise and peaceful internally one becomes eligible to realise and experience the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence. In verse LIV He states that when situated in the state of the Brahman one laments not and craves not and thus being joyful obtains bhakti to the Supreme Lord.

This constant state of meditation in devout love for the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in the Vedic scriptures is known as bhakti and constitutes the method and means by which to attain communion with the Supreme Lord. This is confirmed in various Vedic scriptures. In the Svetasavatara Upanisad, III.VIII it states: Meditating on Him solely one crosses over the ocean of mortality. In the Taittiriya Upanisad III.II it states: The knower of the Supreme Being thus becomes immortal. In the Brihadaranyaka Upanisad II.IV it states: The atma or soul alone is to be intently contemplated on for deliverance and in the same scripture beginning at I.IV it states:The omniscient atma itself is the worshipable goal to attain. In the Chandogya Upanisad it states:The mind being pure, meditation is stable, with concentration fixed all knots are untied.

The Mundaka Upanisad II.II it states: The knot of the heart is cut asunder, any lingering doubts are dissolved, all reactions to actions are terminated to one whom the Supreme Lord has manifested within their heart. The words bhakti meaning loving devotion and dhyana or meditation and upasana or divine ecstasy and other similar terms are synonymous and indicative of the continuity and potency of remembrance and reflection through realisation of the atma on the Supreme Lord so intensely that one flows into communion with Him as an actual perceptive experience. In the Katha Upanisad II.XXIII it states that: Not by deliberation is the atma perceived, nor by concentration, neither by erudite knowledge. The atma is perceived by one in whom the Supreme Lord Himself elects to reveal His essence. This verse conclusively confirms that the path of Bhakti Yoga is of an ecstatically joyful experience which induces the Supreme Lord Himself to blissfully reciprocate with such a felicitous devotee being that he has made the Supreme Lord the sole object of his love. So it can be understood that upanasa or divine ecstasy is non-different from bhakti or loving devotion. That the terms upasana and bhakti are equivalent in all respects is also evident from other Vedic passages. In the Taittirya Upanisad III.VII beginning tam nanyah pantha ayanaya vidyate it states: One who has realised the Supreme Being becomes immortal then and there, no other path to moksa or liberation exists. In VI.LIII of the same scripture beginning na ham vedaih it states: Not only by knowing the Vedas or performing austerities, or giving gifts or the performance of yagnas or worship in propitiation can the Supreme Lord be perceived. And in VI:LIV beginning bhaktya tu ananyaya it states: By loving devotion exclusively is the Supreme Being to be perceived and known.

Thus the seventh chapter beginning the second division of Srimad Bhagavad Gita which is the Bhakti Yoga section delineates:

1) The essential nature of the Paramapurua or Supreme Spirit as an object of meditation. 2) The mystification of the Divine nature by the veil of material nature. 3) The resignation of oneself to the Supreme Being in order to transcend this veil. 4) The classification of the aspirants who have chosen the path of bhakti. 5) The pre-eminence among them of those who are the Supreme Lord’s devotees.

The words mayy-asakta-manah denotes one whose mind is affectionately focused on the Supreme Lord Krishna. So much so is one attached to Him and so impassioned is their love for Him that that if one feels separated from Him for even a moment either by being without His close proximity or by the entrance into the mind of any thoughts not relevant to Him; or if one were to temporarily not remember Him for any reason, that would subsequently be the cause of such a person to consider their whole life as meaningless. The words mad-asrayah means complete dependence upon the Supreme Lord without whom one could not even exist.

Next learn about how one who joyfully engages in Bhakti Yoga with a loving heart in transcendental ecstasy will realise the Supreme Lord as He is in all His splendour and glory.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary

I humbly bow down to the Supreme Lord Krishna, the ultimate controller of all creation, who is only accessible through bhakti or loving devotion which is the highest of the highest, who by His causeless mercy is also the bestower of such bhakti to whom He chooses and who dispels the darkness of ignorance known as maya or the delusion of illusion.

The first six chapters of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita known as the karma yoga section were revealed for the aspirants of moksa or liberation from the material existence to establish that the highest and most profound human goal is to attain communion with the Supreme Lord by realisation of the embodied atma or soul. Atma tattva or the knowledge of the soul was stated as paramount and the means of achieving moksa along with selfless actions, equanimity, detachment, meditation and as parts of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Now in the next six chapters is being revealed how bhakti or loving devotion is the only means to accomplishing the ultimate goal of communion with the Supreme Lord.

Now in order to describe the path of devotion to the Supreme Lord and to confirm that He is the highest reality and ultimate attainment, possessing eternal divine attributes such as omniscience, omnipresence and omnipotence and to establish that the Supreme Lord is the ultimate goal and sole recipient worthy of devotion. Also to describe different kinds of devotees of bhakti to the Supreme Lord and their antagonists the non-devotees and the non-believers in God and the Vedic scriptures, the middle six chapters from seven to twelve known as the karma yoga section are being revealed.

In the beginning of chapter seven the description of the nature of the object of devotion is given along with the nature of the devotees. At the conclusion of chapter six, verse forty-seven Lord Krishna declared that one who devotedly worships Him exclusively with their mind focused on him is considered to be the best amongst all yogis or those engaged in perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The question one might ask is what is the way to know the Supreme Lord and how should one fix the mind on Him and how should a devotee humbly offer Him worship? Although these questions were not raised by Arjuna; yet without being asked Lord Krishna out of compassion spoke the word chrnu meaning listen and then He spoke the words mad-asrayah meaning with your mind focused on Me.

The Supreme Lord Krishna possessing solely transcendental qualities such as eternity, consciousness and bliss and although appearing in human form is completely beyond the sway of material nature while at the same time being the source of infinite auspicious attributes such as compassion and majesty. One should concentrate their minds on the Supreme Lord of all other lords and worship Him with love and devotion and not like any lesser god for trivial material gains. Then the Supreme Lord of all will be revealed within the etheric heart of one so surrendered in all His splendour, power and glory without fail.

Sloka 7.2 audio recital in Sanskrit     

ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः |
यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते ||७- २||

GYAnaM te.ahaM saviGYAnamidaM vakShyAmyasheShataH |
yajGYAtvA neha bhUyo.anyajGYAtavyamavashiShyate || 7-2 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.2

Anvaya: jnanam–phenomenal knowledge; te–unto you; aham–I; sa–with; vijnanam–noumenal knowledge; idam–this; vaksyami–shall explain; asesatah–in full; yat–which; jnatva–knowing; na–not; iha–in this world; bhuyah–further; anyat–anything more; jnatavyam–knowable; avasisyate–remains to be known.

Translation: I shall now declare unto you in full this knowledge both phenomenal and noumenal, by knowing which there shall remain nothing further to be known.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna praises the transcendental knowledge that He is about to instruct as it leads to blessedness and realisation. This transcendental knowledge is the essence of Vedanta and derivable from the Vedic scriptures. Its realisation guarantees that there is nothing further to be known by one who is an aspirant for moksa or liberation from material existence. Such a person becomes exalted by such realisation alone.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The word jnana means Vedic knowledge but the compound word sa-vijnanam indicates transcendental spiritual awareness concerning the Supreme Lord. Lord Krishna is stating that He will reveal the complete process and means for achieving it

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna has deigned to reveal completely in detail the general knowledge concerning Him as well as the esoteric knowledge which can be realised. The word vijnana means realised knowledge. This denotes a more profound level of understanding with a special propensity of inate wisdom which can discern and discriminate the reality of the Supreme Lord Krishna being the original substratum and foundation of all that is animate and inanimate in existence. He is the ultimate controller, the antithesis to whatever is demoniac. He is the sovereign master of all creation possessing unlimited divine glories and infinite transcendental qualities and attributes. Along with revealing these things Lord Krishna will also reveal the wisdom concerning His manifested nature. By the realisation of this spiritual knowledge there will be nothing left worthy of knowing for an aspirant of bhakti or unconditional loving devotion. The extreme difficulty in acquiring such esoteric knowledge about the Supreme Lord will be explained in the following verse.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna presents this knowledge so as to provoke attention to the recipient by the words idam jnanam meaning the theoretical knowledge described in the Vedic scriptures and the words sa-vijnanam meaning knowledge of His manifested divine majesty based on realisation. The combination of theoretical knowledge with realisation from one’s very own actual experience insures that there will be nothing else to be known for an aspirant in this world for moksa or liberation from the material existence who is engaged in practising yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness.

Sloka 7.3 audio recital in Sanskrit     

मनुष्याणां सहस्रेषु कश्चिद्यतति सिद्धये |
यततामपि सिद्धानां कश्चिन्मां वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ||७- ३||

manuShyANA.n sahasreShu kashchidyatati siddhaye |
yatatAmapi siddhAnA.n kashchinmA.n vetti tattvataH || 7-3 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.3

Anvaya: manusyanam–of men; sahasresu–out of many thousands; kascit–someone; yatati–endeavors; siddhaye–for perfection; yatatam–of those so endeavoring; api–indeed; siddhanam–of those who have achieved perfection; kascit–someone; mam–Me; vetti–does know; tattvatah–in fact.

Translation: Out of many thousands among men, one may endeavor for perfection, and of those who have achieved perfection, hardly one knows Me in truth.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Without devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna, transcendental knowledge about Him is impossible to assimilate, understand or intuit. Amongst innumerable living beings specifically means humans as all other beings have neither the inclination or the qualification for moksa or liberation from the material existence. Yet among hundreds of thousands of humans only one due to great merit ever endeavours for moksa and among the hundreds of thousands who endeavour for moksa perchance one will actually achieve it due to extraordinary activities from a previous birth and of the hundreds of thousands who actually achieve moksa and reach perfection perchance only one by the mercy of the Supreme Lord will know Him in reality. Yet even though this transcendental knowledge is very confidential Lord Krishna will reveal it to His devotee. This is the purport.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Extremely rare is transcendental knowledge regarding the Supreme Lord Krishna received.

Now begins the summation.

Hari OM! The paramount nature of the Supreme Lord is specially emphasised in this verse. Of innumerable living entities existing in creation less then one-tenth of 1% attempt to endeavour for perfection. Of the minuscule amount of living entities who do endeavour less then one-tenth of 1% percent actually achieve perfection. The Padma Purana states that even among those perfected only a few such as Brahma and Shiva actually really know the Supreme Lord is Krishna. As far as others are concerned knowledge alone of Lord Krishna is sufficient enough to grant them moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death in the material existence. In the Bhagavat Purana it states that even among 100,000 liberated beings only less then one-tenth of 1% factually comprehend that Lord Krishna is the ultimate creator of all. Every being who has achieved moksa in the past and those who are achieving moksa in the present all without exception have been and are devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna and His Vedically authorised incarnations. This also applies as well to all beings who will achieve moksa in the future. Amongst all these eternal devotees Brahma the architect of all beings in the material creation is the foremost and thus it has been stated in the Sat Tattva text that the devotees of Lord Krishna are the very best of all living entities.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Humans are designated to act in accordance with the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. Thousands may be found that adhere to the injunctions of the Vedas but hard to find is one who adheres and perseveres until the goal is reached and perfection is achieved. Of thousands who may be found that fortunately have sustained their efforts and are persevering until the goal is reached and perfection is achieved there is scarcely one discovered among them who knows the Supreme position of Lord Krishna and offers all their activities to Him. And of thousands who may know His supreme position it is extremely rare to find one who knows Lord Krishna as He really is and offers themselves in loving devotion to Him.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is speaking in this way to emphasise that the knowledge He is prepared to reveal is very rarely achieved and difficult to acquire. Out of innumerable, countless souls some have attained human status and amongst them hardly one in thousands of humans is qualified in Vedic scriptures and strives for atma tattva or realisation of the soul. Of those few endeavouring for atma tattva hardly one in thousands actually achieves it and out of thousands who after having achieved atma tattvae and finally attained moksa or liberation from the material existence, amongst this group some very rare personalities are actually aware of Lord Krishna’s paramount position and divine glories in reality. This is because without bhakti or loving devotion unto Lord Krishna it is not possible to know and perceive Him. This Lord Krishna confirms Himself at the conclusion of chapter eighteen, verse fifty-five when He declares, That only through devotion does one come to the platform of communion with Him.

Sloka 7.4 audio recital in Sanskrit     

भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च |
अहंकार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा ||७- ४||

bhUmirApo.analo vAyuH khaM mano buddhireva cha |
aha.nkAra itIyaM me bhinnA prakR^itiraShTadhA || 7-4 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.4

Anvaya: bhumih–earth; apah–water; analah–fire; vayuh–air; kham–ether; manah–mind; buddhih–intelligence; eva–certainly; ca–and; ahankarah–false ego; iti–thus; iyam–all these; me–My; bhinna–separated; prakrtih–energies; astadha–total eight .

Translation: Earth, water, fire, air, ether, mind, intelligence and false ego–all together these eight comprise My separated material energies.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

After having enticed the listeners interest, next in order to delineate the nature of Isvara the Supreme controller, introduced as the origin of all creation, etc. through the agency of prakriti the material substatum. Prakriti has a dual nature differentiated by higher and lower properties. Lord Krishna defines the lower properties in this verse beginning with the word bhumir meaning Earth. It should be understood that Earth includes the five elementary essences being sight, taste, hearing, smell and touch. By the word manah meaning the mind, its cause ahankarah meaning ego is denoted. By the word ahankaryah or egoism, its cause avidya or ignorance the absence of knowledge is denoted. By the word buddhih meaning the intellect, its cause the mahat being cosmic intelligence is denoted. This is Lord Krishna’s lower nature divided into eight categories. Another interpretation of this verse is that earth means the five gross elements together with the five subtle elements. The word egoism means together with its by products being the five senses. Intellect means the cosmic intelligence. By mind is meant the pradhana or the unmanifest which has no form that has been manifested and which can only be inferred by the mind. So this is Lord Krihna’s prakriti otherwise known as maya-sakti or illusory potency in eight categories. Although prakriti is usually divided into twenty-four categories because the other sixteen are included within these eight it is said here to be divided into eight categories. Later in chapter thirteen, verses six and seven concerning ksetra or the body this very same prakriti will be described in full as having twenty-four categories being the five gross elements, egoism, intellect, the unmanifest, the ten sense organs, the mind and the five objects of the senses.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The eight categories of Lord Krishna’s include the five elements and the mind concluding with the mahat denoting intellect and ahankara denoting false ego. The ahankara of the living entities is different from the ego sense of the incarnation Ksiradaksayi Vishnu who while meditating upon Himself in the casual ocean merely thinks I Am and universal creation begins to manifest as unlimited universes from the pores of His spiritual body.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

It should be known that mula prakriti or the primeval substratum of material nature is the basis for the infinite and phenomena of all creation. It ministers its all encompassing energy in material existence to all sentient beings in a marvellous variety of ways. As objects of enjoyment, bodily organs to enjoy with as well as regions of enjoyment to interact with. All these things are also manifestations of the Supreme Lord Krishna’s nature and they are divided into eight principle categories. 1)Solids being Earth distinguished by odor, 2)liquids being water distinguished by moisture, 3)light being fire distinguished by heat, 4)air being gases distinguished by lightness and 5)space being ether distinguished by unlimitedness, 6) manas or mind with its accompanying five senses and ahankara or false ego.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In order to continue the previous verse Lord Krishna presents prakriti the material substratum in eight categories representing His lower material energy comprised of earth, water, fire, air and ether and they stand for their respective elements in their subtle state being seeing, smelling, hearing, touching and tasting which are in their modified state and thus cannot be considered as constituents of nature. Manas or mind which stands for its cause being the intellect and ahankarah being false ego which stands for cosmic intelligence as well as the individual ego which stands for maya the illusory deluding energy which is the cause of cosmic intelligence. All this is the potency of Lord Krishna and the material cause of creation consisting of sixteen movable and immovable modifications in the form of five subtle elements, five organs with five senses and the mind all from His lower nature divided into eight categories.

Sloka 7.5 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् |
जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत् ||७- ५||

apareyamitastvanyAM prakR^iti.n viddhi me parAm.h |
jIvabhUtAM mahAbAho yayedaM dhAryate jagat.h || 7-5 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.5

Anvaya: apara–inferior; iyam–this; itah–besides this; tu–but; anyam–another; prakrtim–energy; viddhi–just try to understand; me–My; param–superior; jiva-bhutam–the living entities; maha-baho–O mighty-armed one; yaya–by whom; idam–this; dharyate–being utilized or exploited; jagat–the material world.

Translation: Besides this inferior nature, O mighty-armed Arjuna, there is a superior energy of Mine, which are all living entities who are struggling with material nature and are sustaining the universe.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

While concluding the topic of the eight categories of the lower inferior prakriti or material substratum Lord Krishna describes the higher superior prakriti. The lower prakriti is inferior because it is inert and meant for enjoyment by another. The higher prakriti is the individual atma or soul within all sentient beings. By the unique and exclusive sentient principle of the embodied soul being created, activated and energised by an infinitesimal portion of the Supreme Lord all creation is sustained by its own effort.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The word apare means inferior and refers to the eight principle material energies itemised in the previous verse. Residing within all creatures the sakti or feminine energy known as Sri or Laksmi Devi of Lord Krishna is the caretaker of all life existing always as the consciousness of all creatures. Prakriti or the substratum pervading material nature has a dual manifestation gross and subtle. The gross manifestation is the eight categories of material nature which is inferior to the subtle manifestation which is eternal and all pervading. There is nothing comparable to Sri Laksmi as she is an eternal energy of the Supreme Lord manifesting herself individually as an eternal consort for each and every avatar or incarnation of Lord Krishna. In the Narada Purana it states that by these two gross and subtle manifestations of Sri Laksmi all the worlds are energised and sustained by the Supreme Lord.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna explains that the eight categories mentioned are of His lower inferior energy being material. But He has a higher superior energy which is completely transcendent to the insentient nature being spiritual and contributing to the enjoyment of His higher nature of embodied sentient beings. This higher nature is eternal in nature in the form of the atma or soul within all sentient beings and is distinctly different from His lower insentient nature which pervades existence as well. The relationship of the higher nature to the lower nature is equated to the enjoyer and the enjoyed. The higher nature is further distinguished by an intellect which is totally absent in the lower insentient nature; but both nature manifest from the Supreme Lord. The lower nature consisting of matter and the higher nature consisting of the atma or eternal soul within all sentient beings. By this higher superior energy all inert and non-intelligent matter is upheld throughout all creation.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna now clarifies that the eight-fold nature he spoke about in the previous verse is from His lower inferior nature because it is inanimate and insentient but He has a higher superior nature which constitutes the life force of all living beings as the atma or eternal soul which sustains the whole creation. The physical body the lower nature is factually a corporeal inanimate object into which the animate atma the higher nature has entered and taken up residence. Both the animate and inanimate make up the higher and lower natures of the prakriti of the Supreme Lord. The Vishnu Purana states that although the atma is part and parcel of the higher superior nature it is still understood to be subservient to the Supreme Lord.

Sloka 7.6 audio recital in Sanskrit     

एतद्योनीनि भूतानि सर्वाणीत्युपधारय |
अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयस्तथा ||७- ६||

etadyonIni bhUtAni sarvANItyupadhAraya |
ahaM kR^itsnasya jagataH prabhavaH pralayastathA || 7-6 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.6

Anvaya: etat–these two natures; yonini–source of birth; bhutani–everything created; sarvani–all; iti–thus; upadharaya–know; aham–I; krtsnasya–all-inclusive; jagatah–of the world; prabhavah–source of manifestation; pralayah–annihilation; tatha–as well as.

Translation: Of all that is material and all that is spiritual in this world, know for certain that I am both its origin and dissolution.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

By describing the lower and higher, dual nature of prakriti the material substratum, Lord Krishna effectively explains His being their complete cause. All things moving and stationary have prakriti for their origin and are included in one of these two prakriti being either kshetra the field of activity and kshetrajna the utiliser of the field of activity. Of these the inert lower nature evolves as a physical body. Whereas the sentient prakriti with an eternal spark from the Supreme Lord being the atma or soul enters into all sentient beings as the witness and experiencer and sustains each and every being by their actions. Both these two prakritis are manifested from Lord Krishna and all living entities are subject to them. He is the originating cause from which each and everything effectively comes into existence. He is the ultimate cause of all creation entirely and He is also the sovereign cause of the periodic dissolution of all creation as well.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

It is not only that all creation is dependent upon Lord Krishna but also the wonderful phenomena of creation itself is a form of His splendour. Because of His splendour there is beauty and supremacy as well due to He being the established cause, the ultimate enjoyer and the illuminator. The Vedic scriptures iterate: That Lord Krishna is the all knowing, all performing, all enjoying, all fragrance and all essence. He is all things that can be seen or thought even though unknowable in words to be described by speech. Thus is He eulogised. Creation, preservation and destruction are all co-ordinated, orchestrated, energised and illuminated solely by just a fragment of Lord Krishna. Thus have seers and sages praised Him throughout the millenniums. The Narada Purana states: Because He is the ultimate enjoyer of all, He is known as sarva or everything and not because of His universal form. Even the enjoyments of the future are always His. Therefore through His inconceivable power all enjoyments are His.

Now begins the summation.

Gross manifestations and consciousness is the lower form of prakriti or the material substratum and subtle manifestations and consciousness is the higher form. Both are endowed with the attributes of three gunas or goodness, passion and ignorance; but only the subtle higher form is endowed with Sri or Laksmi Devi the beloved of the Supreme Lord. Both these forms are subservient to Lord Krishna and cause all the worlds to be created. Lord Krishna is the father of creation and from His energy Sri being the subtle consciousness can be seen as the mother of creation. Energised by Lord Krishna’s creative potency all creation is manifested through her.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is declaring that the higher and lower natures of prakriti or material nature both are constituted as His dual nature in the material existence. This dual nature consists of chit or sentient and achit insentient categories. This dual nature is the basis and foundation for all existence sentient and insentient. This dual nature is the power which designs and models according to qualifications all forms and potencies from the highest material entity, being Brahma to a blade of grass. This dual nature is the matrix for all intelligent and non-intelligent configurations and manifestations. This dual nature solely manifests from Lord Krishna and constitutes the substratum of all material things. He alone is the originator, the manifestor, the projector and the retractor of the total creation by only a fraction of His will.

This dual nature of chit and achit being the collective compound of all creation exists within the complete nature of the Supreme Lord as merely an infinitesimal fragment of the total. This is given in sruti and smrti or revealed Vedic scriptures as evidenced in the Subala Upanisad:II beginning mahan avyak ta liyate aksharam tamasi liyate which means:The mahat or primal manifestation revolves back into avyakta the unmanifest, avyakta manifests into akshara the supra subtle invariable substance, akshara devolves into tamas the primordial undifferentiated basic substratum of the original prakriti which is complete darkness. This is a homogeneous refraction of nebulosity substratum existing as a diametrical reflection of the nebula within the Supreme Being.

What is described by Lord Krishna as prakriti in its dual forms of chit and achit as well as the atma or the soul all merge into paramatma the Supreme Soul and paramatma is source and the support of all manifesting from the highest as an emanation from the Supreme Lord Krishna as eulogised in all the Vedas and Vedantas. In as such as He is the cause of the cause of all things and the source of the source of all beings and in as much as He is the Supreme Controller of all that is sentient and insentient and in as much as He is Supreme Power energising and maintaining all existence, possessing phenomenally glorious attributes and astonishing amazing qualities; Lord Krishna is paramount and superior to everything with nothing existing beyond Him and nothing existing separate from Him. Nor is there any God or demigod, or any other being in existence who possesses even a fraction of His attributes and qualities nor does any being have the competence to even imitate His imperishable cosmic potencies.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna now reveals that He alone is the sole source of the entire creation and its dissolution as well. Everything in all creation movable and immovable have manifested and evolved from His two fold nature. He is the cause of the creation of the inanimate temporary physical body and He is the cause of the animate eternal embodied atma or soul. The inanimate reality is due to a modification of His propensity as He becomes the substratum while the animate reality is the way by which He enters into material nature and enjoying participates and interacts with it. The physical body cannot sustain and grow without the life principle of the atma and both the physical body and the soul are both His powers and both completely under His control. The power and the powerful cannot remain separate because the source of the power is found residing in the powerful only.

Sloka 7.7 audio recital in Sanskrit     

मत्तः परतरं नान्यत्किञ्चिदस्ति धनञ्जय |
मयि सर्वमिदं प्रोतं सूत्रे मणिगणा इव ||७- ७||

mattaH parataraM nAnyatki~nchidasti dhana~njaya |
mayi sarvamidaM protaM sUtre maNigaNA iva || 7-7 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.7

Anvaya: mattah–beyond Myself; para-taram–superior; na–not; anyat kincit–anything else; asti–there is; dhananjaya–O conqueror of wealth; mayi–in Me; sarvam–all that be; idam–which we see; protam–strung; sutre–on a thread; mani-ganah–pearls; iva–likened.

Translation: O conqueror of wealth [Arjuna], there is no Truth superior to Me. Everything rests upon Me, as pearls are strung on a thread.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Now that Lord Krishna’s absolute position has been established in regard to all creation He is confirming that there is nothing that exists which is superior to Him. In other words there is no independent power or cause apart from Him existing whatsoever in the origin, creation and dissolution of all creation. Lord Krishna energises and totally sustains all creation as well. This is what He is stating by the words mayi sarvam idam protam meaning all the worlds are threaded or pervaded by Him. The metaphor is clear enough.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is stating that He alone is the Supreme Being and that there is none other.

Now begins the summation.

Mattah parataram nanyat means there is nothing is superior to Lord Krishna. To consider that there is anything, anywhere in creation independent of Him is foolishness. Because of contact with prakriti or material nature attachment and sorrow arise which enacts a distinct identity for all living entities. Sri or Laksmi Devi is superior to prakriti, being ever free from sorrow. Although Sri associates with prakriti there is no effect from it. Vayu is the demigod in charge of wind. He is madhyana or intermediate and has some independence from prakriti. Lord Krishna is known as the most exalted and since there are no more demigods superior to Him, He is not only exalted but the Supreme Being of all.

Because the jiva or embodied being identifies with prakriti attachment arises and because of attachment then duality is accepted thereby the jiva is considered to be in an inferior position. Therefore everything in material existence which is temporary and subject to change is considered inferior without exception. Even more inferior are those who are inimical to the Supreme Lord. Having no cognisance with even their own consciousness they are ever associated with sorrow and despair. Thus it can be clearly understood that only those who have a relationship with the Supreme Lord have qualified themselves for salvation and no others. Those who have so qualified themselves are always blissful and experiencing happiness internally are the superior ones. But even they are still below Brahma and others according to taratamya or gradation of qualification in bhakti or loving devotional service to the Supreme Lord. Those who have a relationship with the Supreme Lord attain moksa or liberarion from material existence by this very experience. By such experience supra-sensory illumination manifests in them known as vijnana. The depth and quality of the perception of this illumination and its awareness depends upon taratamya as well. The primary source of illumination is the Supreme Lord Krishna and all others such as Brahma and Shiva are directly empowered and illumined by Him.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is revealing the essence of reality by stating mayi sarvam idam meaning everything there is being either chit sentient or achit insentient, everythinthat exists as the aggregate of causes and effects are constituted from Him as He is the original source of all. Absolutely everything depends upon Lord Krishna for their existence and maintenance as the physical body depends upon the atma or soul for its existence. Lord Krishna is Paramatma the Supreme Soul residing in all living entities and thus everything in creation are all infinitesimal parts and parcels of Him in the way that unlimited jewels are held together by means of a string. In the Antaryami Brahmana and other Upanisads the coexistence of prakriti or the material substratum and the Brahman the spiritual substratum pervading all existence is compared to the relationship of the physical body and the atma or soul. To whom material existence and all beings constitute His body and within all beings He is the supreme atma, He is the Divine Lord, one without a second, Lord Krishna. Thus all things exist as part of His body and are ensouled by Him as well. Hence all things are predicative to, and modes of the Supreme Lord, who solely manifested all existence which is completely subsequent to Him. All terms are thus connotations of Him by the rule of samanadhikaranya which expresses the inseparable and invariable relationship of coexistence manifesting between substance and attribute. This can easily be understood by comprehending that any term used to address an attribute of the Supreme Lord is directly connotative to the source from where the attribute originates, being the Supreme Lord. In regards to the communal relationship of substance and attribute referring to the dual indissoluble nature manifesting together, the next four verses further elucidate.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna speaks of His paramount position over everything and His superiority over all. Because He is the origin of the dual nature of prakriti the material substratum, He Himself is factually the substratum of everything existing and the source of the entire creation. There is no independent power or cause for all of creation other than Him. Lord Krishna is the Supreme Lord of all and this is clear everything animate and inanimate in all of creation evolves from Him. The Vedic scriptures proclaim of Lord Krishna thus: There is nothing equal to Him neither is there anything superior to Him. He is the source of all sources. He is the controller of all controllers. He is the Lord of all lords. He is the origin of the creator of creation. He is the Supreme Being above all other beings. The Ruler of the unmanifest and the manifest. By the will of Lord Krishna the entire creation of unlimited movable and immovables has been manifested.

Now Lord Krishna reveals He, Himself is the ultimate substratum of everything. The metaphor given are the words sutre mani-gana iva meaning clusters of gems strung on a thread. The stableness and movement of the gems is depending upon the thread and in the same way the stability and movement of the entire creation comprised of the animate and inanimate is depending upon Lord Krishna who resides as paramatma the Supreme Soul within all sentient beings. This means that their life and activities are dependent solely on Him even though possessing free will. It is stated in the Vedic scriptures that: The Supreme Lord encompasses internally and externally everything that is seen or heard. Also it is stated: Intellect, mind, universal intelligence, wind, fire, earth and the four types of beings: 1) engendered by form 2) viviparous or engendered by egg 3) engendered by sprouting 4) engendered by heat and moisture All these four types of beings have their as source Lord Krishna.

Sloka 7.8 audio recital in Sanskrit     

रसोऽहमप्सु कौन्तेय प्रभास्मि शशिसूर्ययोः |
प्रणवः सर्ववेदेषु शब्दः खे पौरुषं नृषु ||७- ८||

raso.ahamapsu kaunteya prabhAsmi shashisUryayoH |
praNavaH sarvavedeShu shabdaH khe pauruShaM nR^iShu || 7-8 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.8

Anvaya: rasah–taste; aham–I; apsu–in water; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; prabha asmi–I am the light; sasi-suryayoh–in the sun and the moon; pranavah–the letters A.U.M.; sarva–in all; vedesu–in the Vedas; sabdah–sound vibration; khe–in the ether; paurusam–ability; nrsu–in man.

Translation: O son of Kunti [Arjuna], I am the taste of water, the light of the sun and the moon, the syllable om in the Vedic mantras; I am the sound in ether and ability in man.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Exactly how Lord Krishna is the cause of the sustenance of creation is being described in five verses commencing here. His being the sapidity or essence in water means He exists in the molecular substratum of water as the essence of sapidity. Likewise He is the luster in the sun and moon, meaning He exists in them as there wonderful illuminating substratum. The other examples that follow are also to be explained in a similar manner. In all the Vedas representing enlightened and articulate sound, He is the root syllable OM which is His personal transcendental sound vibration. He is the essence of all sounds in ether and He is the potency of competence in man. Verily man excels and flourishes by the potency of competence.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Here we are receiving jnana or knowledge that Lord Krishna is the essence of specific things. Super sensory illuminating perception is vijnana. The greatness of the Supreme Lord is revealed later but now even the inherent nature of and His being the essence of along with the natural qualities and attributes of different substances are being described as being special potencies and representations of the Supreme Lord. The fact that these special essences and attributes do not manifest on their own is shown by the mentioning of special words such as raso’ham apsu meaning He is the essence in water. This essence is to be understood in the case of upasana or spiritual practices. It has been mentioned in the Gita Kalpa that: The attribute of essence in various flavours and its inherent nature are basically due to the perennial principle of dharma or eternal righteousness. The provider and enjoyer of the essence is always solely the Supreme Lord Krishna, who as the essence resides in all living entities. All the empowered demigods are mere reflections of His splendour. The Supreme Lord is the essence of all and should be earnestly sought by those who seek the essence of life. The inherent energy of Prakriti or material nature and all jivas or embodied beings is all ordained by the Supreme Lord and all natural propensities and inherent tendencies are bequeathed by His grace alone. There is nothing whatsoever animate or inanimate throughout all of creation that does not contain the Supreme Lords essence.

The Gita Kalpa has stated that: Desires not contrary to righteousness should be engaged in by an aspirant of moksa or liberation from the material existence. For the purpose of elevating one’s spiritual development one should only perform activities which are not contradictory to dharma but even the renunciation of such authorised activities are recommended to be relinquished for advanced aspirants. Strength without the debilitating influence of desires and attachments should be achieved. Then by the grace of the Supreme Lord perfection will be attained and the desired goal will be reached.

Now begins the summation.

Residing in water as sapidity, the Supreme Lord is known as the essence. Residing in the sun and the moon as luster, He is known as illumination. Residing in the Vedas as His very self, He is known as the pranava original sound vibration OM. Residing in the ether as sound Lord Krishna is known as the word.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now to illustrate that He is the form of all because He is the atma or soul of all, Lord Krishna reveals in the next five verses how He is situated as the core essence of all properties beginning with that He is the essence of water in its subtle casual form as sapidity. He is the essence of the sun and moon being illumination. He is the supremely sacred sound vibration OM. He is the origin of all the Vedas and the source of the Vedic utterances which become objects of hearing. He is the subtle casual form in ether and the potency of competence in men.

Sloka 7.9 audio recital in Sanskrit     

पुण्यो गन्धः पृथिव्यां च तेजश्चास्मि विभावसौ |
जीवनं सर्वभूतेषु तपश्चास्मि तपस्विषु ||७- ९||

puNyo gandhaH pR^ithivyA.n cha tejashchAsmi vibhAvasau |
jIvanaM sarvabhUteShu tapashchAsmi tapasviShu || 7-9 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.9

Anvaya: punyah–original; gandhah–fragrance; prthivyam–in the earth; ca–also; tejah–temperature; ca–also; asmi–I am; vibhavasau–in the fire; jivanam–life; sarva–all; bhutesu–living entities; tapah–penance; ca–also; asmi–I am; tapasvisu–in those who practice penance.

Translation: I am the original fragrance of the earth, and I am the heat in fire. I am the life of all that lives, and I am the penances of all ascetics.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Continuing further Lord Krishna describes how He is the essence of smell as the pure unadulterated odour which exists as the substratum of the Earth. It can also be interpreted that since the manifestations of the Supreme Lord as the substratum of everything has been confirmed and as only the sweet pure odour of the Earth in all its excellence can only emanate from Him it is being inculcated in these texts. Lord Krishna is the bright natural glow found in fire. He is the vital force of vitality which sustains and all life and animates all beings and He is tapas or austerities found in the yogis or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciouness, the ascetics, the hermits and the celibate monks; by which they have the capacity to withstand dualities such as heat and cold or pleasure and pain.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is stating that He is the subtle principle of fragrance innate within the Earth. The particle ca meaning and includes after smell the other four subtle principles such as taste, touch, sight and sound. He is the pure brilliance in fire. He is the vital life force in all sentient beings and He is the potency of austerities in the ascetics and forest dwellers giving them the power to endure in their penance to overcome the dualities such as cold and heat.

Sloka 7.10 audio recital in Sanskrit     

बीजं मां सर्वभूतानां विद्धि पार्थ सनातनम् |
बुद्धिर्बुद्धिमतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ||७- १०||

bIjaM mA.n sarvabhUtAnA.n viddhi pArtha sanAtanam.h |
buddhirbuddhimatAmasmi tejastejasvinAmaham.h || 7-10 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.10

Anvaya: bijam–the seed; mam–unto Me; sarva-bhutanam–of all living entities; viddhi–try to understand; partha–O son of Prtha; sanatanam–original, eternal; buddhih–intelligence; buddhi-matam–of the intelligent; asmi–I am; tejah–prowess; tejasvinam–of the powerful; aham–I am.

Translation: O son of Prtha, know that I am the original seed of all existences, the intelligence of the intelligent, and the prowess of all powerful men.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna reveals that He is bijam mam sarva bhutanam or the original seed of all existence. This means that He manifest the original seed for all beings that posesses the potency for all species which are moving or stationary to produce effects in the same species uninterruptedly for all successive issues of procreation indefintely and not subject to any modification or decay nor is it ever destroyed with each individual being.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The pure fragrance is thus to show the pleasure of Lord Krishna as the origin of the wonderful scent of the Earth. The Vedic scriptures declare that merits alone rise to the Supreme Lord and that demerits lacking in purity never even reach the demi-gods. In the worlds of the meritorious and virtuous the creations law of eternal righteousness is enjoyed. The law of creation known as rita represents universal order, truth and righteousness as well as perennial principles from time immemorial which are auspicious activities for the benefit of all living entities. Due to such statements eternal righteous is known as an attribute of consciousness and truth is a condition of the mind which one actually lives. There is no contradiction in statements from the Vedic scriptures stating even while not enjoying the Supreme Lord is still illuminating or even though devoid of food He is still all regarding the Supreme Lord. These perceptions are extremely subtle and difficult to fathom. Even though the Supreme Lord does not enjoy material food like the jiva or embodied being He is more powerful then the atma or soul endowed with a physical body. In this verse the jiva is not mentioned because of reference earlier to the atma being endowed with a body as in a dream state. The Garuda Purana states: There are three different forms for the body one in sleeping, one in dreaming and one while awake.

By the word asmi the Supreme Lord alone is referred too. Bodies are assumed by all the jivas as well as the Supreme Lord. The jiva’s body is material and thus in bondage being subjected to the cycle of birth and death. The Supreme Lord’s body is purely spiritual, eternally liberated and never in bondage. This statement is found in the Narada Purana and thus a definitive distinction between the Supreme Lord and the jivas is clarified in the Vedic scriptures. By such crystal clear statements a person of reason and understanding should see the difference between all embodied beings and the Supreme Lord and not harbour any conceptions concerning the external form of existence of a jiva. The Gita Kalpa has stated: The pleasures and enjoyments of the Supreme Lord are distinctly different and transcendental to those of the jiva. The Supreme Lord is a transcendental enjoyer, He is only enjoying the spiritual and never enjoying anything material.

Now begins the summation.

The Supreme Lord abides in the Earth as its fragrant essence which can only be meritorious; yet He awards all merits and demerits. Abiding in fire He is its brilliant energy, abiding in humans He is the atma the bequeather of life itself, abiding in the spiritually intelligent He is wisdom, abiding in the splendid He is exalted splendour and by the act of manifestation He is the eternal seed of all existence.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is revealing His glory as the bijam or permanent seed and original cause of life in all creation, woven through all movable and immovable created beings and that this original seed continues manifesting infinitely through all generations of the same species. He is the tejas or valour of the valiant which allows them to be victorious over all others. He is the spiritual intelligence in the form of spiritual discriminative power in the absence of which a human being is known as an animal. It is stated in the Sanatsujata that: Humans without spiritual intelligence are equal to beasts.

Sloka 7.11 audio recital in Sanskrit     

बलं बलवतां चाहं कामरागविवर्जितम् |
धर्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरतर्षभ ||७- ११||

balaM balavatA.n chAhaM kAmarAgavivarjitam.h |
dharmAviruddho bhUteShu kAmo.asmi bharatarShabha || 7-11 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.11

Anvaya: balam–strength; bala-vatam–of the strong; ca–and; aham–I am; kama–passion; raga–attachment; vivarjitam–devoid of; dharma-aviruddhah–not against the religious principles; bhutesu–in all beings; kamah–sex life; asmi–I am; bharata-rsabha–O lord of the Bharatas.

Translation: I am the strength of the strong, devoid of passion and desire. I am sex life which is not contrary to religious principles, O Lord of the Bharatas [Arjuna].

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Rajas or passion is an active desire for things unattained. Attachment though is a passive emotion of the mind which incites the thirst for more of a desired object after already experiencing it. So when Lord Krishna states: kama-raga-vivarjitam meaning devoid of passion and attachment He is explaining the nature of His strength. He is the serene, sublime strength which empowers one to regularly perform their spiritual duties without deviation or cessation. He is also the passion which is never contrary to sanatan dharma or eternal righteousness and which is beneficial in marriage and having a son by one’s wife.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Being completely devoid of desires and attachments Lord Krishna is eternally full and powerful in strength. This is His natural propensity and contains no rajas or passion. Since He bestows strength similar to His like He did with the five Pandavas, He is balam balavatam or the strength of the strong. Since ba symbolises strength and la symbolises bliss, He is the bliss of strength Himself.

It is primarily the unchecked desires for sensual enjoyments that causes the diminution of piety and morality; but these desires are not detrimental if they are attuned to sanatan dharma or eternal righteousness. The Supreme Lord resides in all desires that are not contrary to sanatan dharma; but he never resides in any action that is contrary to righteousness. Therefore the Supreme Lord Krishna even while abiding in everything still has the capacity to remain distinct from them although as the Supreme Lord He encompasses all.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna declares that all these things of distinguishing qualities manifest from Himself only and not from any other. All things are His parts and parcels and constitute His body. Hence all things are always in Him and He is always in all things. He is the sole existing reality and all things are completely dependent upon Him. Next we will see things viewed in another way.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna continues explaining His subtle qualities that He is the strength of the mighty performing their individual duties devoid of passion and attachment. He is the energy of sexual desire for procreation which is not contrary to virtue and righteousness and does not conflict with the injunctions and prohibitions of the Vedic scriptures. Passion is the unabated craving to get a not yet obtained object with the thought to enjoy it. Attachment is the mental conditioning which after obtaining and enjoying an object makes one cling to the conception that such an object must always remain and continued to be enjoyed.

Sloka 7.12 audio recital in Sanskrit     

ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये |
मत्त एवेति तान्विद्धि न त्वहं तेषु ते मयि ||७- १२||

ye chaiva sAttvikA bhAvA rAjasAstAmasAshcha ye |
matta eveti tAnviddhi na tvahaM teShu te mayi || 7-12 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.12

Anvaya: ye–all those; ca–and; eva–certainly; sattvikah–in goodness; bhavah–states of being; rajasah–mode of passion; tamasah–mode of ignorance; ca–also; ye–although; mattah–from Me; eva–certainly; iti–thus; tan–those; viddhi–try to know; na–not; tu–but; aham–I; tesu–in those; te–they; mayi–unto Me.

Translation: All states of being–be they of goodness, passion or ignorance–are manifested by My energy. I am, in one sense, everything–but I am independent. I am not under the modes of this material nature.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna states that even the three modes which result from the actions of all living entities being the serene sattvikas in mode of goodness who have total control over their minds and bodies, as well as the rajasikas in the mode of passion who are full of pride and desire pleasure, and also the tamasikas in the mode of nescience which contain anguish, despair and deluison. All these three modes arise from Lord Krishna as they are products of prakriti or material nature which manifests solely from Him. Yet He is not part of prakriti nor is He influenced by them like all embodied beings because prakriti abides within Him and is under His complete control.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna declares na tu aham tesu meaning I am not in them which denotes that He is not dependent on them but they are dependent on Him. The Gita Kalpa states: All the worlds are dependent upon the Supreme Lord but He is not dependent on anything.

Now begins the summation.

The three gunas or the modes of sattvas or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or nescience all arise from prakriti or material nature which manifests from Lord Krishna alone but He is not influenced by them nor is He dependent upon anything.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is explaining that whatever is existing in all creation possessing the characteristics of the three gunas or modes being sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or nescience which combines into bodies and senses and objects for enjoyment comes from prakriti or material nature all emanate solely from the Supreme Lord. Constituting His body as they do, they all eternally reside within Him; but na tv aham tesu meaning He is not in them. However regarding all other sentient beings throughout creation the atma or soul is seen to depend upon the physical body for its residence but without a soul the vitality is deactivated in the physical body and it will perish. But the Supreme Lord possessing a transcendental, spiritual body which is not material does not depend upon physicality. He is totally independent and although He has ordered things in such a way as to reside in all sentient beings it is for no other purpose then His lila or pastime.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

What more needs to be said. The Supreme Lord Krishna is the sole cause of creation and all living entities. He iterates this with the words ye caiva meaning and certainly all these others of the three gunas or modes being those born in sattvas or goodness with discrimination and sense control, those born in rajas or passion with pride and desire and those born in tamas or ignorance with inertia and delusion. The original source of all living entities is exclusively Lord Krishna but their birth in any of the three gunas is caused exclusively by their own actions and subsequent reactions since time immemorial. If one is to say that the reactions may be the Supreme Lords also because He is the original, it is refuted by this verse stating that although they emanate from Him, He is not dependent upon the living entities as in the case of the atma or soul is for residence because all living entities abide in Him and are dependent upon Him.

The particle tu meaning however suggests another interpretation of this verse which may be explained as the demi-gods evolve from the quality of sattvas, humans evolve from the quality of rajas and animals evolve from the quality of tamas. All have evolved from Lord Krishna but He is not dependent upon them. At times He incarnates in the material creation for the purpose of maintaining universal order or to enjoy His lilas or divine pastimes but to do so He does not have to give up His transcendental, spiritual form for a material body as His attributes, powers and qualities all remain intact. All creation comprised of animate and inanimate beings emanates solely from Him is sustained by Him and likewise is dissolved again back into Him. In the relationship between cause and effect the Supreme Lord is always superior due exclusively to His personal potency of powers, qualities and attributes with no other support. This is because He alone is the cause and the source, the maintainer and sustainer of the entire creation and is completely independent.

Sloka 7.13 audio recital in Sanskrit     

त्रिभिर्गुणमयैर्भावैरेभिः सर्वमिदं जगत् |
मोहितं नाभिजानाति मामेभ्यः परमव्ययम् ||७- १३||

tribhirguNamayairbhAvairebhiH sarvamida.n jagat.h |
mohitaM nAbhijAnAti mAmebhyaH paramavyayam.h || 7-13 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.13

Anvaya: tribhih–three; guna-mayaih–by the three gunas; bhavaih–state of being; ebhih–all these; sarvam–the whole world; idam–in this world; jagat–universe; mohitam–deluded; na abhijanati–do not know; mam–Me; ebhyah–above these; param–the Supreme; avyayam–inexhaustible.

Translation: Deluded by the three modes [goodness, passion and ignorance], the whole world does not know Me who am above the modes and inexhaustible.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Why is it that the people of this Earth are unaware of the Supreme Lord and His potencies. It is being stated that the whole world is deluded by the three gunas being the modes of goodness, passion and nescience which influence a person to act respectively in righteousness, passion and ignorance. Therefore the people of this world are unable to recognise that the Supreme Lord Krishna is transcendental to and unaffected by the three gunas being their source and therefore immutable and immaculate. Neither are they able to fathom His paramount position at the apex of divinity completely superior to all other gods.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Why does Arjuna know and is not deluded will be explained by this verse. To show Himself as the source of the three gunas being the modes of goodness, passion and nescience, Lord Krishna uses the word mayair meaning of mine. In regard to the Supreme Lord can be understood in three ways; as relating to the atma or soul, as relating to modification and as relating to effulgence. It is not used as illusion here as He speaks of gunamayair meaning My attributes being the three gunas which originate from Him. His actions apply to His nature as well for one’s nature is compatible with one’s actions. This is mentioned in the Vyasa Yoga. The word bhavair means conditions and refers to through objects. Objects become perceived by their attributes and by this they are seen. The word idam meaning this is used to show that the wise are not deluded. Those who recognise their own bodies as consisting of the three gunas and who think that Lord Krishna transcendental body is also similarly formed are certainly deluded persons. In the Vyasa Yoga a similar comparison is made as follows: After seeing the physical body of Brahma and other demi-gods possessing attributes; if one believes that the transcendental body of the Supreme Lord is similar to theirs such a person is completely deluded in bondage. The words ebhyah param means above and beyond, referring to the attributes. When referring to the Supreme Lord of transcendental form it means He is superior to the three gunas.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Everything existing in creation, abounding in objects animate and inanimate is part and parcel of the Supreme Lord Krishna. At appointed and periods it emanates from Him and at appointed periods it emanates back into Him. Everything is existent within Him alone, forming His transcendental body, covering all the universes which He ensouls with the life force. Thus Lord Krishna alone is eternally existent both in potential and in manifestation for He is both the cause and the effect. For all things are constitute as parts of His body and are related to Him as adjuncts. Whether the Supreme Lord Krishna is considered to be the cause as the Sovereign Lord; or the effect as the possessor of innumerable hosts of glorious attributes and myriads of marvellous qualities; or in many other descriptions it should be consummately comprehended that He is the most superior above all things and designations and that there is not a second who is qualified to be so characterised.

But the world in general does not know Lord Krishna’s exalted position which is far beyond tribhir guna the three modes of material nature being goodness, passion and ignorance. The world does not realise His Supreme position as the possessor of multitudes of extraordinary blessed attributes and as such knows Him not as that supreme bliss and joy without which nothing can exist and which constitutes the life of all created beings. The word avyayam means imperishable this is synonymous with infinite and eternal. Although He is all this, the beings of creation consisting of demi- gods, humans, animals, aquatics and plant life are all oblivious to it and completely beguiled by the trivial and fascinated by the ephemeral in the form of objects appearing as physical bodies and subtle senses adopted to furnish enjoyments for the utilisation of pleasure according to the dispensations doled out from previous impressions of old karmas or reactions from past activities. Due to these impediments the world in general is not able to know Him.

If reflecting Arjuna were to ask: How is it possible that Lord Krishna who surpasses every joy and delight that material existence is capable of offering, whose immeasurable beatitude, eternality and immutability are gloriously effulgent is not perceived by the world? And if Arjuna were to further ask: How is it possible that desire and attachment arises in the hearts of embodied souls for the same repetitive pleasures over and over again without satiation to the point of redundancy?

Lord Krishna answers with the words mama maya duratyaya explaining that His illusory energy is very difficult to surmount. In as much as this His maya or illusion permeates His prakriti or material substratum through the three gunas or modes of sattva or goodness, rajas or passion and tamas or ignorance; so it is extremely difficult to overcome. The total material manifestation is under its sway and influenced by it. It is daivi meaning divine and is created by Lord Krishna for the purpose of sport as is deduced from the root word div meaning to play. Its designation by the term maya is on account of its potency to produce phenomenal effects in the gross material existence albeit depending upon the breadth of one’s knowledge. These phenomenal effects are even manifested from the spiritual worlds as in the case of Lord Krishna dispatching His intrepid and impervious Sudarsana Cakra or fiery transcendental disc to shield and protect the physical body of His devotee Prahlad causing the 1000 incantation manifestations to fail to harm him one after the other. They are also analogous to the brahmastra’s or mantra governed missles and arrows discharged in battle by regal ksatriya’s or the royal warrior class as were exhibited in the Battle of Kurushetra. They are also sometimes manifested in the evil magic of the asuras meaning literally those without light and the sorcery of the rakshasas which are human eating demons and fiends.

The term maya never signifies what is false. The term mayair is applied to that which is able to produce real impressions upon another’s imagination albeit individual or collective. The effect is certainly real although the cause is definitely illusory. Like a magician by the art of conjuring produces marvellous effects upon the minds of those witnessing by means of incantations; so that when mayair designates a producer of real effects which are not false, the word maya denotes the incantation by which the manifestion was effected. Wherever the term maya is found to be used it invariably means that which has the ability of activating phenomenal and marvellous material effects and is universally accepted. An example is a crate of Chinese fireworks is just another crate of dry goods lying in a warehouse; but when activated by someone knowledgeable at night it produces marvellous and real effects in the sky. Whenever the word maya is used to suggest the illusion of non-reality instead of a real impression upon the mind then such application is only figurative and subordinate to the universal understanding which is not to be usurped by the figurative understanding. When one reads 100 lances fought in battle it means the 100 men who carry the lances. So like this in this way the word maya should be understood. This maya of the Supreme Lord which is capable of producing sublime and marvellous effects which permeates the entire material creation is the only maya to be considered as any other is but figurative or metaphorical. The Svetasvatara Upanisad states: mayan-tu prakritim vidyat mahinan-tu mahesvaram which means prakriti the material substratum then prakriti is to be apprehended by the word maya and mahesvaram or the Supreme Lord by the word mayi. It is the responsibilty of maya to veil the true nature of the Supreme Lord from the miscreants and unqualified and to lure such beings to constantly chase after the desire for sense gratification. Hence all the worlds are beguiled and bewildered by the intrepid effect of maya from the time they are born and thus fail to recognise the magnificent splendour and wonderous glories of the Supreme Lord Krishna who is eternity, knowledge and bliss personified of immeasurable transcendental nature.

The next verse will give the means of deliverance and redemption to alleviate this situation.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Why is it that billions of humans do not recognise Lord Krishna as the Supreme Lord and controller of all and the cause and source of all creation? And even those who do know about Lord Krishna being the Supreme Lord of all, how do they still remain a transmigratory soul every lifetime forced to accept a new physical body? To answer these questions Lord Krishna explains: sarvam idam jagat mohitam meaning the entire creation is deluded. This is due to the influence of the three gunas or modes of goodness possessing discrimination and righteousness, mode of passion possessing pride and desire and the mode of ignorance possessing inertia and degradation. These three modes infatuates all living entities causing their higher consciousness to be veiled and inaccessible. Thus it is not possible for billions of human beings as well as other living entities to recognise Lord Krishna’s, imperishable, paramount position above all creation. Although in an impersonal sense human beings are able to recognise and relate to portions of Lord Krishna’s power, majesty and superiority by their conceptions of a supreme being or supreme controller, o as a totally independent power; but these humans are unable to relate that these attrinutes apply exclusively to Lord Krishna, who is the ultimate reality. Also these humans are unable to perceive that He manifests and incarnates in the material worlds in His eternal spiritual body which is immutable and not subject to decay or modification and He does this for the welfare of His devotees. The conclusion is that all these billions of human beings do not recognise Lord Krishna as He factually is possessed of eternal, transcendental attributes and divine qualities. Hence they all are unable to attain His divine potency which enables them to free themselves from samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death and thus remaining in bondage are reborn again and again indefinitely.

Sloka 7.14 audio recital in Sanskrit     

दैवी ह्येषा गुणमयी मम माया दुरत्यया |
मामेव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायामेतां तरन्ति ते ||७- १४||

daivI hyeShA guNamayI mama mAyA duratyayA |
mAmeva ye prapadyante mAyAmetAM taranti te || 7-14 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.14

Anvaya: daivi–transcendental; hi–certainly; esa–this; guna-mayi–consisting of the three modes of material nature; mama–My; maya–energy; duratyaya–very difficult to overcome; mam–unto Me; eva–certainly; ye–those; prapadyante–surrender; mayam etam–this illusory energy; taranti–overcome; te–they.

Translation: This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The question may arise as to who are those who are able to know Lord Krishna. To answer this the word daivi meaning divine is used. This divine, supernatural and wonderfully marvellous illusion of the Supreme Lord constituted of the power of Lord Krishna, consisting of the products of the gunas being the modes of goodness, passion and ignorance is extremely difficult to surmount. This is a well known fact and is proven by the fact that only a very minuscule portion of humanity surmount this maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind in every generation. Yet it is also a fact that those who take exclusive shelter of Lord Krishna with loving affection in unwavering devotion are the only ones to cross over this insurmountable illusion that is otherwise impossible to navigate and by accepting His shelter they come to learn Him as He is. This is the purport.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Why has the delusion of maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind been unable to be overcome since time immemorial? Lord Krishna reveals that it is because it is daivi meaning divine is this illusion. This is the purport. Illusion is that which beguiles and bewilders people. Maya by her activity of permeating creation deludes all people by her potent power of allusion which causes all people to follow desire and sense gratification. Therefore definitions of daivi yields such explanations as: lustrous, sport or play, desire to conquer, splendour, adoration, pleasure, imagination, brilliance and movement. But why is this maya divine? It is because it is under the control of the Supreme Lord and He alone is its controller. The Vyasa Yoga states that: Sri the Goddess of Fortune Laxsmi, Bhu the Goddess of the Earth and Durga the external material energy are the distinct forms of this grand illusion. Regarding Sri Laxsmi, she does not partake of the endless energies of the Supreme Lord as she has taken complete shelter in Him. Because of such propensity Brahma, Rudra and all the demigods do not possess even a minor portion of her manifestation. Having received the grace of the Supreme Lord by taking complete refuge within Him nothing can ever overcome her power. But yet the question will still persist of how can this maya be overcome? To answer this Lord Krishna replies with the words: mam eva ye prapadyante meaning only those who surrender unto Him. Those who renounce all else and take exclusive shelter of Him alone can surmount this maya. Those who humbly serve and devoutly worship the spiritual master in adoration, such worship surely reaches unto the Supreme Lord because they have realised that their holy preceptors greatness is due to the fact that the Supreme Lord has manifested within His heart. The Narada Purana states: The madhya or intermediate humans duly propitiate the holy preceptor due to the Supreme Lord manifesting within him. The uttama or topmost human beings propitiate all beings as they recognise the Supreme Lord in all beings. In the Bhagavat Purana it states: That the Supreme Lord through the form of consciousness which pervades the mind of the spiritual master teaches the humble aspirant true wisdom about Himself.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Those evolved beings who by chance or determination surrender themselves to the Supreme Lord Krishna exclusively as their sole refuge and protector, He who is the most merciful. He who is the most magnanimous, He who is the only one to be depended on, He who is the shelter of all creation; only those so fully surrendered will be able to navigate the tempestuous oceans of maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind. In concise language such surrendered souls circumvent maya by exclusively devoting themselves to the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

It is stated in the Vedic scriptures that the flowing of the qualities of Lord Krishna’s divine potency known as maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind is without a beginning or an end. In the Svestasvatara Upanisad IV.V it states that by the agency of maya unlimited beings are produced possessing like qualities. So it is not possible for those embodied beings deluded and controlled by maya and to ever receive divine benedictions and such being the case they will never be eligible to overcome the delusory effects of maya. Lord Krishna speaks thus to address this point of overcoming the potent effects of maya So marvellous is this wondrous illusion which is perceived in prakriti or the material substratum evolving through the three gunas or the modes of goodness, passion and nescience into physical forms which are all totally controlled by the Self- Effulgent, Supreme Lord full of eternity, knowledge and bliss, who although omnipresent is never touched or influenced by the gunas or prakriti or anything animate or inanimate. There is also nothing which a has a similar nature to maya as its function is one of a kind. In the Svetasvatara Upanisad IV.X it states: One should know that maya’s nature is illusory and that the omniscient and omnipotent Supreme Lord is its source filtered into material existence through the three gunas and unable to be surmounted by hundreds of processes and thousands of techniques unless and until the grace of the Supreme Lord is attained. According to the Katha Upanisad V.XIII: He who is the constant within the inconstant, the intelligence among the intelligent, the one within the many and who grants all desires. In the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad I.IV.X it states: Whoever among the demigods becomes awakened to this indeed becomes it, this applies likewise to elevated beings and also to advanced humans. The atma or eternal soul within embodied beings is without limitations but among embodied beings only those who are able to disconnect themselves from all ego sense of I- ness and my-ness and external desires and renouncing all other goals accept the Supreme Lord Krishna as the exclusive goal of their life endeavour and spiritual practices. Thus worshipping Him wholeheartedly as omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient controller of maya, taking total refuge in Him solely and faithfully following the six activities favourable for spiritual advancement such as enthusiasm, endeavouring with confidence, patience, following the Vedic injunctions, abandoning the association of those not devoted to the Vedic culture and accepting and following the instructions of the authorised guru from the bonafide disciplic succession as revealed within the Vedic scriptures; one is with devotion and unshakeable perseverance able to overcome this insurmountable maya. The word eva or only is used in the sense of decisiveness as in exclusively. In the Vamana Purana the child saint Prahlad says: Those highly evolved persons who have taken refuge in the Supreme Lord, infinite, immutable, without a second, the foremost of all lords, the God of Gods, the auspicious bestower of liberation, the Lord of Laxsmi, the goddess of fortune and the master of Garuda, His carrier never have to be subjected to chastisement by Yamaraj the demigod in charge of punishment in diverse hells.

Sloka 7.15 audio recital in Sanskrit     

न मां दुष्कृतिनो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः |
माययापहृतज्ञाना आसुरं भावमाश्रिताः ||७- १५||

na mA.n duShkR^itino mUDhAH prapadyante narAdhamAH |
mAyayApahR^itaGYAnA AsuraM bhAvamAshritAH || 7-15 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.15

Anvaya: na–not; mam–unto Me; duskrtinah–miscreants; mudhah–foolish; prapadyante–surrender; nara-adhamah–lowest among mankind; mayaya–by the illusory energy; apahrta–stolen by illusion; jnanah–knowledge; asuram–demonic; bhavam–nature; asritah–accepting.

Translation: Those miscreants who are grossly foolish, lowest among mankind, whose knowledge is stolen by illusion, and who partake of the atheistic nature of demons, do not surrender unto Me.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Why then does not everyone worship Lord Krishna as the Supreme Lord? This verse tersely answers this question describing because they are duskrtino or miscreants, wretches among human beings. Because they are so incorrigible they do not take refuge in the Supreme Lord and offer devotion to Him. What is the cause of their wretchedness? It is because they are in ignorance and bereft of discrimination. Why are they ignorant? It is because they are wicked and sinful. Therefore those who are deprived of discrimination due to the absence of spiritual knowledge from the holy preceptor arising from the teachings of the Vedic scriptures are conscripted by maya’s illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind and engage themselves in despicable and deplorable, diabolical activities. Subsequently they assume a demoniac attitude which has been described as pompous, ostentatious, aggrandising, arrogant, conceited, egocentric, perverted, cruel and vulgar. Such miscreants never even have the opportunity to worship the Supreme Lord.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Why all intelligent beings do not surrender unto the Supreme Lord Krishna is being declared in this verse. It is because they become degraded due to perverted activities like the most wretched of beings. Deprived of discrimination their intelligence becomes polluted and they perform diabolical activities against creation and themselves and assume demoniac mentalities. Here the word mayayapahrta means stolen by the illusory energy. The Vyasa Yoga states: Awareness is the natural tendency of living entities; by maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind awareness becomes distorted. The word asuram indicating the demoniac comes from the root word a-sura meaning without light. In the Narada Purana it states that among the demigods there is a predominance of knowledge which is light; but among the demoniac asuras there is a predominance of sense entanglement which is the absence of light.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

If one were to ask why do not all intelligent beings swiftly adopt and follow the path of surrender and devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna and receive the highest benefit the answer is given in this verse by the word duskritno or miscreants of evil and wicked deeds all of whom fall into one of four categories.

mudhahs are the grossly ignorant who have wrong and perverted understanding, who think that what is the Supreme Lord’s such as all creation they consider to be their own.

1) naradhamah are the ignoble members of society who although knowing of the Supreme Lord glory disdain to offer Him respect and homage in reciprocation with Him. 2) mayayapahrta are those who forfeited the correct knowledge of the Supreme Lord acquired previously due to irrelevant and irreverent speculative, logistical analysis. 3) asuram bhavam asritah are those of demoniac mentality who knowing the power and glory of the Supreme Lord are only incited to cultivate deep seeded enmity against Him.

In the order presented, each subsequent miscreant is more sinful then the previous before it.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The question could arise from the previous verse that if devotion to Lord Krishna is the way to salvation then what is stopping everyone from recognising this reality and taking refuge in Him by following the teachings of the bonafide spiritual master from the authorised Vedic scriptures and avail themselves to the means to surmount this difficult maya which is the root cause of perpetual bondage in the material existence. Lord Krishna states duskrtino or miscreants in nescience being of four types do not surrender to the Supreme Lord.

1) mudhahs are grossly foolish persons pursuing material gains like beasts of burden 2) naradhamas are the lowest level of society bereft of even any moral principles 3) mayayapahrta-jnana are empirical philosophers deluded by the illusory energy 4) asuram bhavam asrita are those of demoniac nature engaged in abominable activities

Such miscreants through open deceit and covert subterfuge fabricate false doctrines and concoct erroneous philosophies to contradict the truth of the Supreme Lords glories, attributes and qualities as confirmed in the Vedic scriptures. Such intentional deceptions upon unsuspecting humanity are aparadhas or heinous offences against the Supreme Lord the source of all existence. These activities causes them to be infected and overwhelmed with sinful reactions which propels them to embrace a demoniac mentality with the propensity to perform evil and diabolical activities against all created beings. Thus for them it is impossible to accept the Supreme Lord and even go out of their way to oppose Him and His devotees whenever they have the opportunity. These demons assuming various human forms as well as other hybrid forms have been antagonistic to the Supreme Lord since time immemorial. They are adverse to hearing about the nature, form, qualities, pastimes and powers of the Supreme Lord and they blaspheme and minimise Him in every way possible to them. Because of this due to their ignorance their accumulation of sins multiplies exigently effecting that they permanently remain unfit to accept the truth of the Supreme Lord Krishna’s paramount position as the Supreme controller of all creation. Although many demons are intelligent enough to be able to comprehend the eternal knowledge of divinity as revealed exclusively within the Vedic scriptures; to the contrary they promote their own deluded philosophies in the name of religion always zealously keeping their gods without form, qualities and personality insuring that their gods are perpetually unfathomable, and unreachable, hence permanently unattainable for humanity. Deluded by maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind and being only engrossed in their external senses such demons have no chance in surrendering unto the Supreme Lord Krishna and recognising and accepting Him as the Supreme Controller of all.

Sloka 7.16 audio recital in Sanskrit     

चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्जुन |
आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ ||७- १६||

chaturvidhA bhajante mA.n janAH sukR^itino.arjuna |
Arto jiGYAsurarthArthI GYAnI cha bharatarShabha || 7-16 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.16

Anvaya: catuh-vidhah–four kinds of; bhajante–render services; mam–unto Me; janah–persons; su-krtinah–those who are pious; arjuna–O Arjuna; artah–the distressed; jijnasuh–the inquisitive; artha-arthi–one who desires material gain; jnani–one who knows things as they are; ca–also; bharata-rsabha–O great one amongst the descendants of Bharata.

Translation: O best among the Bharatas [Arjuna], four kinds of pious men render devotional service unto Me–the distressed, the desirer of wealth, the inquisitive, and he who is searching for knowledge of the Absolute.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Only those who are virtuous and righteous have the qualification for devotion to the Supreme Lord. There are four categories of such qualified beings according to differences in their virtue. Those who performed virtuous deeds in previous lives worship Lord Krishna and fall into four categories: 1) artto are those distressed such as persecuted by disease. If they performed virtuous activities in past lives then they will have the opportunity to worship Lord Krishna otherwise they will be limited to worshipping minor gods and formless illusionary gods. 2) atharthi are the seekers of wealth who desire to have full facility for enjoyment in this life and their next. If they performed virtuous deeds in their past lives then they too will have the opportunity to worship Lord Krishna. 3) jijnasuh are those who desire self realisation to end the cycle of birth and death. If they performed virtuous actions in their past lives they will also have the opportunity to worship Lord Krishna. 4) jnanis are those who have achieved atma tattva or realisation of the soul and know the Supreme Lord. If they have performed virtuous activities in their past lives then they will have the opportunity of advancing further and worshipping Lord Krishna.

It should be understood that aspirants in all four categories will be forced to experience endless reincarnation until one finally evolves to attainment of devotion to Lord Krishna.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Only humans who are sukritino meaning righteous and virtuous surrender to the Supreme Lord Krishna becoming exclusively devoted to Him. Such humans are of four classes distinguished by their different grades of virtue. In the order they are given each succeeding class is more superior to the preceding one due to being more elevated and exalted making it more meritorious. The four are:

artto are those impoverished and distressed after losing all wealth and power and desires to have the Supreme Lord recover it for them and re- instate it.

atharthi are those who having never enjoyed power and fortune desire the Supreme Lord to give them the ability to acquire them.

jijnasur are the seekers of self-realisation who are anxious to know the atma or soul in its state separate from matter for the benefit of escaping transmigration the cycle of birth and death and pray to the Supreme Lord for the benediction to discover this.

jnani are the seekers of knowledge concerning the Supreme Lord who realise that the atma is essentially characterised by its being an eternal ingredient of the Supreme Lord residing within all embodied beings. Such a one considers the Supreme Lord as their goal of life and attainment of Him the fulfilment of all ambitions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The righteous and virtuous worship the Supreme Lord with faith and devotion. What Lord Krishna is saying is that four types of virtuous humans who have accumulated merit from righteous deeds from previous lives worship Him according to the gradation of the merits.

1) artto are those afflicted by problems such as disease or enemies. If one has enough accumulated merit then they will have the opportunity to worship the Supreme Lord to alleviate their distress. Examples of this from Vedic scriptures were the many pious kings imprisoned by King Jarasandha who prayed to the Supreme Lord to be delivered and Lord Krishna rescued them. Also Queen Draupadi prayed to Lord Krishna for succour when she was being disrobed at the Kaurava assembly hall under the insistence of Duryodhana and Lord Krishna protected her honor. The elephant king Gajendra was seized by a terrible crocodile and just before succumbing he prayed to the Supreme Lord for aid and was saved and last but not least when Shiva gave the head exploding benediction to the demon Vkra who immediately began pursuing him to test it then Shiva took shelter of Lord Krishna who terminated the demons life. All these are examples of those whose previous merit qualified them to pray to the Supreme Lord. Otherwise not having sufficient merit they would only be able to pray to Rudra or Ganesh or Kali or even some impersonal phantasm god. 2) jijnasur or liberation seekers like Videha, Mucukunda and King Yadu also had enough acquired merit from prvious lives to qualify for worship of the Supreme Lord. 3) artharthi or the seekers of wealth who desire to regain the rulership, position of power and enjoyments from which they had before and became deprived. Examples of these from Vedic scriptures are Dhruva, Sugriva and Vibhisana. The worship of these three is tinged with selfish motivations but as soon as their wishes were fulfilled they achieved moksa or liberatiion from material existence and overcame the cycle of birth and death. 4) jnani’s or those of spiritual wisdom who have no selfish motives are endowed with discriminative intelligence from ascertaining the reality of the atma or soul and its relationship as an eternal portion of the Supreme Lord. They also achieve moksa but they continue on to worship the Supreme Lord joining Him in His eternal pastimes. Great beings of this calibre are the Kumaras, Narada Muni, Sukadeva, Bhishma and Uddhava.

Sloka 7.17 audio recital in Sanskrit     

तेषां ज्ञानी नित्ययुक्त एकभक्तिर्विशिष्यते |
प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहं स च मम प्रियः ||७- १७||

teShA.n GYAnI nityayukta ekabhaktirvishiShyate |
priyo hi GYAnino.atyarthamahaM sa cha mama priyaH || 7-17 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.17

Anvaya: tesam–out of them; jnani–one in full knowledge; nitya-yuktah–always engaged; eka–only one; bhaktih–in devotional service; visisyate–especially; priyah–very dear; hi–certainly; jnaninah–person in knowledge; atyartham–highly; aham–I am; sah–he; ca–also; mama–Mine; priyah–dear.

Translation: Of these, the wise one who is in full knowledge in union with Me through pure devotional service is the best. For I am very dear to him, and he is dear to Me.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna states that from the previous four classes the jnani or knower of the Supreme Lord is the best. This is because such a jnani is nitya yukta or eternally in communion and eka bhaktir or exclusively devoted to the Supreme Lord. Only a person endowed with spiritual intelligence and no other is it possible to be immersed in communion with the Supreme Lord with one-pointed devotion. This is because such an evolved being totally free from all ego conceptions and identifications of the physical body has no mental disturbances and physical disruptions to unbalance their equilibrium. Due to this the Supreme Lord is very dear to them and they are also very dear to the Supreme Lord. Thus for these reasons the jnani excels above the rest.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Devotion only to the Supreme Lord Krishna alone is considered to be exclusive devotion. This is confirmed in the Garuda Purana where it states: Devotion to the Supreme Lord only and nothing else is considered to be singular devotion.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Of the previous four classes the jnani’s or the knowers of the Supreme Lord are distinctly distinguished as they are nitya-yukta or eternally connected and eka-bhaktir or exclusively devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna by reason of His being their only goal. Others merely establish relationships with Him for selfish purposes in hope of gaining desired material objects. But from the knowers of the Supreme Lord emerge the lovers of the Supreme Lord, who regard Him as the most cherished objective of their existence and thus they are His elect. Tyartham means the most, even beyond description. This love for the Supreme Lord Krishna is so deep and overflowing that even for Him as the Supreme Lord who is omniscient and omnipotent it is difficult to fathom. Such love for Him has no limitations assigned to it as evidenced in the case of Prahlad, the pre-eminent among the jnani’s who although was persecuted many times to die on the order of his demon; never was even slightly harmed, so much was his mind blissfully absorbed in devotion to the Supreme Lord, transported by the rapture induced by constant remembrance of Him. Such a devotee is blissfully loved by the Supreme Lord as well in reciprocation.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

But of all the previous four types Lord Krishna confirms that the jnani or those of spiritual wisdom are the elite. The jnani excels the others and is superior by dint of their knowledge of the ultimate truth which makes them nitya-yukta or eternally connected and eka-bhaktir or continuously focused on the Supreme Lord. Like ordinary humans are exclusively attached to their family members, or as a poor man is exclusively attached to a rich man for his maintenance. The jnani is not attached to others nor does he serve others because they are solely possessed of exclusive devotion to the Supreme Lord in the forms of hearing about, speaking about, singing to, meditating on, worshipping and informing others. In the Vishnu Purana the prince Prahlad who recognised the Supreme Lord as boundlessly dear, has said: The unrelenting desire for objects of the senses which the sensually attached possess; may that same never ending desire reside in my heart to always be devoted to the Supreme Lord. The great sage Parasara praised Prahlad thus: With his mind totally absorbed in the Supreme Lord when Prahlad was bitten by poisonous serpents he did not feel a thing because he was immersed in remembering the Supreme Lord Krishna who swiftly appeared for his rescue as the incarnation Narasimha-deva.

It is declared in the Vedic scriptures that: Devotion is serving the Supreme Lord Krishna with speech, mind, body and activities because the root bhaja-bhajati means to serve. Therefore the spiritually intelligent have explained that bhakti or devotion is exclusive loving service to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in the Vedic scriptures. If reference to the Supreme Lord is not found to be revealed in the Vedic scriptures with name, form and qualities and pastimes; then never can such an erroneous and illusory conception of the Supreme Lord be ever considered to be factual and authentic.

To the enlightened devotees who know the reality of Lord Krishna as the Supreme Lord, He is extremely dear to them and they are also extremely dear to Him. It is also cited in the Bhagavat Purana where Narayana states: Just as parents are happy with their children, just as Rudra is happy with his entourage and just as I am happy with Goddess Laxsmi; in the same way Lord Krishna’s devotee is always extremely happy with Him. The Supreme Lord has nothing else dearer to Him then His loving devotees.

Sloka 7.18 audio recital in Sanskrit     

उदाराः सर्व एवैते ज्ञानी त्वात्मैव मे मतम् |
आस्थितः स हि युक्तात्मा मामेवानुत्तमां गतिम् ||७- १८||

udArAH sarva evaite GYAnI tvAtmaiva me matam.h |
AsthitaH sa hi yuktAtmA mAmevAnuttamA.n gatim.h || 7-18 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.18

Anvaya: udarah–magnanimous; sarve–all; eva–certainly; ete–these; jnani–one who is in knowledge; tu–but; atma eva–just like Myself; me–My; matam–opinion; asthitah–situated; sah–he; hi–certainly; yukta-atma–engaged in devotional service; mam–unto Me; eva–certainly; anuttamam–the highest goal; gatim–destination.

Translation: All these devotees are undoubtedly magnanimous souls, but he who is situated in knowledge of Me I consider verily to dwell in Me. Being engaged in My transcendental service, he attains Me.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The question may arise that do the other three classes being the artta or afflicted, the artharthi or those desiring wealth and the jijnasuh or those desiring self realisation have to undergo transmigration and reincarnation? The answer is never. This is confirmed by Lord Krishna using the word udarah meaning noble and magnanimous. All these noble beings obtain moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death in the material existence; but the jnani or knower of God is His very atma or soul. This is because the jnani with his mind fixed solely upon the Supreme Lord, has taken complete refuge in Him alone as the only goal other than which there is nothing superior. So such a realised being is interested in no other purpose then attaining the Supreme Lord and thus devotes all there efforts for this.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Due to the fact that the previous four classes all resort to the Supreme Lord, they are all noble and udarah or magnanimous inasmuch as when they receive any benediction from Him it is as by their loving act of acceptance that the Supreme Lord feels bliss and is truly grateful to them for accepting His love. Lord Krishna considers the jnani or the knower of God as dear to Him as His own self and considers even that His very existence depends upon them. One may question how is this to be understood? One must understand that the Supreme Lord reciprocates in the same manner as His devotee acts towards Him. Thus in the same way that His devotee cannot live without Him, He cannot live without His devotee. Therefore His devotee atma or soul realised is His very life as the atma.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

One may pose the question what about the other three types being artto the aflicted, atharthi or those seeking wealth and jnajinsuh or those seeking moksa or liberation. Are they wretched and unworthy? To the contrary and Lord Krishna confirms this with the word udarah meaning noble and magnanimous. All these devotees are noble beings who have accumulated great merit in the course of tens of thousands of previous births. No one can become a devotee of Lord Krishna if they only have a small amount of merit from previous lives. The devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna have such a surplus of accumulated merit due to having practised austerities, undergone penance, performed yoga, engaged in meditation, offered prayers and given worship. That it is a natural course of events that in their early lives they attain the opportunity to be Lord Krishna’s devotee. This is confirmed and corroborated in the Vedic scriptures by the statement: Humans whose sins are expired cultivate devotion to Lord Krishna. Others who still remain sinful never become Lord Krishna’s devotee, they only can worship Kali, Ganesh or some impersonal phantasm conception. So for those aspirants of the three previous types who have the tinge of fruitive motivations, still they are the elect and after finally achieving devotion to Him they become free from desire and qualified for moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death. Lord Krishna accepts the jnani as His very self to exemplify their exalted position, because nothing is more dearer then oneself. For the jnani is the elite and the absolute devotee who is firmly established being time tested over a myriad of lifetimes. He is wholeheartedly devoted to the Supreme Lord as his only goal another of which there is nothing superior and having such faith assuredly arrives at that goal.

Sloka 7.19 audio recital in Sanskrit     

बहूनां जन्मनामन्ते ज्ञानवान्मां प्रपद्यते |
वासुदेवः सर्वमिति स महात्मा सुदुर्लभः ||७- १९||

bahUnA.n janmanAmante GYAnavAnmAM prapadyate |
vAsudevaH sarvamiti sa mahAtmA sudurlabhaH || 7-19 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.19

Anvaya: bahunam–many; janmanam–births; ante–after; jnana-van–he possessing knowledge; mam–unto Me; prapadyate–surrenders; vasudevah–cause of all causes; sarvam–all; iti–thus; sah–such; maha-atma–great soul; su-durlabhah–very rare.

Translation: After many births and deaths, he who is actually in knowledge surrenders unto Me, knowing Me to be the cause of all causes and all that is. Such a great soul is very rare.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Such a self realised being completely devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna is extremely rare and difficult to gain association with. This is what is being stated. The words bahunam janmanam ante is at the conclusion of many births. This means that after accumulation of merit gradually over innumerable births, the final birth indicating the last lifetime is naturally carried out with devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna whose expansion is known as Vasudeva. When an evolved being realises that everything movable and mmovable in creation is under the control of the Supreme Lord at that time such an embodied being takes complete refuge in Him and worships Him as the ultimate consciousness existing within all beings and in all things. Such a self-realised being of unwavering devotion and unlimited vision is exceedingly rare to find.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

After the experience of many, many lifetimes one becomes aware of Lord Krishna’s supreme position. The Brahma Purana states: Becoming aware after taking many, many births one resorts to the Supreme Lord. It is not that everyone who first approaches the Supreme Lord Krishna is aware of His paramount position as the Supreme controller. It is subsequently after many, many lives of approaching Him that one becomes aware of this.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

It takes not just a few births of performing righteous activities for one to evolve to the level of consummate spiritual wisdom enough to realise that the atma or soul is an eternal portion of the Supreme Lord and irrevocably devoted to Him. It takes innumerable births of a meritorious kind in the thousands to achieve this platform and realise this and in the final birth during the last lifetime in the material existence the enlightened jnani knower of God spontaneously perceives that they are essentially a liege to the Supreme Lord Krishna, totally dependent upon Him, and the fact that all activities of the mind and body as well as all conceptions and perceptions are only of value if they have direct relevance to Him. This is the evolved wisdom of the illuminated jnani. Vasudeva means the Supreme Lord as the cause of all causes. Such a jnani always thinks Vasudeva is my way. Vasudeva is my goal. Vasudeva is my highest attainment. Whatsoever my heart longs for that is Vasudeva to me. Vasudeva is everything to to me. Such an elevated being totally devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna in causeless love is very rarely found in creation. It should be evident that the two natures one being matter and the body and the other being spirit and the soul in their conditions of cause and effect are both completely dependent upon the Supreme Lord for their very existence, character, personality and impulses. Thus the one who is cognisant of this reality possesses spiritual wisdom and is the jnani. That such a being is exceedingly rare is further expounded upon in the next verse.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The association with an advanced and enlightened devotee of the Supreme Lord is most difficult to achieve. This Lord Krishna indicates by the words bahunam janmanam ante meaning at the final cycle of innumerable births. All these final cycle births are meritorious, characterised by righteous actions and noble activities which were numerous. It is not possible to achieve such felicity with the meagre merits acquired from righteous activities throughout a single lifetime. To have the supreme blessing to qualify for worshipping the Supreme Lord Krishna one must have a bountiful surplus of meritorious activities over a myriad of lifetimes. Then at such a time an enlightened being with overflowing love and complete dedication based on the true understanding of the goal of life, the means to attain it and how Lord Krishna is connected to both as the omnipotent, omniscient, all pervading Supreme Being, worships Him with all their body, mind and heart. Lord Krishna should be known to be the source of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and also the cause of creation, preservation and dissolution of the entire material existence. The Chandogya Upanisad III.XIV.I states: All the demi-gods that have come to worship you, are actually also you because the creator of the worlds is manifested from you. As the infinite is omnipresent the Supreme Lord is like that. An exalted being endowed with the discriminating power of this knowledge is su-durlabah meaning extremely rare, perhaps only one among millions of humans. It is stated in the Bhagavat Purana: Among those who have attained moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death only one of them out of millions is dedicated to the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Sloka 7.20 audio recital in Sanskrit     

कामैस्तैस्तैर्हृतज्ञानाः प्रपद्यन्तेऽन्यदेवताः |
तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया ||७- २०||

kAmaistaistairhR^itaGYAnAH prapadyante.anyadevatAH |
taM taM niyamamAsthAya prakR^ityA niyatAH svayA || 7-20 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.20

Anvaya: kamaih–by desires; taih–by those; taih–by those; hrta–distorted; jnanah–knowledge; prapadyante–surrender; anya–other; devatah–demigods; tam–that; tam–that; niyamam–rules; asthaya–following; prakrtya–by nature; niyatah–controlled; svaya–by their own.

Translation: Those whose minds are distorted by material desires surrender unto demigods and follow the particular rules and regulations of worship according to their own natures.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

It has been previously confirmed that the virtuous who still possess desires and worship the Supreme Lord for the fulfilment of these desires get them and eventually they gradually attain moksa or liberation from material existence. But those who are not devoted to Lord Krishna are overtly in raja guna or the mode of passion as well as those who are situated in tama guna or modes of ignorance being overwhelmed by their expectations to gratify their desires, they give homage to the minor demigods such as Surya or Kali and worship them to obtain the fulfilment of their material desires. What do they do to accomplish this? They worship the demigods by fasts, hymns of praise, celebrating the demigods special days etc. Thus they remain in bondage continuously revolving in samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death. This is what is being stated in this verse and the next three. Dismally lacking in discrimination due to overpowering desires regarding wealth, power, fame, victory and the like; such persons eagerly worship inferior non-eternal beings for their desired material goals and these types have even been known to give their allegiance to ghosts, spirits and horrendous demons to receive coveted material goals. What do these types do to acquire this? They engage in abominable activities like sacrifices of animals and even humans. They allow themselves to be possessed by demoniac spirits and they perform evil magic etc. All these inclinations are the result of internal impressions from the subtle body due to latent tendencies derived from innumerable habits in past life activities.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The compound word hrta-jnanah means one whose spiritual intelligence has been diverted by distortion. This is due to their inherent natures, innate attributes and over attraction to sense gratification. Being enslaved by cravings they choose a path away from Lord Krishna which looks most likely to grants them their material desires and they ingratiate themselves unto the demigod of their choice. The Supreme Lord is not averse to those who worship the demigods but He makes a distinction between worship to Him and worship to others. The results of worshipping all other gods is temporary and fleeting because the inherent power invested in them has limitations being only applicable to the material worlds; but the results of worshipping the Supreme Lord are permanent and eternal because unlimited power is possessed by Him

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Worldly minded people are impelled by material motivations. That they are governed by the inclinations of such motivations is what Lord Krishna is indicating here. These inclinations are the external tendencies which impels one to desire interaction with physical objects and arise from subconscious influences resulting from reactions of sinful activities in past life experiences. These subconscious influences give birth to new cravings for sense gratification. These cravings and desires divert people from true knowledge concerning the Supreme Lord Krishna although this knowledge has always been available. In order to satisfy their material cravings and desires most people resort to inferior formless and impersonal conceptions of god, which never reveal any knowledge of the eternal atma or soul within all sentient beings nor its inherent relationship with the Supreme Lord. Others pray to the demigods for specific material gains such as wealth and power and following the ritualistic rules and regulations place their faith in them. Still others of perverted natures appease dark, demoniac forces; worshipping them for abominable things.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

So previously Lord Krishna revealed just how rare and difficult it is to meet an enlightened jnani or knower of God among the four virtuous types of beings. He also deliberated on the other three types being artto the afflicted, jijnasur the seekers of liberation and artharthi the seekers of wealth and how when gradually becoming free from desire and attachment they also attain moksa or liberation from samsara or the cycle of birth and death. Now Lord Krishna speaks of those who are not devoted to Him but are attracted to the various demigods such as Surya or Kali due to being in raja guna the mode of passion or the worship of vague impersonal conceptions of god without even a name, form or qualities being in tama guna the mode of ignorance. All those rooted in both raja and tama guna have their minds bound and chained by uncountable mundane desires from innumerable previous lifetimes and they remain trapped and caught in samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death. In this verse Lord Krishna is showing the superiority of His devotees by stating hrta janah meaning those whose intelligence is stolen by being deviated away from devotion to the Supreme Lord and diverted to lesser gods with inferior conceptions for the fulfilment of material desires like wealth, power, dominion. Such persons in tama guna worship demoniac and nefarious beings with the help of incantations and magic formulas for hypnotising, stupefying, subjugating and even killing an enemy or troublesome adversary who is an obstacle to accomplishing their desires. Those in raja guna choose to offer hymns of adulation and service of adoration to the demigods for quick gratification for their trivial desires. Both engage in initiation, recitations of prayers and declarations from the texts of such sects, vows and rituals. All these activities are governed by one’s individual nature in the form of tendencies conscripted from desires entertained in previous births from time immemorial.

Sloka 7.21 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यो यो यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्धयार्चितुमिच्छति |
तस्य तस्याचलां श्रद्धां तामेव विदधाम्यहम् ||७- २१||

yo yo yA.n yA.n tanuM bhaktaH shraddhayArchitumichchhati |
tasya tasyAchalA.n shraddhA.n tAmeva vidadhAmyaham.h || 7-21 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.21

Anvaya: yah–that; yah–that; yam–which; yam–which; tanum–form of the demigods; bhaktah–devotee; sraddhaya–with faith; arcitum–to worship; icchati–desires; tasya–of that; tasya–of that; acalam–steady; sraddham–faith; tam–him; eva–surely; vidadhami–give; aham–I.

Translation: I am in everyone’s heart as the Supersoul. As soon as one desires to worship the demigods, I make his faith steady so that he can devote himself to some particular deity.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Amongst those who worship a particular demigod which represents a potency of Lord Krishna then He as paramatma the Supreme Soul within all sentient beings monitoring every thought and action, makes such devotees faith steady and stable. Of others who worship illusory gods, His external potency known as Maya the deluding illusory energy keeps them steadily following the illusion of their erroneous philosophies and speculative theosophies that have no validity not being verified as bonafide in the Vedic scriptures.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The words yam yam tanum means according to whichever demigod such as Brahma the architect of creation, Indra the celestial chief, or Laxsmi the goddess of wealth. The Narada Purana states: There will be cessation to the votaries of Brahma and others due to their temporary nature; but for the devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna there is no cessation due to His eternal nature. What is the goal of moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death? Where does the atma or soul go after attaining moksa? All these considerations are deliberated upon in the chapters of the Bhagavad- Gita dealing with liberation. Even though the avatars or incarnations of the Supreme Lord are numerous and His expansions are unlimited, moksa is guaranteed and assured to the devotee who devoutly worships any one of them. This has been revealed in the Brahma Vaivartaka Purana.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The demigods such as Indra the celestial chief, Surya the sungod and all others constitute the body of the Supreme Lord as stated in the Taittiriya Upanisad V.I. Although those who worship the demigods are ignorant of this truth as declared in Vedic scriptures. In the Brihad-aranyaka Upanisad V.VII.IX beginning ya aditye tish than yam adityo na veda it states: Who is seated in the sun, but whom the sun knoweth not, whom the sun is comprised of etc. Whomsoever wishes to worship the demigods, the Supreme Lord sanctions that they have unwavering and stable faith in that endeavour because that very faith is given to that which is a part of my universal form and constitutes the Supreme Lord Krishna’s body.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

If one were to propound that the Supreme Lord is the aggregate of all the demigods and that the demigods are the forms of the Supreme Lord as well. This argument is refuted by Lord Krishna stating yam yam tanum meaning whichever form of demigod or other gods that one craves for some reward seeking to gratify their desires by worshipping or causing others to worship; it is the Supreme Lord only and who keeps the faith of that individual directed towards the very demigod that one contemplates, keeping it firm and steady based upon their latent tendencies from innumerable previous lives. But it should be noted that although Lord Krishna is the Supreme Lord of all, possessing absolute power over everything in existence; He never exerts even the slightest influence over any embodied being to put their faith and devotion in Him.

Sloka 7.22 audio recital in Sanskrit     

स तया श्रद्धया युक्तस्तस्याराधनमीहते |
लभते च ततः कामान्मयैव विहितान्हि तान् ||७- २२||

sa tayA shraddhayA yuktastasyArAdhanamIhate |
labhate cha tataH kAmAnmayaiva vihitAnhi tAn.h || 7-22 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.22

Anvaya: sah–he; taya–with that; sraddhaya–with faith; yuktah–endowed; tasya–his; aradhanam–worship; ihate–seeks; labhate–obtains; ca–and; tatah–from which; kaman–desires; maya–by Me; eva–alone; vihitan–regulated; hi–for; tan–those.

Translation: Endowed with such a faith, he seeks favors of a particular demigod and obtains his desires. But in actuality these benefits are bestowed by Me alone.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The word yuktah meaning endowed is referring to the previous verse where Lord Krishna makes the faith steady. Such people then worship their chosen demigod to get their particular desire of objects coveted fulfilled. But it should be understood that whatever it was that has been fulfilled has only been granted by the will of the Supreme Lord, who is paramatma the Supreme Soul dwelling inside the hearts of all the demigods and are but parts of His form, under His complete control along with all sentient beings in existence.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Whosoever then worships the demigods with unflinching faith which was bequeathed by the Supreme Lord and constitute a portion of His body, will certainly obtain their cherished desires; but such desires were sanctioned and granted by the authority of the Supreme Lord. When a votary of the demigods is engaged in ingratiating themselves into their good graces they are oblivious to the reality that the demigods comprise the Supreme Lord’s body and that worship offered to them is actually in fact offerings rendered to Him. But even though such worship is not directed towards Himself, the Supreme Lord accepts such offerings as if they were to Him and therefore grants the desires so longed for by the votary.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Endowed with firm faith by the Supreme Lord, one supplicating the demi-gods who is desirous of rewards obtains those desired rewards which undoubtedly were destined by gratifying them. But as declared in the Vedic scriptures: It is the Supreme Lord who is the controller of all actions, abode of all beings and the only creator, preserver and destroyer of all creation; yet possessing no material qualities and free from maya. Salutations to Him the veritable goal of all worship. It is by the potency of the Supreme Lord that universal order is maintained and He is well known as the bestower of all rewards. If one were to wonder that if a votary paying homage to the demigods gets their cherished desires fulfilled by them independently then how does the Supreme Lord contribute to this. Lord Krishna answers this with the word mayaiva meaning by Him alone. As the Supreme soul within every sentient being, all actions and all rewards are ordained solely by Him.

Sloka 7.23 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अन्तवत्तु फलं तेषां तद्भवत्यल्पमेधसाम् |
देवान्देवयजो यान्ति मद्भक्ता यान्ति मामपि ||७- २३||

antavattu phalaM teShA.n tadbhavatyalpamedhasAm.h |
devAndevayajo yAnti madbhaktA yAnti mAmapi || 7-23 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.23

Anvaya: anta-vat tu–limited and temporary; phalam–fruits; tesam–their; tat–that; bhavati–becomes; alpa-medhasam–of those of small intelligence; devan–demigods’ planets; deva-yajah–worshipers of demigods; yanti–achieve; mat–My; bhaktah–devotees; yanti–attain; mam–to Me; api–surely.

Translation: Men of small intelligence worship the demigods, and their fruits are limited and temporary. Those who worship the demigods go to the planets of the demigods, but My devotees ultimately reach My supreme planet.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Since all the demigods in their various positions of universal management are actually manifestations of the Supreme Lord, in actuality worshipping them is worshipping Him; especially due to the fact that it is the Supreme Lord who sanctions and grants all results to their supplications; but it should be understood that there is a vast difference in the results between the adorers of the demigods and the devotees who adore and worship the Supreme Lord. It is being clarified by Lord Krishna that the result gained by persons of limited understanding who worship the demigods is perishable and has an end. This is because the demigods themselves are perishable and have a fixed span of life. Those whose propitiation of the demigods is successful go to the planet of that demigod in their next life and enjoy until that life is ended and then they return and take birth again in the material existence. But the devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna attain association with Him in His abode in the spiritual worlds, which are eternal and everlasting and from where there is no returning back to the material worlds.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The conceptions of an impersonal unmanifest god is what causes illusion. People who are under the influence of an impersonal conception of god are essentially bewildered by God Himself. Only those who are aware of the Supreme Lord possessing form, qualities, attributes, personality and propitiate Him with loving devotion are able to cross over this ocean of illusion. Gross illusion is the Supreme Lord’s external potency and it manifest as external energy in the form of the demigoddess known as Maya; both are under the control and subservient to the Supreme Lord Krishna. Therefore everyone should surrender without hesitation in ananya bhakti or unadulterated devotion. This ananya bhakti is uncompromising and should be know as that devotion which is dedicated to the Supreme Lord exclusively in all its entirety. This capacity of fullness of devotion has no possibility of arising anywhere else except for the Supreme Lord. Offerings to Brahma, Shiva and all other demigods should be done as a preliminary worship to the Supreme Lord Krishna and nothing more, because all of the demigods are part of Him and subservient to Him. Comprehending this one can attain Him but not by or through any other means.

Vasudeva is a name of Lord Krishna meaning the cause of all causes. He is the only whole. All else are merely parts. The only complete one is Him. The spiritually intelligent who realise this within are very rare in this world while in retrospect we are all actually looking for this internal realisation and until we achieve it are merely aspirants. Yet even after having this internal realisation those who propitiate Brahma, Shiva and other impersonal gods as being something superior; by such worshipping they enter the dark dreary worlds of obscurity, which is full of endless suffering and misery, taking birth in a family without the light of awareness. The irreplaceable awareness that only Lord Krishna is to be propitiated exclusively and no other. Without the awareness that Lord Krishna is to be propitiated first and foremost, any and all other propitiation’s become disparate an have no efficacy. Knowledge then degenerated to be utilised only for the satisfaction and gratification of the temporary physical body. If by reflection and discrimination one becomes aware of the truth and achieves the realisation of Lord Krishna’s supreme position then it should be understood that all other gods and demigods are all subject and subservient to Him. Worship erroneously propitiated unknowingly on false objects and inferior subjects as well as temporary gods; if later renounced causes no demerits if one does not return back to them, But it will still be cause for reincarnation and one will take birth again but in their subsequent life such a person will be blessed by the Supreme Lord to gain rapid recollection of their previous spiritual direction and be graced with proper association to continue their worship where they left off at the end of their previous life.

Thus it is clarified that for one who has realisation by spiritual intelligence, the immortal soul within the etheric heart of all sentient beings is non-different from Lord Krishna. After innumerable lifetimes one begins performing righteous actions. After many lifetimes of performing meritorious activities one achieves spiritual intelligence and from then on one is qualified to attain the mercy of Vasudeva, the cause of all causes, the Supreme Lord. Those who are devoted to lesser gods only get the temporary material rewards which such transitory gods are able to bestow. While those who worship the Supreme Lord Krishna attain the blessed eternal spiritual realms with all its bliss and felicity. Knowing the supremacy of Lord Krishna those beings who would deign to propitiate lesser gods thinking them independent of the Supreme Lord go to the dark worlds of ignorance in all obscurity. Also anyone who considers the demigods or any other gods as similar to, or capable of being equal to, or greater than will also go to the dark worlds of ignorance in obscurity

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The rewards which the unintelligent seek who worship the lesser demigods such as Indra the celestial chief or Surya the sun god are trivial and temporary. It might be asked why? It is because the votaries of those demigods end up at the planets where such demigods reside. The celestial realm of Indra is certainly opulent with all facility to experience heavenly delights and such a votary upon arriving is able to enjoy to their hearts content; but when Indra and the other demigods span of life has ended, they too must transmigrate and be reborn again falling back down into the material existence and of course this applies to all their votaries as well.

As for the devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna they all perform the same activities as votaries do to the demigods such as worship, offering hymns of praise, celebrating appearance festivals etc. But the distinct difference is that the devotees of Lord Krishna perform these activities solely for His pleasure without ever thinking of seeking any reward or benefit for what they do for Him. Happily offering all results and rewards to the Supreme Lord they have nothing but Him to be attached too, thus they attain Him in His spiritual abode, which is eternal and from where there is no return to transmigration and rebirth.

In the next verse Lord Krishna will explain that the ignorant disregard His authorised avatars or incarnations as verified in the Vedic scriptures which descend from the spiritual worlds into the material worlds for the express purpose that all beings may have easy and regular access to Him in every age.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

It could be postulated that if the followers of the demigods obtain their desired enjoyments which are sanctioned by the Supreme Lord to be granted by the demigods, then they are not amiss and have dutifully fulfilled the wishes that their votaries prayed for. So what then is the distinction between the followers of the demigods and the devotees of the Supreme Lord? To this Lord Krishna states antavat tu phalam meaning the rewards are perishable, temporary, not lasting for those of meagre intelligence who worship the demigods. This is because lacking association of those who are knowledgeable of the ultimate truth they are dull-witted and earnestly seek temporary rewards for their actions hence they are not graced with the wisdom to worship the Supreme Lord directly. Those who waste time and energy ingratiating themselves to demigods like Indra the celestial chief or Surya the sungod do not realise that these demigods have a span of life that ends after a period of time also. So if the demigod themselves are perishable it is clear that whatever material boons they are able to offer are perishable as well. Whereas the devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna even if harbouring some desire will gradually come to Him eternally, because He is endowed with an infinite nature full of eternity and bliss. First they will achieve their cherished desire and then becoming free from it they will attain Him. Thus the difference is that Lord Krishna’s devotees although tainted by selfish motives still eventually attain Him because they worshipped Him direct and became exempt from returning to samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death which the followers of the demigods and lesser others gods are forced to return to againa nd again without cessation.

Sloka 7.24 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिमापन्नं मन्यन्ते मामबुद्धयः |
परं भावमजानन्तो ममाव्ययमनुत्तमम् ||७- २४||

avyaktaM vyaktimApannaM manyante mAmabuddhayaH |
paraM bhAvamajAnanto mamAvyayamanuttamam.h || 7-24 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.24

Anvaya: avyaktam–nonmanifested; vyaktim–personality; apannam–achieved; manyante–think; mam–unto Me; abuddhayah–less intelligent persons; param–supreme; bhavam–state of being; ajanantah–without knowing; mama–My; avyayam–imperishable; anuttamam–the finest.

Translation: Unintelligent men, who know Me not, think that I have assumed this form and personality. Due to their small knowledge, they do not know My higher nature, which is changeless and supreme.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

One may wonder if the concerted effort to ingratiate oneself to a lesser god or demigod of one’s choice is the same concerted effort as offering one’s devotion to the Supreme Lord; yet the result is so obviously a vast difference in rewards; then why doesn’t everyone worship Lord Krishna exclusively and abandon the worship of all other inferior gods. This question is answered by the word ajanantah meaning oblivious. They are unaware of Lord Krishna being totally transcendental to the material existence and beyond the phenomena of this phenomenal creation and regard His different avatars or incarnations as manifestations of prakriti or the material substratum comprising all existence. His Supreme Nature is eternal, immutable and unsurpassed. Therefore those who view the Supreme Lord whose form is made of pure spiritual energy and who by His will assumes various forms according to schedule for the protection of all the worlds and the devotees to be the same and equal to the material bodies of demigods which are acquired and fashioned as a result of reactions from previous activities is completely in ignorance and such dull-witted beings are incapable of worshipping the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations. Instead they worship lesser gods for quick results which are temporary and perishable and thus they stay bound in samsara the endless cycle of birth and death perpetually.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

What is so special that differentiates Lord Krishna from all other gods? He clarifies this by the word avyaktam meaning transcendent explaining by the words vyaktim apannam accepting a human like form for His lila or phenomenal pastimes. Superior and transcendental to prakriti or the material substratum pervading physical existence, He has never any actions to perform. The Supreme Lord who is eternally blissful is considered as having a spiritual body with personality, qualities and attributes. Therefore the Vedic scriptures have stated that without knowing the ultimate truth of the Supreme Lord’s existence everyone remains deluded.

Now begins the summation.

The Supreme Lord is transcendental to prakriti whereas the jiva or embodied living entity is not. Those who believe that there is equality between them or that there is a dependency shared between them surely in the next life go to the dark worlds of ignorance in obscurity.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna’s supreme, infinite and exalted nature is that He is the adorable by all acts of worship He is to be adored. Lord Krishna is the God of the gods, the Supreme Lord of all, whose essence and attributes are inexpressible by speech and unfathomable by thought. Although Lord Krishna appears as the son of King Vasudeva and is actuated by activities of affection to family members and compassion for all beings in order to be accessible to all, He never relinquishes His transcendental divine nature always maintaining His eternal spiritual presence. Foolish people oblivious to this reality look upon Him as any other son born in royalty to a king, awarded such position by the destiny of karma or reaction to past actions brought into patency from an antecedent state of latency. Such living entities do not seek the Supreme Lord as their shelter neither do they worship Him by their actions. The reason why this is so for them is explained in the next verse.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The question might be posed that if Lord Krishna is the only means for moksa or liberation from material existence and the best means for ultimate happiness then why does not everyone abandon the demigods and other lesser gods and with full faith worship Him alone, who is the Supreme Lord of all gods and the bountiful bestower of boundless blessings. Lord Krishna is beyond the perception of the physical mind and senses. The ignorant unaware of His Supreme, immutable, eternal transcendental nature are not qualified to percieve the Supreme Lord because they have not been graced by first approaching and then being accepted by the bonafide spiritual master in one of the four authorised Vedic lines of disciplic succession known as sampradayas as revealed in Vedic scriptures. The Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His Vedically authorised incarnations and expansions manifest themselves fully endowed with eternal transcendental qualities and attributes and are always the sole object of adoration from Brahma, Shiva and all the 33 million demigods. The Supreme Lord manifests Himself out of extreme affection and compassion for His devotees: but the ignorant unaware of the possibility for humans to have an actual relationship with Him, never worship Him wholeheartedly with love and devotion because they believe He has a human form, never realising He possesses a purely spiritual body which is immutable and eternal and transcendental to material existence. But the ignorant simply look at Him as a human being with exceptional powers who took birth as a ksatriya prince as the son of King Vasudeva of the lunar dynasty.

Sloka 7.25 audio recital in Sanskrit     

नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योगमायासमावृतः |
मूढोऽयं नाभिजानाति लोको मामजमव्ययम् ||७- २५||

nAhaM prakAshaH sarvasya yogamAyAsamAvR^itaH |
mUDho.ayaM nAbhijAnAti loko mAmajamavyayam.h || 7-25 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.25

Anvaya: na–nor; aham–I; prakasah–manifest; sarvasya–to everyone; yoga-maya–internal potency; samavrtah–covered; mudhah–foolish; ayam–this; na–not; abhijanati–can understand; lokah–such less intelligent persons; mam–Me; ajam–unborn; avyayam–inexhaustible.

Translation: I am never manifest to the foolish and unintelligent. For them I am covered by My eternal creative potency [yoga-maya]; and so the deluded world knows Me not, who am unborn and infallible.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna explains the cause of their ignorance about Himself. It is because He only manifests Himself in and through the consciousness of His devotees exclusively and not to others. For others He is imperceptibly veiled by His mysterious and intrepid, internal energy known as yogamaya. Yoga means uniting with, maya is illusory impressions superimposed upon the consciousness, by this combination a mysterious power arises which is transcendant to material nature and has the potency at any time to make the impossible, possible or the possible, impossible or even have them both manifesting simultaneously. The ignorant are covered by this maya and hence unaware of Lord Krishna’s supreme position. Thus being oblivious to His powers, glories, qualities and attributes the ignorant are unable to have communion with Him and receive His grace.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The state of being oblivious and lacking awareness of the Supreme Lord is caused by Lord Krishna Himself. He explains this by the words maya- samavrtah meaning concealed by illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind. All this is done according to His will so the unqualified are never able to perceive Him. Such foolish mortals cannot fathom that everything in their lives and in the total material creation manifests from the Supreme Lord alone. In the Padma Purana it states that: The Supreme Lord by His own internal potency makes Himself concealed from the minds and hearts of the unqualified through the illusion of His external potency known as the demi- goddess Durga-devi also known as Maya-devi.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna supreme nature is not easily perceptible to everyone because even though He appears like an extraordinary human to mortals embedded in samsara the endless cycle of birth and death which conditioned living entities are accustomed too, the reality is Lord Krishna possesses an immortal spiritual body that is immutable and eternal. Just because He appears anthropomorphic the people of the world do not comprehend that His avatars or incarnation are orchestrated in a numerous and regulated manner with the express purpose to always be accessible to all. Albeit that Lord Krishna’s lilas or phenomenal pastimes eclipse the pastimes of anything heretofore witnessed as well as anything yet to be manifested. This includes anything ever seen by the powerful forces of nature who are merely His represented servants such as Vayu the demigod in charge of wind and Indra the demigod in charge of rain, thunder and lightning. Lord Krishna’s lustrous glory dims the light of the sun from the sungod Surya and darkens the glow of the fire of the firegod Agni; but the ignorant masses in this world do not recognise Him because He appears in a humanlike form although He is eternal and never subject to birth and death.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Why are not all beings able to acquire knowledge about the Supreme Lord Krishna? He who is manifest in a wondrous, transcendental human-like form so illustrious, performing His lilas or magnificent, phenomenal pastimes, decked with peacock feather, flower garland down to His knees, and glorious flute in His forest pastimes and in His royal pastimes possessing such transcendental items as Srivatsa the golden line on His chest, Kaustabha His resplendent transcendental gemstone, Pancajanya the conch, Saranga the bow, Kaumadi the mace and others. Who is the subjugator of both Brahma the demigod in charge of creation and Shiva the demigod in charge of destruction. Who is the chastiser of Indra the chief of all the demigods as well as the reprimander of Kamadeva the demigod of love. Who to protect dharma or eternal righteousness was the destroyer of countless demons in His forest pastimes such as Putana, Trnavarta, Kesi and Aghasura among others and in His royal pastimes He destroyed even more demons such as Narakasura, Jaradandha, Paudraka, Sisupala and many more. The Supreme Lord Krishna whose potencies are beyond the realm of the mind and the senses and who is the sole objective of meditation by the enlightened yogis. Why are not all beings able to acquire knowledge about Him?

Lord Krishna speaks naham prakasah sarvasya meaning He is not revealed to everyone. He is samavrtah or concealed. He allows the ignorant who are bereft of faith be oblivious of His divine glory and His purely spiritual form which is endowed with qualities and attributes that are completely transcendental to prakriti or the material substatum pervading all worldly objects in the physical existence. His supernatural powers and lilas or phenomenal pastimes are not known, heard or witnessed by all. Only those who are exclusively devoted to Lord Krishna are aware of His power and majesty. As the Supreme Lord Himself spoke to Narada Muni that: One by one, then two by two, then in a group of three, great sages desired to see the form of the Supreme Lord Krishna; but they were unable to, nor will they ever be able too until they have developed exclusive devotion for Him. Only by bhakti or exclusive loving devotion can the Supreme Lord Krishna be known. Hence the ignorant, all who are not Lord Krishna’s devotees fail to recognise Him as the Supreme Being. For He is not born as an embodied soul forced to accept a physical body like all embodied beings by the dictates of karma or reactions from previous actions. Lord Krishna manifests Himself by His own sweet will to perform His divine lilas or phenomenal pastimes for sport; but the people of the world merely view Him as another human being only blest to have amazing and extraordinary qualities and characteristics.

Sloka 7.26 audio recital in Sanskrit     

वेदाहं समतीतानि वर्तमानानि चार्जुन |
भविष्याणि च भूतानि मां तु वेद न कश्चन ||७- २६||

vedAhaM samatItAni vartamAnAni chArjuna |
bhaviShyANi cha bhUtAni mA.n tu veda na kashchana || 7-26 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.26

Anvaya: veda–know; aham–I; sama–equally; a titani–past; vartamanani–present; ca–and; arjuna–O Arjuna; bhavisyani–future; ca–also; bhutani–living entities; mam–Me; tu–but; veda–knows; na–not; kascana–anyone.

Translation: O Arjuna, as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, I know everything that has happened in the past, all that is happening in the present, and all things that are yet to come. I also know all living entities; but Me no one knows.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna has previously stated that the ignorant are oblivious about His supreme nature. Now He reveals that a part of His nature consists of omniscience. He confirms that He knows all beings movable and immovable in their present existence, all those that perished in their past existence and the future lives of all those that are yet to come into existence. His external energy known as maya is illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind which deludes all living entities; but as He is the foundation of maya He alone can never be deluded for maya is subservient and dependent upon Him.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna explains that for Him there is never any illusion; but the embodied beings without His grace emanating through the bonafide spiritual master in authorised disciplic succession will find it impossible to extricate themselves from maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind. It should be clearly understood that no one can know Lord Krishna by their own efforts regardless how great. He is only known by His own desire.

Now begins the summation.

As much as Lord Krishna is known to Himself none other can know Him. Brahma the demigod responsible for material creation and Shiva the demigod responsible for material destruction, by His grace know Him partially to some extent according to their ability and gradation. The Katha Upanisad I.II.XXIII is categorical in its declaration that: The Supreme Lord cannot be attained by instruction or by intelligence or even by constant hearing about. Whom the Supreme Lord Himself chooses, only is able to attain Him and none other. Only to the one He chooses doe He reveal His rupa form, guna or qualities and lila His phenomenal pastimes.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna reveals that He knows the destiny of all living beings and this includes their past existence, their present existence and there future existence. This confirms His omniscient and magnanimous nature that all movable and immovable sentient beings throughout creation are continuously objects of His loving concern in the past, present and future; yet who discerns Him as Vasudeva the cause of all causes, the Supreme Lord incarnate, always ready to give swift refuge and protection from all calamities and difficulties to one who may seek or call out for Him. Thus such a spiritually mature and evolved, enlightened sage is very rare and the reason why Lord Krishna gives next.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna emphasises by the words mam tu veda na kascam which means that no one is able to know Him and because He is the controller of all, anywhere that He is not veiled is only by His express directive for His veiling is not for His devotees but for those who are in the clutches of maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind, so that they will not be able to know Him. This He is indicating by the word vedaham meaning He knows. That He knows by His divine potency and unveiled knowledge. Although His external energy known as maya veils the mind in varying degrees of all created beings; it should clearly understood that that all living beings movable or immovable, belonging to the past, existing in the present or manifesting in the future are under His complete control and this is an example of how He is omniscient. It should also be clearly understood that no one bereft of devotion to the Supreme lord due to being bewildered and under the control of maya has the qualification to know that Lord Krishna is the Supreme Lord within their heart and within the heart of every living entity being present everywhere. Hence such ignorant living entities do not become devoted to Him.

Sloka 7.27 audio recital in Sanskrit     

इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेन द्वन्द्वमोहेन भारत |
सर्वभूतानि सम्मोहं सर्गे यान्ति परन्तप ||७- २७||

ichchhAdveShasamutthena dvandvamohena bhArata |
sarvabhUtAni sammohaM sarge yAnti parantapa || 7-27 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.27

Anvaya: iccha–desire; dvesa–hate; samutthena–born; dvandva–duality; mohena–overcome; bharata–O scion of Bharata; sarva–all; bhutani–living entities; sammoham–into delusion; sarge–in creation; yanti–go; parantapa–O conqueror of enemies.

Translation: O scion of Bharata [Arjuna], O conqueror of the foe, all living entities are born into delusion, overcome by the dualities of desire and hate.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Thus the ignorance of embodied beings and their lack of cognisance in regard to the Supreme Lord due to the influence of maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind has been stated. The reason for the severity of such ignorance is spoken by Lord Krishna with the words sarva bhutani sammoham meaning all forms of life are completely deluded. At one’s very birth when the physical body comes into existence the delusion begins due to the influence of dualities. The external perceptions of happiness and misery, heat and cold, success and failure which arise out of the desire for what is pleasing and the aversion for that which is displeasing, deeply binds an embodied being to primarily identify with their physical body and thus the delusion increases. Always occupied with how to acquire happiness and constantly worrying about how to avoid misery people take no time to acquire knowledge about the Supreme Lord and having no knowledge they remain deluded never knowing who He is and worshipping Him.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Embracing the delusion of the dualities such as pleasure and pain, praise and ridicule, joy and grief along with desire and attachment to sense objects it impossible to acquire the awareness of atma tattva or soul realisation which is the essential and exclusive prerequisite to God consciousness. All these obstacles and hindrances were mandated as Lord Krishna reveals by the word sarge meaning at the very beginning of creation as soon which means for us as soon as our atma or eternal soul became an embodied being. With the acceptance of a physical body dualities, desires and attachments arise and before the acceptance of a the physical body there was no awareness of them.

Now begins the summation.

The delusions of duality are illusionary and opposed to knowledge. As in darkness everything appears similar so in the case of delusion everything is in illusion. The Mahabharata has discussed this point in detail as follows. There is duality between the Supreme Lord and the embodied being and this is real knowledge. All other dualities are illusory and are known as dvanda-moha or a delusion of dualities. Avidya or non-knowledge is its effect and because its effect leads to even greater delusions there is a resultant mixture of anger. The Agni Purana states that: The embodied being who assumes that they are the same as the Supreme Lord or that the Supreme Lord is the same as the embodied being or that there is no difference between the Supreme Lord and the embodied being is one who is beguiled and bewildered by maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

By word sarge meaning at the onset of universal creation Lord Krishna is indicating that at the very start of incarnate existence all creatures are inveigled into the net of various dualities such as joy and grief, heat and cold, honour and dishonour which are generated by the desire for what is agreeable and the aversion to what is disagreeable. The purport is that whatever one has experienced in their myriad of past existences which includes all the loving exchanges and all the hateful exchanges are all transmitted into succeeding lives as tendencies and predilections at the time of the next birth. These same loving and hating influences arise and develop in the same manner as they were enacted in a previous life and ensnares an embodied being to follow the pattern. The embodied beings that are caught under the sway of this enchantment appear to be constituted of these very natures and feel foreign to the spiritual feeling and tendencies associated with the Supreme Lord such as the happiness experienced in closeness with Him and the misery experienced in separation from Him. But the nature of the enlightened one’s possessing spiritual wisdom is that they experience bliss only when in association with the Supreme Lord and feel grief only when bereft in separation from Him. Such an exalted being possessing this nature is rarely ever born into material existence.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In this way human beings are ignorant and kept in the dark about knowledge of the Supreme Lord. This is due to maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind. This is what is being stated by the words dvanda-mohena or the delusion arising due to dualities such as joy and sorrow, success and failure, pleasure and pain, etc. When all beings take birth in their gross physical bodies they acquire an ego sense and fall prey to infatuation. In situations where the transitory body feels happiness from sense objects there is attraction and in situations where it feels unhappiness from sense objects there is aversion. Hence bewildered and befuddled constantly the embodied being thinks of themselves as the physical body and never attempts for self-realisation to discover the atma or immortal soul within themselves. The subsequent reactions from these two mentalities of attraction and aversion have been accumulated from all an embodied beings previous lifetimes through the delusion of I am happy because of this; or I am unhappy because of that. This is why most humans do not recognise Lord Krishna’s supreme position and propitiate Him, they are consumed by the reactions to their past actions while busily performing new actions based on the infatuation of attraction and aversion ceaselessly increasing more and more future reactions.

Sloka 7.28 audio recital in Sanskrit     

येषां त्वन्तगतं पापं जनानां पुण्यकर्मणाम् |
ते द्वन्द्वमोहनिर्मुक्ता भजन्ते मां दृढव्रताः ||७- २८||

yeShA.n tvantagataM pApa.n janAnAM puNyakarmaNAm.h |
te dvandvamohanirmuktA bhajante mA.n dR^iDhavratAH || 7-28 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.28

Anvaya: yesam–whose; tu–but; anta-gatam–completely eradicated; papam–sin; jananam–of the persons; punya–pious; karmanam–previous activities; te–they; dvandva–duality; moha–delusion; nirmuktah–free from; bhajante–worship; mam–Me; drdha-vratah–with determination.

Translation: Persons who have acted piously in previous lives and in this life, whose sinful actions are completely eradicated and who are freed from the duality of delusion, engage themselves in My service with determination.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The question might arise how is it that some people are seen to exclusively worship the Supreme Lord Krishna? This is being answered with anta-gatam papam meaning those whose sins have been completely eradicated. This is due to having taken shelter of a pure devotee of Lord Krishna and becoming habituated to perform meritorious activities in the mode of pure goodness without desire for rewards. Once the reactions to past sinful activities are terminated the obstruction to realisation is neutralised and one is freed from the delusion arising from attraction and aversion to the dualities such as pleasure and pain, joy and grief, success and failure, etc. At this time one becomes qualified and is able to become devoted to Lord Krishna with determination, worshipping Him exclusively.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is explaining that also there are some exceptions to the previous verse. Those of purified mind and cleansed heart who nearly dissolved all reactions to their activities in past lives due to meritorious spiritual accomplishments. They will be directly born into a family knowledgeable about the glories of the Supreme Lord and be receptive to spiritual activities right from the beginning and never be under the sway of delusion.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Humans possessing virtue whose sins have dissolved away due to exclusively performing righteous actions in words, thoughts and deeds have effectively terminated sins stemming from an immemorial past due to the impulses of dualities in the form of attraction and aversion which obstructed them from being spiritually aware and God conscious. The termination of such sins by virtue of highly meritorious activities benefiting all creation is only acquired after many numerous lives. Determined by the various degrees in quality of merit derived from purely spiritual activities or spiritual activities mixed with philanthropic activities or philanthropic activities mixed with self interest activities, etc. humans are given the opportunity to take shelter of the Supreme Lord on different levels in varying degrees and sanctioned to be relieved from the beguiling bewitchment of maya or illusory impressions superimposed upon the mind. Then at that time they realising Lord Krishna’s supreme position they make a firm resolve to worship Him exclusively seeking either:

aisvarya arthi or great fortune, opulence and power. Applies to the atharthi in verse 16. kaivaly-arthi or self-realisation over death. Applies to the jijnasur in verse 16 . moksa-arthi the Supreme Lord Himself as the only goal. Applies to the jnani in verse 16.

Enumeration and will now be giefly given regarding the qualifications which the above stated three categories of the Supreme Lords own votaries have to acquire along with requisite knowledge they have to cultivate and obtain.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The question may be raised that if embodied beings have been deluded from time immemorial since conception in the gross body why is it that some people are still seen exclusively worshipping the Supreme Lord? To this Lord Krishna answers with the words punya-karmanam meaning performers of virtuous deeds. Such persons having association of the Lord Krishna’s pure devotee and under His guidance are able to free themselves from all sins and thus in the next life are born directly into a spiritual family by such merits. The accumulated sins of previous lives which veil the light of consciousness have been dissolved and all erroneous knowledge along with it, by performance of meritorious spiritual activities for many lifetimes. All delusion in the form of reacting in attraction and aversion to the dualities such happiness and distress, pleasure and pain, success and failure, etc have been neutralised and hence one qualifies for knowledge of the ultimate truth with firm resolve to worship the Supreme Lord Krishna, the supreme controller, omnipotent and omniscient, the cause of all causes, the ultimate bestower of all benedictions and just rewards for all actions and who is an ocean of love for His devotees.

Sloka 7.29 audio recital in Sanskrit     

जरामरणमोक्षाय मामाश्रित्य यतन्ति ये |
ते ब्रह्म तद्विदुः कृत्स्नमध्यात्मं कर्म चाखिलम् ||७- २९||

jarAmaraNamokShAya mAmAshritya yatanti ye |
te brahma tadviduH kR^itsnamadhyAtmaM karma chAkhilam.h || 7-29 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.29

Anvaya: jara–old age; marana–death; moksaya–for the purpose of liberation; mam–unto Me; asritya–taking shelter of; yatanti–endeavor; ye–all those; te–such persons; brahma–Brahman; tat–actually that; viduh–they know; krtsnam–everything; adhyatmam–transcendental; karma–fruitive activities; ca–and; akhilam–entirely.

Translation: Intelligent persons who are endeavoring for liberation from old age and death take refuge in Me in devotional service. They are actually Brahman because they entirely know everything about transcendental and fruitive activities.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Therefore those who have purified their consciousness after innumerable lifetimes performing meritorious spiritual activities get the association of a pure devotee of the Supreme Lord Krishna and have the opportunity to exclusively worship Him. Becoming His devotee they come to know all that is to be known are completely satisfied. This is being stated with the words jara-marana-moksaya meaning desiring freedom from old age and death. Knowledgeable of the supreme brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence, cognisant of the atma or eternal soul and aware that it is distinct from the physical body of every sentient being; such people take exclusive shelter of the Supreme Lord Krishna and diligently apply themselves in His exclusive service following the instructions of the spiritual master in one of the four authorised Vaisnava parampara or disciplic succession.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Deliverance from old age, disease and death signifies the disenchantment and disjunction from material desires and connections by achieving atma tattva or realisation of the soul and comprehending its distinctness from physicality replacing it with spiritual knowledge and connections. Those who seek and worship the Supreme Lord Krishna with this objective have to understand what brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence which refers to the arttas or aspirants in verse 16. Have to know what adhyatmam or the individual souls which refers to the jijnasur or soul seekers in verse 16 and must know karma cakhilam or the different kinds of fruitive actions with their subsequent reactions this refers to the jnani or seeker of spiritual knowledge in verse 16.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Thereafter worshipping the Supreme Lord Krishna such enlightened devotees become blessed and acquire knowledge of everything to be known. This is specified by the words te brahma tad viduh krtsnam meaning they get knowledge of the brahman the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and everything else of consequence. They with pure hearts who take complete refuge in the Supreme Lord being free from the sway of duality and any ideas of rewards for the actions they perform, even for moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death.. Such enlightened beings understand the entire field of action to be performed in the material manifestation meaning what is to be done and what is not to be done and the total purpose of embodied existence as a human being.

Sloka 7.30 audio recital in Sanskrit     

साधिभूताधिदैवं मां साधियज्ञं च ये विदुः |
प्रयाणकालेऽपि च मां ते विदुर्युक्तचेतसः ||७- ३०||

sAdhibhUtAdhidaivaM mA.n sAdhiyaGYa.n cha ye viduH |
prayANakAle.api cha mA.n te viduryuktachetasaH || 7-30 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 7.30

Anvaya: sa-adhibhuta–the governing principle of the material manifestation; adhidaivam–underlying all the demigods; mam–Me; sa-adhiyajnam–sustaining all sacrifices; ca–and; ye–those; viduh–know; prayana–of death; kale–at the time; api–even; ca–and; mam–Me; te–they; viduh–know; yukta-cetasah–with steadfast minds.

Translation: Those who know Me as the Supreme Lord, as the governing principle of the material manifestation, who know Me as the one underlying all the demigods and as the one sustaining all sacrifices, can, with steadfast mind, understand and know Me even at the time of death.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

For such enlightened beings there is not the slightest anxiety nor is there any lapse in their yoga or perfection of the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness even when afflicted by death. This is what Lord Krishna means by the words prayana- kale api meaning even at the time of death, those who know Him as the Ultimate Personality, the Supreme absolute controller of all existence material and spiritual. The meaning of sa adhibhuta-adhidaivam is Lord Krishna’s magnificent rulership of all phases of phenomena and creation and will be explained in detail in chapter eight. Those who know the Supreme Lord Krishna together with what concerns adhibhutas or all embodied beings, with what concerns adhidaivam or the 33 crores equalling 330 million demi-gods throughout creation in charge of universal management in the millions of myriad of universes; and what concerns adhiyagna or worship and propitiation to the Supreme Lord; such elevated and enlightened beings focusing their minds solely on Lord Krishna in one-pointed meditation. So much so that they are one with Him even at the time of passing away during the moment of death. Even at the exact moment of death Lord Krishna’s devotees are not bewildered and perplexed and do not forget Him even for a half a second. Therefore there is no question of His devotees forgetting Him in normal circumstances. There is never a lapse during their yoga for Him because every action in which they perform is a meditation to and for Him exclusively so much do they depend upon Him. This is the purport.

The knowledge of the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence is attained without effort by the devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna is clearly elucidated in this the seventh chapter entitled Paramahamsa Vijnana Yoga, Knowledge of the Ultimate Truth.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

For the deliverance of old age and death this verse is being spoken and not for other desires. This is the purport. Attachment to moksa or the achieving liberation from the cycle of birth and death is commendable; but surely in no way is it prescribed or should it ever be construed that one should worship the Supreme Lord Krishna merely for the sake of moksa. This would be folly and erroneous as moksa is an insignificant aspiration compared to the aspiration for bhakti which is one pointed loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna. The Narada Purana has elucidated on this point and confer that this verse does not apply to those who seek moksa only. This may be explained in a contrary way as follows: The knowledge of all the Vedas for the sake of the demigods, the knowledge of all the 330 million demigods for the sake of Lord Krishna and the knowledge of Lord Krishna for the sake of moksa, then moksa has no purpose at all. Such misconceptions belong to the fledgling intermediates who are just beginning their first lifetime as an aspirants. But for the mature devotees of many lifetimes there is nothing in all existence superior or more glorious then the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Sublime devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna without distraction and cessation, without desires and expectations, seeking nothing in return, when performed with concentrated meditation with awareness of the inherent eternal nature of the atma or soul within all sentient beings as being part of Him has been established down through the millenniums as the single most superior endeavour in a being’s life. Thus is how the essence of communion with the Supreme Lord in bhakti has been eruditely explained in the Bhagavat Purana.

Now begins the summation.

The words te vidur mean those who know. This refers to the ekantins or those who by dint of their spiritual wisdom are singularly devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna. He is the ultimate one to be aware of, the one without a second and the one who beyond a doubt is the Supreme and Ultimate Personality of all creation and created beings. In the Katha Upanisad I.II.XXIII it states: Only to that being who is singularly and exclusively devoted to the Supreme Lord does He reveal Himself to.

The elevated and enlightened living entities who are singularly and exclusively devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna are not in the least concerned about the old age and death of the physical body. But what they are very concerned about is the destination of the soul at the time of departure from the physical body which is known as death. Old age and death have reference only to the physical body and can never be applied to the atma or the immortal soul. The eternal atma being purely spiritual is what departs the physical body and has the inherent ability to transcend mortality.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Here the words ye viduh meaning those who know repeats the plural pronoun ye in order to show that it does not apply to the votaries previously mentioned by ye in verse 29 because they are different. In this verse ye has an independent sense in as much as it is indicative of another class of aspirants.

The aisvarya-arthi or those seeking fortune who know the Supreme Lord Krishna as identified with adhibhuta or all embodied beings as well as knowing Him the presiding diety of all adhidauiva or the 330 million demigods are requisite and verse 29 has no allusion.

The knowledge of Lord Krishna as identified with adhi-yagna or propitiation in worship is knowledge which all three classes of aspirants have to acquire in general; because after Vedic initiation it is natural and obvious that the obligation to perform daily devotional duties as well as occasional special devotional duties falls upon all three classes equally. All three classes must also be able to remember Lord Krishna at the time of death. The quality of their remembrance being firmly fixed in their mind in accordance with the ideal which each class of aspirant considers to be the goal of their desires.

That the class of aspirants who strive for liberation from old age and death referred to in verse 29 also are included in striving to remember Lord Krishna at the time of death is indicated by the conjunctive particle ca meaning and, which denotes all of them. The conclusion to be accepted from the mood and meaning of verses 29 and 30 is that it is a requisite that the jnani who is mature in spiritual wisdom will have his own cherished goal compatible with the goal of attaining the Supreme Lord Krishna and to know Him to be the presiding deity identified with adhi- yagna or the ultimate goal of all worship and propitiation. Then it is natural that one who constantly meditated upon Him in life will certainly have divine remembrance of Him at the time of death.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Speaking of all other knowledge and the results such knowledge, Lord Krishna concludes chapter seven beginning with the words: sa-adhibhuta- adhidaivam meaning that the essence of all embodied beings and the demigods, must be known. Whoever by mercy of the authorised spiritual master in disciplic succession knows Lord Krishna, be they originating from those seeking fruitive desires or they originate from those with spiritual wisdom. If they know Him as the integral essence of all existence within as prakriti or the substratum pervading material existence, as the brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and as the sole origin of all creation. Along with knowing Him as paramatma or the Supreme Soul within the etheric heart of each and every sentient being throughout creation witnessing their every thought and action. Such elevated and enlightened beings of purified heart and cleansed minds will be immersed in relishing the remembrance of Lord Krishna up to and even during the moment of death. In the next chapter after being questioned by Arjuna, the intrinsic meanings of the terms brahman, adhibhuta, adhyatma and adhidaivata will be elucidated further by Lord Krishna.

In the seventh chapter Lord Krishna illuminated His supremacy, He showed the superiority of His devotees above all others and explained the root cause of bondage to the cycle of birth and death as well as the root cause of moksa or liberation from the cycle of birth and death. He magnanimously revealed these things to the world out of compassion for His devotees.

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