Main Menu

Śrīmad bhagavad gītā | Sankhya yoga ~ Sarga 2 of 18

Bhagavad-Gītā-desibantu

Sarga (or) Chapter 2 of 18 : Sankhya yoga

śloka (verses): 72

Abstract: After asking Krishna for help, Arjuna is instructed into various subjects such as, Karma yoga, Jnana yoga, Sankhya yoga, Buddhi yoga and the immortal nature of the soul. This chapter is often considered the summary of the entire Bhagavad Gita.

Audio recital in Sanskrit by Sri Vidyabhushan     
MP3jPLAYLISTS.inline_0 = [ { name: "Audio recital in Sanskrit by Sri Vidyabhushan", formats: ["mp3"], mp3: "aHR0cDovL2EzczMuZGVzaWJhbnR1LmNvbS9iaGFnYXZhZGdpdGEvYmhhZ2F2YWRnaXRhX2NoYXB0ZXJfMi9pbnRyb2R1Y3Rpb24vdGhlYmhhZ2F2YWRnaXRhX3NhbnNrcml0X3RoZWJoYWdhdmFkZ2l0YS5tcDM=", counterpart:"", artist: "", image: "", imgurl: "" } ]; MP3jPLAYERS[0] = { list: MP3jPLAYLISTS.inline_0, tr:0, type:'single', lstate:'', loop:false, play_txt:'     ', pause_txt:'     ', pp_title:'', autoplay:false, download:false, vol:75, height:'' };
Audio recital in Telugu by Ghantasala     
MP3jPLAYLISTS.inline_1 = [ { name: "Audio recital in Telugu by Ghantasala", formats: ["mp3"], mp3: "aHR0cDovL2EzczMuZGVzaWJhbnR1LmNvbS9iaGFnYXZhZGdpdGEvYmhhZ2F2YWRnaXRhX2NoYXB0ZXJfMS9pbnRyb2R1Y3Rpb24vdGhlYmhhZ2F2YWRnaXRhX3RlbHVndV90aGViaGFnYXZhZGdpdGEubXAz", counterpart:"", artist: "", image: "", imgurl: "" } ]; MP3jPLAYERS[1] = { list: MP3jPLAYLISTS.inline_1, tr:0, type:'single', lstate:'', loop:false, play_txt:'     ', pause_txt:'     ', pp_title:'', autoplay:false, download:false, vol:75, height:'' };
Audio recital in English by unknown     
MP3jPLAYLISTS.inline_2 = [ { name: "Audio recital in English by unknown", formats: ["mp3"], mp3: "aHR0cDovL2EzczMuZGVzaWJhbnR1LmNvbS9iaGFnYXZhZGdpdGEvYmhhZ2F2YWRnaXRhX2NoYXB0ZXJfMi9pbnRyb2R1Y3Rpb24vdGhlYmhhZ2F2YWRnaXRhX2VuZ2xpc2hfdGhlYmhhZ2F2YWRnaXRhLm1wMw==", counterpart:"", artist: "", image: "", imgurl: "" } ]; MP3jPLAYERS[2] = { list: MP3jPLAYLISTS.inline_2, tr:0, type:'single', lstate:'', loop:false, play_txt:'     ', pause_txt:'     ', pp_title:'', autoplay:false, download:false, vol:75, height:'' };
गीतोपदेश

Gitopadesh (Sanskrit: गीतोपदेश)


Introduction:

In chapter two Arjuna accepts the position as a disciple of Lord Krishna and taking complete of Him requests the Lord to instruct him in how to dispel his lamentation and grief. This chapter is oftened deemed as a summary to the emtire Bhagavad-Gita. Here many subjects are explained such as: karma yoga, jnana yoga, sankhya yoga, buddih yoga and the atma which is the soul. Predominance has been given to the immortal nature of the soul existing within all living entities and it has been described in great detail. Thus this chapter is entitled: The Eternal Reality of the Souls’ Immortality.

Sloka 2.1 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अथ द्वितीयोऽध्यायः |
साङ्ख्ययोगः सञ्जय उवाच |
तं तथा कृपयाविष्टमश्रुपूर्णाकुलेक्षणम् |
विषीदन्तमिदं वाक्यमुवाच मधुसूदनः ||२- १||

atha dvitIyo.adhyAyaH . sAN^khyayogaH
sanjaya uvAcha .
ta.n tathA kR^ipayAviShTamashrupUrNAkulekShaNam.h .
viShIdantamida.n vAkyamuvAcha madhusUdanaH.||2-1||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.1

Anvaya: sanjayah uvaca–Sanjaya said; tam–unto Arjuna; tatha–thus; krpaya–by compassion; avistam–overwhelmed; asru-purna–full of tears; akula–depressed; iksanam–eyes; visidantam–lamenting; idam–this; vakyam–words; uvaca–said; madhu-sudanah–the killer of Madhu.

Translation: Sanjaya said: Seeing Arjuna full of compassion and very sorrowful, his eyes brimming with tears, Madhusudana, Krsna, spoke the following words.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Commencing in chapter two, verse eleven Lord Krishna instructs Arjuna that he is lamenting for what should not be grieved for. A pattern has been set in motion that gives a sense of discrimination between the soul and the physical body and has been instructed as a way to attain moksa or liberation. So jnana yoga or a requisite mentality towards the soul has been taught, now learn how to apply this in respect to requisite activities in karma yoga as was explained beginning in chapter two, verse thirty-nine. Although jnana yoga and karma-yoga have been explained in detail, the relationship between the two has not been established as to which is superior and which is subordinate. In regard to discrimination and the cultivation of spiritual knowledge and being informed that they lead one to moksa or liberation; Arjuna came to the conclusion that Lord Krishna valued this path to be superior to karma yoga or the path of actions. But if this was true then Arjuna was bewildered because he did not understand why Lord Krishna was urging him to engage in a ghastly, horrific war by repeatedly telling him to arise and fight

.


There is no Commentary to this verse. Awaiting Contributions.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

The ultimate purpose of the Bhagavad-Gita is to show in a clear and lucid manner that one-pointed loving devotion to the Supreme Being who is glorified and proclaimed in the Vedas is the singular and paramount goal to be attained by all human beings specifically and for all living beings in general. Who is proclaimed in the Upanisads as the singular goal to achieve by the aspirants for moksa or liberation from material existence. Who is declared in the Puranas as being destitute of all defiling characteristics such as avidya or nescience. This Supreme Being who is possessing boundless and unlimited magnificent and glorious attributes. Bhakti yoga or loving devotional service is exclusively only in relation to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised avatars or incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures. In order to achieve full success in bhakti yoga it is essential to achieve atma tattva or realisation of one’s eternal soul. The atma or soul is one’s eternal nature beyond all material conceptions and is a necessary preliminary step. Atma tattva is ultimately attained by jnana yoga or the cultivation of spiritual knowledge from the Vedic scriptures which is generated by karma yoga or the performance of prescribed Vedic activities without attachment. These prescribed Vedic activities are established on the foundation that the atma is eternal and can never be modified or destroyed as delineated so clearly by Lord Krishna in chapter two.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary

So in review chapter one introduced the setting in which Arjuna’s grief and lamentation arose as an apparent cause for spiritual instructions from the Supreme Lord Krishna. Then in order to remove this grief and lamentation in chapter two Lord Krishna reveals the eternal nature of the soul, the discrimination between body and the soul, karma yoga, the path of actions without attachment, jnana yoga the cultivation of spiritual knowledge and the restaint of the senses, taking refuge of the Lord, equaninity of mind and the attainment of moksa or liberation have all been delineated. Thus the essence of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita has been presented in chapter two in a condensed form. The remaining sixteen chapters should be understood to be an extension of the topics discussed in chapter two.

Here in this verse Arjuna is thinking that he was blamed earlier in chapter two, verse 11 for lamenting for those who should not be grieved for. He was subsequently tutored in jnana yoga, the path of knowledge to alleviate this error. Now Lord Krishna is presenting a way to allieviate this error from the point of view of karma yoga, the path of actions without attachment. In chapter two, verse thirty-nine he is told he has the right to perform actions but not to desire the fruit of action. In chapter two, verse forty-seven and forty-eight he is instructed not to be attached to inaction and perform duties with equanimity, respectively. Then in chapter two, verse fifty-three he is told how the mind becomes in this state. Then from verse fifty-five until the end of the chapter two Lord Krishna gives the proofs to show the superiority of the cultivation of spiritual knowledge which leads to the ultimate truth in the last verse of this chapter where once one having attained even at a second before death attains liberation from the material existence. But in spite of these instructions Arjuna was still being instructed to arise and fight. These seemingly contradictory instructions caused some confusion in Arjuna’s mind that he was anxious to have the omniscient and omnipotent supreme Lord Krishna dispel.

.

Sloka 2.2 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रीभगवानुवाच |
कुतस्त्वा कश्मलमिदं विषमे समुपस्थितम् |
अनार्यजुष्टमस्वर्ग्यमकीर्तिकरमर्जुन ||२- २||

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha .
kutastvA kashmalamida.n viShame samupasthitam.h .
anAryajuShTamasvargyamakIrtikaramarjuna.||2-2||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.2

Anvaya: sri-bhagavan uvaca–the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; kutah–wherefrom; tva–unto you; kasmalam–dirtiness; idam–this lamentation; visame–in this hour of crisis; samupasthitam–arrived; anarya–persons who do not know the value of life; justam–practiced by; asvargyam–that which does not lead to higher planets; akirti–infamy; karam–the cause of; arjuna–O Arjuna.

Translation:The Supreme Person [Bhagavan] said: My dear Arjuna, how have these impurities come upon you? They are not at all befitting a man who knows the progressive values of life. They do not lead to higher planets, but to infamy.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The Supreme Lord Krishna said: Whence meaning from where, coming from what source, caused by what reason has such weakness, such bewilderment overpowered him at this critical moment of crisis. This weakness is not sanctioned by honourable men, it is unrighteous and thus guarantees infamy.

.


There is no commentary for this verse.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
By using the unexcelled superlative of Bhagavan in referring to Lord Krishna supreme position as the unparalleled possessor of the six opulences being: omniscience, power, strength, splendour, wealth and dispassion. Lord Krishna desiring to benefit the devotees enquires from Arjuna where has this delusion arisen from in this hour of crisis which afflicts those who do not comprehend the value of human existence.

.

Sloka 2.3 audio recital in Sanskrit     

क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते |
क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ परन्तप ||२- ३||

klaibyaM mA sma gamaH pArtha naitattvayyupapadyate |
kShudra.n hR^idayadaurbalya.n tyaktvottiShTha parantapa ||2-3||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.3


Anvaya: klaibyam–impotence; ma–do not; sma–take it; gamah–go in; partha–O son of Prtha; na–never; etat–like this; tvayi–unto you; upadyate–is befitting; ksudram–very little; hrdaya–heart; daurbalyam–weakness; tyaktva–giving up; uttistha–get up; param-tapa–O chastiser of the enemies.

Translation: O son of Prtha, do not yield to this degrading impotence. It does not become you. Give up such petty weakness of heart and arise, O chastiser of the enemy.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The Supreme Lord Krishna instructs Arjuna to yield not to unmanliness, or be overcome by cowardice because it is not befitting a ksatriya and unworthy of him and that Arjuna should immediately cast off this unseemly, contemptible faint heartedness and prepare for battle.

.


There is no commentary for this verse.

.


Ramanuja’s Commentary

In this verse the Supreme Lord Krishna depreciates Arjunas ill timed despondency and advises him to discard it and prepare himself to fight for lamentation has no place on the battlefield, is not approved by the wise, is not conducive to heavenly pursuits, is inglorious and ignoble and appears due to weakness of heart.

Arjuna still unable to apply the Supreme Lord Krishna’s sagacious counselling due to being afflicted by sentiments of friendship and pity and due to the horror of possibly committing actions which may be contrary to righteousness. Arjuna being unclear as to what is right and what is wrong sought guidance thus.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
By addressing Arjuna as the son of Prtha it refers to his mother Kunti who by worshipping Indra, the ruler of the demi-gods received Arjuna as her son endowed with extraordinary might and valor like Indra. Lord Krishna reminds Arjuna of this to instruct him not to yield to this impotence for it does not befit him and that he should discard this weakness of heart. By using the vocative parantapa meaning chastiser of enemies Lord Krishna is reminding Arjuna that at the time of his birth a heavenly voice proclaimed that he would conquer all enemies.

.

Sloka 2.4 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अर्जुन उवाच |
कथं भीष्ममहं सङ्ख्ये द्रोणं च मधुसूदन |
इषुभिः प्रतियोत्स्यामि पूजार्हावरिसूदन ||२- ४||

arjuna uvAcha |
kathaM bhIShmamaha.n saN^khye droNa.n cha madhusUdana |
iShubhiH pratiyotsyAmi pUjArhAvarisUdana ||2-4||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.4

Anvaya: arjunah uvaca–Arjuna said; katham–how; bhismam–unto Bhisma; aham–I; sankhye–in the fight; dronam–unto Drona; ca–also; madhu-sudana–O killer of Madhu; isubhih–with arrows; pratiyotsyami–shall counterattack; puja-arhau–those who are worshipable; ari-sudana–O killer of the enemies.

Translation: Arjuna said: O killer of Madhu [Krsna], how can I counterattack with arrows in battle men like Bhisma and Drona, who are worthy of my worship?

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
I am not withdrawing from battle out of cowardice but because it is improper to attack my superiors. This is what Arjuna meant by asking the Supreme Lord Krishna: How shall I fight against Bhishma and Drona? When it is wrong to even speak of fighting against them, how can I then even consider actually fighting them. This is the factual meaning of these words expressed by Arjuna.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Although Lord Krishna’s instructions are perfectly correct still it might be submitted that one coming from noble lineage should only fight a battle which is not antagonistic to ones family traditions regarding righteousness and not fight a battle which would be instrumental in destroying these family traditions. Arjuna is asking how can he engage in battle with his superior Bhishma and his preceptor Drona. When even to argue against them is improper then what to think against attacking them with deadly arrows in earnest. Why? Because preceptors and superiors are always to be respected. Duryodhana by placing Bhishma and Drona directly in the forefront caused the ever righteous Pandavas discomfort at the thought of having to fight against them as it was opposed to the time honored noble traditions of their family lineage. So what Arjuna in fact is stating is why should they engage themselves in this battle being aware of the great sinfulness declared in the Vedic scriptures of disregarding superiors and showing aggression against the preceptor which results in the perpetrator becoming a ghostly demon known as a brahma-raksasa.
.

Sloka 2.5 audio recital in Sanskrit     

गुरूनहत्वा हि महानुभावान्
श्रेयो भोक्तुं भैक्ष्यमपीह लोके |
हत्वार्थकामांस्तु गुरूनिहैव
भुञ्जीय भोगान् रुधिरप्रदिग्धान् ||२- ५||

gurUnahatvA hi mahAnubhAvAn.h
shreyo bhoktuM bhaikShyamapIha loke |
hatvArthakAmA.nstu gurUnihaiva
bhuJNjIya bhogAn.h rudhirapradigdhAn.h ||2-5||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.5


Anvaya: gurun–the superiors; ahatva–not killing; hi–certainly; maha-anubhavan–great souls; sreyah–it is better; bhoktum–to enjoy life; bhaiksyam–begging; api–even; iha–in this life; loke–in this world; hatva–killing; artha–gain; kaman–so desiring; tu–but; gurun–superiors; iha–in this world; eva–certainly; bhunjiya–has to enjoy; bhogan–enjoyable things; rudhira–blood; pradigdhan–tainted with.

Translation: It is better to live in this world by begging than to live at the cost of the lives of great souls who are my teachers. Even though they are avaricious, they are nonetheless superiors. If they are killed, our spoils will be tainted with blood.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be argued: That without slaying them it would not be possible for Arjuna to even maintain his own body. So Arjuna is responding that without slaying his superiors like Bhishma and Drona which bars one from the heavenly kingdoms it would be better to live in this world even on food obtained by begging without causing the death of anyone. Otherwise misery will be the result not only in the next life but even in the present Arjuna was stating he would be experiencing the miseries of hellish existence. This is verified by Arjuna saying that by slaying elders and superiors even in the present life all the spoils he would be enjoying would be tainted with their blood.

Another interpretation is that the word arthakaman may be also taken as qualifying the elders and superiors. These elders being consumed by greed of wealth are not likely to refrain from war. Therefore they will have to be slain. Bhishma for an example spoke to King Yudhisthira saying: Man is a slave to wealth but wealth is the slave of no man, this is the truth. O Emperor I am bound to the Kauravas by the acceptance of wealth.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
It may be further submitted that although Bhishma and Drona are both always to be respected, but as they are superiors and perceptors to both the Pandavas and the Kauravas they should all be looked after equally regarding aquisition and preservation. Why should Bhishma and Drona fight for the unlawful kingdom of the Kauravas on the side of the wicked Duryodhana? It appears that being devoid of discrimination of what should be done and what should not be done have gone afoul of righteousness and thus according to Vedic scriptures have the right to be slain. Bishma himself has stated that a superior who is degraded by these qualities deserves to be abandoned. To this Arjuna is replying that refraining from slaying great souls it is better to live in this world by begging alms as by this no sin will be incurred to reap in the next life. But if as Arjuna states they are great souls then how can they be degraded and if they are degraded how can they be considered great souls and hence there abandonment is proper. One who is inferior should normally never even think of abandoning a preceptor otherwise one will perish out of folly. But Bhisma’s statement that a man is slave to wealth but wealth is slave to no man; therefore due to accepting wealth he was controlled by the Kauravas. So this proves that controlled by wealth and not righteousness and thus slaying them incurs no sin. But to this Arjuna states that by slaying elders we may undoubtedly enjoy some pleasures in this world but these pleasures would be tainted with blood as they are derived from the sin of slaying superiors.

.

Sloka 2.6 audio recital in Sanskrit     

न चैतद्विद्मः कतरन्नो गरीयो
यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः |
यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषामस्
तेऽवस्थिताः प्रमुखे धार्तराष्ट्राः ||२- ६||

na chaitadvidmaH kataranno garIyo
yadvA jayema yadi vA no jayeyuH |
yAneva hatvA na jijIviShAmas
te.avasthitAH pramukhe dhArtarAShTrAH ||2-6||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.6


Anvaya: na–nor; ca–also; etat–this; vidmah–do know; katarat–which; nah–us; gariyah–better; yat–what; va–either; jayema–conquer us; yadi–if; va–or; nah–us; jayeyuh–conquer; yan–those; eva–certainly; hatva–by killing; na–never; jijivisamah–want to live; te–all of them; avasthitah–are situated; pramukhe–in the front; dhartarastrah–the sons of Dhrtarastra.

Translation: Nor do we know which is better–conquering them or being conquered by them. The sons of Dhrtarastra, whom if we kill we should not care to live, are now standing before us on this battlefield.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Morever even if we could choose the path of unrighteousness in this matter, we cannot determine which is better for us, victory or defeat. These two alternatives are pointed out, whether the Pandavas should conquer the Kauravas or be conquered by them. But even in conquering them the victory would still be virtually a defeat because it is stated here by Arjuna that: slaying those very persons whom after there would be no desire to live. So win or lose was defeat in his eyes.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
It may be questioned how can Arjuna abandon his duty to fight as a ksatriya which is prescribed in the Vedic scriptures and believe that begging which is one of the duties of a brahmana is better? To counter this Arjuna is stating that he does not know which one is better or if its even better to be victorious or be vanquished as victory itself could seem like defeat for by being forced into the situation of having to slay his relatives in the Kaurava army he would not wish to live any longer.

.

Sloka 2.7 audio recital in Sanskrit     

कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावः
पृच्छामि त्वां धर्मसम्मूढचेताः |
यच्छ्रेयः स्यान्निश्चितं ब्रूहि तन्मे
शिष्यस्तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम् ||२- ७||

kArpaNyadoShopahatasvabhAvaH
pR^ichchhAmi tvAM dharmasammUDhachetAH |
yachchhreyaH syAnnishchitaM brUhi tanme
shiShyaste.aha.n shAdhi mA.n tvAM prapannam.h ||2-7||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.7


Anvaya: karpanya–miserly; dosa–weakness; upahata–being inflicted by; sva-bhavah–characteristics; prcchami–I am asking; tvam–unto You; dharma–religion; sammudha–bewildered; cetah–in heart; yat–what; sreyah–all-good; syat–may be; niscitam–confidently; bruhi–tell; tat–that; me–unto me; sisyah–disciple; te–Your; aham–I am; sadhi–just instruct; mam–me; tvam–unto You; prapannam–surrendered.

Translation:Now I am confused about my duty and have lost all composure because of weakness. In this condition I am asking You to tell me clearly what is best for me. Now I am Your disciple, and a soul surrendered unto You. Please instruct me.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Therefore Arjuna is saying that with his natural qualities of valour and courage subdued by a feeling of helplessness in not having the desire even to live and in sinfulness for even considering to deign to participate in the destruction of a dynasty. When ones mind is perplexed regarding duty and responsibility one should definitely take direction from higher authority. In the case of Arjuna, who was in doubt as to whether or not it was righteous or unrighteous for a ksatriya to give up fighting and take to begging; therefore without hesitation he fully surrendered unto the Supreme Lord and beseeched Him to instruct what was in his best spiritual interests to engage in.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
If as in the previous verse Arjuna has determined that life would not be worth living even if winning the battle then it might be questioned what destined designation does he assign for himself? To this query Arjuna has now determined in his mind that unconditional surrender to the Supreme Lord Krishna is the greatest panacea than any other means prescribed in Vedic scriptures. The Vedic scriptures reveal that He who originated the entire creation, from whose breath emanated the eternal Vedas for Brahma to speak, that Supreme Personality, omniscient and effulgent is He who should be sought for shelter. Also in the books of law in the Vedic culture it is written that He who originated Brahma and protects the eternal Vedas is He the Supreme Lord Krishna, all knowing and effulgent who should be sought for shelter. Those who seek shelter of the Supreme Lord Krishna are never deluded. Lord Krishna is known as Janardana or He who always removes the ignorance of His devotees. Arjuna has lost the power of discrimination in knowing what is beneficial for himself and what is not. So realizing this he tells Lord Krishna that he is surrendering to Him whose power is not known by Brahma or Siva and whose attributes and potencies are transcendental to the material existence. Who is an ocean of qualities such as compassion and mercy and this Lord Krishna has descended Himself and incarnated in the Vrsni dynasty in the family of Vasudeva for the benefit of His devotees and all those who follow righteousness in accordance to the Vedic scriptures who are eligible to receive the mercy and compassion of the Supreme Lord.

According to Vedic scriptures one who dies in this world without becoming self-realized is a miser. One is called a miser who is desitute of knowledge of the nature and qualities of their immortal soul. In worldly parlance one is known as a miser who is extremely stingy with their money. Miserliness here is the affliction of weakness regarding ones spiritual identity and integrity. Discriminatory power weakened by vices forms the delusion which bewilders the intelligence. Arjuna whose ignorance was removed due to the compassion of the Lord for His devotees, realized this and unconditionally surrendered to Lord Krishna with the words tvam prapannam meaning surrendered unto you and asks the Lord for spiritual guidance as confirmed by the words sadhi mam instruct me. Arjuna qualifies his own fitness to receive these instructions from Lord Krishna by the words sisyah te aham meaning I am your disciple. This was stated by Arjuna so that Lord Krishna would understand that he was serious and not doubt his intentions that he was a fit recipient for the Lords mercy and give him instructions out of His causeless compassion.

.

Sloka 2.8 audio recital in Sanskrit     

न हि प्रपश्यामि ममापनुद्याद्
यच्छोकमुच्छोषणमिन्द्रियाणाम् |
अवाप्य भूमावसपत्नमृद्धं
राज्यं सुराणामपि चाधिपत्यम् ||२- ८||

na hi prapashyAmi mamApanudyAd.h
yachchhokamuchchhoShaNamindriyANAm.h |
avApya bhUmAvasapatnamR^iddha.n
rAjya.n surANAmapi chAdhipatyam.h ||2-8||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.8


Anvaya: na–do not; hi–certainly; prapasyami–I see; mama–my; apanudyat–can drive away; yat–that; sokam–lamentation; ucchosanam–drying up; indriyanam–of the senses; avapya–achieving; bhumau–on the earth; asapatnam–without rival; rddham–prosperous; rajyam–kingdom; suranam–of the demigods; api–even; ca–also; adhipatyam–supremacy.

Translation: I can find no means to drive away this grief which is drying up my senses. I will not be able to destroy it even if I win an unrivaled kingdom on earth with sovereignty like the demigods in heaven.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be argued that Arjuna should think for himself what is is in his best spiritual interests and follow that; but this verse negates that conclusion in as much as Arjuna plainly states: I do not see that action which would remove this grief of mine and further on he states: or even rulership of the very gods. So clearly it can be seen that Arjuna was not to be consoled by any amount of power and prosperity and thus to dispel his grief he turned to the Supreme Lord for guidance.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
It could be submitted that depending on ones individual inclinations there are numerous merits in this world such as wealth and kingdoms all of which can be acquired through regulatory actions prescribed in the Vedic scriptures; while for the ksatriya rulers in general being without enemies is preferable. It may be put forth that Arjuna himself should decide and act; but the reply is that one in delusion needs to hear knowledge of the ultimate truth from those who are qualified and who is more qualified than the Supreme Lord. Knowledge of the Ultimate Truth helps one cross over this delusion. Wealth and kingdoms are not the means for crossing this delusion and Arjuna asserts this with the words na or not. The understanding of it is even if he was to win a kingdom of unrivaled prosperity free from enemies, Arjuna still could not see any means of alleviating the grief that was drying up his senses. By the use of the word hi meaning certainly the conviction that he could not see any solution to his grief is reinforced, indicating that only the Lord is fit to instruct him.

.

Sloka 2.9 audio recital in Sanskrit     

सञ्जय उवाच |
एवमुक्त्वा हृषीकेशं गुडाकेशः परन्तप |
न योत्स्य इति गोविन्दमुक्त्वा तूष्णीं बभूव ह ||२- ९||

sa~njaya uvAcha |
evamuktvA hR^iShIkesha.n guDAkeshaH parantapa |
na yotsya iti govindamuktvA tUShNIM babhUva ha || 2-9 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.9


Anvaya: sanjayah uvaca–Sanjaya said; evam–thus; uktva–speaking; hrsikesam–unto Krsna, the master of the senses; gudakesah–Arjuna, the master at curbing ignorance; parantapah–the chastiser of the enemies; na yotsye–I shall not fight; iti–thus; govindam–unto Krsna, the giver of pleasure; uktva–saying; tusnim–silent; babhuva–became; ha–certainly.

Translation: Sanjaya said: Having spoken thus, Arjuna, chastiser of enemies, told Krsna, “Govinda, I shall not fight,” and fell silent.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Anticipating a question after speaking thus in the previous verse, Arjuna finishes his lamentation with the words I shall not fight and then silently waits for the Supreme Lord’s instructions.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Observing Arjuna overwhelmed with grief at not properly perceiving the actual distinction between the physical body and the soul and yet discoursing in the way that one with proper knowledge of the soul existing independent of the body would expound; seeing him in the predicament of having conflicting views, beholding him languishing with inactivity when both the opposing armies were ready for battle; Lord Krishna smilingly began to instruct him in the very next verse beginning na tv evaham jatu nasam meaning never was there a time I did not exist, all the way through.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Dhritarastra expectancy to know what happenned next was answered by Sanjaya saying that Arjuna who could control sleep spoke to Lord Krishna the controller of the senses saying he would not fight. Lord Krishna the omnipotent, omniscient, originator of the Vedas and the worshippable Supreme Lord spoken of in the Udyoga Parva of the Mahabharata as Govinda, the one who knows everything in all respects according to the words of the Vedas. Also in the Harivamsa the sages have stated that verily the cow is called go and elaborating further they address Lord Krishna as Govinda or He who protects the cows and He who attracts everyones senses.

.

Sloka 2.10 audio recital in Sanskrit     

तमुवाच हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव भारत |
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वचः ||२- १०||

tamuvAcha hR^iShIkeshaH prahasanniva bhArata |
senayorubhayormadhye viShIdantamida.n vachaH || 2-10 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.10

Anvaya:tam–unto him; uvaca–said; hrsikesah–the master of the senses, Krsna; prahasan–smiling; iva–like that; bharata–O Dhrtarastra, descendant of Bharata; senayoh–of the armies; ubhayoh–of both parties; madhye–between; visidantam–unto the lamenting one; idam–the following; vacah–words.

Translation:O descendant of Bharata, at that time Krsna, smiling, in the midst of both the armies, spoke the following words to the grief-stricken Arjuna.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
What happened then after this? In answer it is stated: to Arjuna who was lamenting between the two armies the Supreme Lord spoke as if smiling , meaning spoke with a beaming countenance.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna, the resplendent one, situated between the 2 armies, with a slight smile upon His face spoke to the grief stricken Arjuna who was enveloped by the entanglement of fraternal delusion.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
In this way although Arjuna had decided to refrain from the battle still Dhritarastra should not expect that the future of his sons was to be bright and happy as long as the Supreme Lord Krishna, the controller of the animate and inanimate who descended personally to destroy the miscreants is present in this world. To emphasize this reality Sanjaya said to him O Bharata referring to his anscestor, the great monarch of all the world King Bharata telling frankly that the joy he is feeling regarding Arjuna’s seemingly abstention from the battle and the termination of the war was not appropriate. Lord Krishna with a subtle smile upon his face then spoke to Arjuna who was lamenting at a most inappropriate time between the 2 opposing armies. The word prahasan meaning smiling is used to subtlely indicate sarcasam and evoke anger at the impropriety of such limpid sensitivity by Arjuna who in his own right is a mighty warrior respected and reknowed by all the mightiest warriors of his time. This smile indicating sarcasm is justified by the use of the word iva as it were indicating that due to the nature of the situation, being the 2 armies immeadiately ready for battle, Arjunas reluctancy and Lord Krishna accepting him as a disciple. So in order to substantiate Arjunas fitness to receive spiritual knowledge this subtle smile is used to remove any lingering vestiges of pride Arjuna might have had regarding his knowledge, intelligence and prowess.

.

Sloka 2.11 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रीभगवानुवाच |
अशोच्यानन्वशोचस्त्वं प्रज्ञावादांश्च भाषसे |
गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति पण्डिताः ||२- ११||

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha |
ashochyAnanvashochastvaM praGYAvAdA.nshcha bhAShase |
gatAsUnagatAsU.nshcha nAnushochanti paNDitAH || 2-11 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.11

Anvaya: sri-bhagavan uvaca–the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; asocyan–that which is not worthy of lamentation; anvasocah–you are lamenting; tvam–you; prajna-vadan–learned talks; ca–also; bhasase–speaking; gata–lost; asun–life; agata–not past; asun–life; ca–also; na–never; anusocanti–lament; panditah–the learned.

Translation: The Blessed Lord said: While speaking learned words, you are mourning for what is not worthy of grief. Those who are wise lament neither for the living nor the dead.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Discerning that Arjuna’s grief was due to the absence of discrimination between the soul and the physical body the Supreme Lord remembering Arjuna words stated in verse 28 of chapter one, regarding his lamentation for all his kinsman preparing for battle reminded him that in verse 2 of Chapter 2 He had instructed him asking: wherefore has this weakness arisen in this moment of crisis, yet here you are again merely speaking learned words befitting the wise like in verse four of Chapter 2, how are you to fight against worshippable superiors? But actually you only speak the words of a learned person because factually a spiritually intelligent person laments neither for one’s kin who are dead or alive, sputtering about how can you cannot live if you lose your relations.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Prajnavadah is a speculative concoction which appeals very much to the mind bewildering it so much that the intelligence accepts it even though it is not according to the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures. Why is it unworthy of sorrow? Because the intelligent neither lament for the living or for the dead.

Now begins the summation.

Those who are illuminated are factually illuminated by knowledge due to realization. They are prajnah or wise and knowledgeable. Avadah means they who are opposed to the Vedic injunctions. Whatever the wise and knowledgeable proclaim is always in conjunction with the Vedic injunctions. Whatever is contrary to the Vedic injunctions on any level of consciousness is not worthy of contemplation. This is factually what is meant here in this verse.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

nor the living. In regard to the soul there is no cause in any respect for regret as it is eternal. The next verse expands this subject matter further.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
The conclusion based on the strength of the Vedic scriptures to be found in various texts such as: the Mundaka Upanisad it states that one who has duly realized the Ultimate Truth, whose heart is calm and whose senses are under control, such a one situated in enlightenment should categorically and comprehensively impart the knowledge of the Ultimate Truth to others by which they can also become self-realized. By disseminating the knowledge which dissolves all lamentation and delusion, the meaning which has been elucidated in the Vedic scriptures and the Vedic books of law like the Brhadaranyaka which states: By the will of He who is imperishable the sun and the moon are vitalised. The wind blows out of fear of Him, the sun rises out of fear of Him, Agni, Indra and even death all perform their duties out of fear of Him.

Encompassing all that exists, internal and external is the Supreme Lord Krishna. Everthing existing is verily manifested from Him. One who is peaceful and tranquil should propitiate and worship under all circumstances. Under the control of the Supreme Lord Krishna the whole cosmic manifestation composed of demigods, demons and humans and various varieagated species is pulsating. O demigods what the Earth says is true the creator and all living species are fragments of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Whatever is present in totality is the Supreme Lord Krishna, the undecayable one, without a second and nothing else. Everything visible and invisible is created from the Supreme Lord Krishna. The Supreme Ultimate Truth is He and He alone. What grief and delusion can exist when one understands this truth?

Discussing the nature and attributes of the Supreme Ultimate Reality Lord Krishna known also as Narayana, Hari, Vasudeva, Visnu and others, who controls all animate and inanimate energies like the sun, moon, fire, the demigods, death, the universes etc. and the non-material, original cause of the creation, maintenance and destruction of the total material manifestation. The all pervading, omnipresent, soul of all being and of the nature of being eternally, simultaneously one and distinctly different.

In order to evoke the power of discrimination between the physical body and the soul, the Supreme Lord Krishna rejecting Arjunas scholarship replied that he was grieving for those who should not be grieved for, such as Bhishma and Drona who are engaged in battle to win merit. Here Lord Krishna responds to Arjunas statement in chapter 1, verse 32 of: What use is kingdom, fabulous wealth, enjoyments or even living. It is only Arjunas deluson that he grieves thinking that without relatives there is no purpose of ruling the kingdom or in living. Moreover Arjuna talks like one learned saying that sin would be incurred but then disregarding the fact that Duryodhana and his brothers are heinious offenders. So in this way Lord Krishna shows that foolishness and scholarship are illogical and a diachotomy being contradictory hence Arjuna’s attempt at scholarship has no value. Why? Because those with spiritual intelligence do not grieve for the dead or the living. The root word of panditah meaning learned is panda which means power of disriminative intellect,. Those who possess such discrimination are considered wise. The wise never lament for the physical body.
.

Sloka 2.12 audio recital in Sanskrit     

न त्वेवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः |
न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयमतः परम् ||२- १२||

na tvevAha.n jAtu nAsa.n na tva.n neme janAdhipAH |
na chaiva na bhaviShyAmaH sarve vayamataH param.h || 2-12 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.12

Anvaya: na–never; tu–but; eva–certainly; aham–I; jatu–become; na–never; asam–existed; na–it is not so; tvam–yourself; na–not; ime–all these; jana-adhipah–kings; na–never; ca–also; eva–certainly; na–not like that; bhavisyamah–shall exist; sarve–all of us; vayam–we; atah param–hereafter.

Translation:Never was there a time when I did not exist, nor you, nor all these kings; nor in the future shall any of us cease to be.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The underlying reason these relations or any relations should never be considered objects of grief is now being given by the Supreme Lord Krishna stating: never at any time did I the Supreme Lord not exist. Even though the Supreme Lords eternally pure conscious spiritual body which is associated with His divine pastimes appears to come into existence and appears to cease to exist; He is now confirming unconditionally that He is beginningless, existing always eternally and that never did He nor Arjuna, nor all the kings, nor any living entity not exist, but existed always being a micro part of Himself and even so it is not that the living entities shall not exist hereafter for they certainly will exist, their eternal soul having neither birth or death, they should not be grieved for.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Why is such a statement being put forth? Never was there a time when I was not. The Supreme Lord Krishna being eternal, such a statement is self evident; but it was only given to illustrate the point that even as the Supreme Lord is eternal as confirmed in the Vedic scriptures, even so, you and all these kings of the earth are also eternal.

Now begins the summation.

Lord Krishna informs Arjuna that due to fraternal feelings he was neglecting his own nature not to fulfil his duty according to righteousness. Is it because of the fear of losing his life or is it because of a lapse in consciousness? The physical body is in all respects subject to destruction so there is no purpose in being frightened, nor should there be any concern over the possibility of destruction of the individual consciousness because its nature is also eternal.

In the Skanda Purana it is stated:

There is no possibility of any destruction of the Ultimate Consciousness of the Supreme Lord the same similarly applies to the individual consciousness of all living entities. The Supreme Lord is eternal among the eternal, the Ultimate Consciousness among all individual consciousness, the One who so desiring manifests as the many. The connection and disconnection from the physical body is known as birth and death. Such is this reality for all living entities; but for the eternal and transcendental Supreme Lord this reality has no relevance and is in no way applicable.

Since the Supreme Lord may appear to have the destruction of His transcendental body and the transmigration of His transcendental consciousness to those who are deluded; this point is being clarified by the word tu in the verse beginning na tu evaham meaning but I certainly never. Although such a doubt did not arise in the case of Arjuna, the resplendent Supreme Lord Krishna elucidates this point for the benefit and welfare of all the worlds. Even though this dialogue is actually spoken in confidence, through the medium of Mahabharata by the mercy of Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa it is disseminated throughout the universe.
.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Next it might be questioned why do the wise not lament for the living or the dead? Lord Krishna here gives the reason to this establishing that the soul is eternal and not the physical body. The words na and eva meaning certainly never, destroys any conception of the physical body being able to ever be equated with the soul. As the Ultimate Soul among all individual souls it is not that the Supreme Lord did not exist before this time for He always existed. Similarly it is not that Arjuna and all the kings on the battlefield did not exist before this time, for they all certainly existed for the immortal soul transmigrates from body to body. By the authority of Bhagavad-Gita this verse spoken by the Supreme Lord Krishna refutes such statements as: and it is not again shall we all exist hereafter from the present time till the end to come, meaning that indeed we shall all exist. So this explains and puts into the proper perspective the dissolution of the material manifestation at the time of universal destruction. By negating the origin and destruction of the soul, its very existence is proved in the middle. In this way the souls existence is proven in all three being creation, maintenance and destruction. All souls are immortal being eternal and hence should never be grieved for.
.

Sloka 2.13 audio recital in Sanskrit     

देहिनोऽस्मिन्यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा |
तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति ||२- १३||

dehino.asminyathA dehe kaumAra.n yauvana.n jarA |
tathA dehAntaraprAptirdhIrastatra na muhyati || 2-13 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.13

Anvaya:dehinah–of the embodied; asmin–in this; yatha–as; dehe–in the body; kaumaram–boyhood; yauvanam–youth; jara–old age; tatha–similarly; deha-antara–transference of the body; praptih–achievement; dhirah–the sober; tatra–thereupon; na–never; muhyati–deluded.

Translation: As the embodied soul continuously passes, in this body, from boyhood to youth to old age, the soul similarly passes into another body at death. A self-realized soul is not bewildered by such a change.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be argued that although it is certainly true that the Supreme Lord Krishna is not ever subject to birth and death being transcendental to the material manifestation what about the individual living entities who everyday are dying and being born. This is what is being answered in this verse. Even as the embodied living entity in the very same lifetime, possesses different physical bodies during different stages of life such as infancy, youth and old age; but always keeping the consciousness that one is the same individual despite these modifications presented in the form of the body. So it can be understood that on the destruction of the physical body the eternal soul is embodied in another physical body only due to the impressions one has accumulated in their subtle body and that the subtle body is real is observed at the birth of an infant who begins to suck the mothers breast immediately owing to past life impressions. The eternal soul does not perish when the physical body perishes; therefore the spiritually intelligent are not deluded by the birth or destruction of the body knowing that the eternal soul is not subject to birth or death.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
This verse confirms that the soul is distinct from the body but by it being distinct does not make it independent. Only when the physical body is seen changing through infancy, childhood, youth etc. can this separate distinctness be perceived and thus confirmed until the soul giving up its present body acquires a new body and in some rare cases a living entity can recollect their past lives.

The physical body is obviously not what has the experience of childhood, youth, etc as is evidenced when the body is dead. The body is just the container and when the soul has departed. The body has no further identification with the soul leading itself to experience that it is a human being or tiger or worm or whatever physical form it possessed as the case may be. But due to the fact that the soul remains within the physical body during deep sleep similar to the ego centered mind; it is possible to perceive the existence of the soul as an independent consciousness whereas the body is merely like a wooden box.

This is verified by direct experience from the transcendental authority of the Vedas. It cannot be conceived by any mental or intellectual genius because it is beyond the scope of materialism. Nor can the Vedas reflect any vestige of human intellect or human endeavour within them because they come exclusively from the divine revelations of Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa avatara an authorised incarnation of the Supreme Lord confirmed by name in the Vedic scripture known as Srimad Bhagavatam or Bhagavat Purana

Without understanding that there is a transcendental source to the eternal Vedas, the establishment of statements regarding righteousness cannot be applicable for all eternity and if they are not accepted for all time then there would have been no reason for them to exist and they would not have been the basic foundation for the instruction of righteousness. Without the universality of these premises the denial of what is not truth would not have been possible. There would then have been no connection to eternality from any established source. Therefore the principles found in the eternal Vedas constitute what is real. Otherwise without superior guidance from an eternal source nothing in this life can be accepted as absolute evidence. Things that we have heard would have no relevance as they would have nothing to reference it to. Otherwise one would have no thoughts or response to this that you are now reading. It would appear as a figment of the imagination. It would then be a cause of misery unless one was due to self-realisation an exception to this. If activities are judged with reference to righteousness or unrighteousness then facades of being unaware are not valid and intention is automatically exposed.

The transcendental statements found in the Vedas are eternal being established beyond the purview of time, hence the Vedas are self-evident and are to be known as absolute giving perfect knowledge of the Ultimate Truth. By the authority of the Vedas the wise are never deluded. Otherwise why would there be any sorrow thinking that the destruction of the physical body is the destruction of the soul. The soul cannot be destroyed. The soul is eternal thus the statement not that you were not. Not even by the destruction of the physical body. Hence the statement dehinah meaning the soul being the occupier of the deha which is the body. Even with the physical body changing its form as from infancy to childhood to youth etc. or being pitiful on account of old age etc. With the deterioration and demise of the body certainly comes the acceptance of another new body.

Now begins the summation.

The Supreme Lord Krishna to illustrate that there is no possibility of His having a physical body uses the word dehinah as an adjective to describe the plight of all embodied beings by stating: with the transmigration from one body to another. Therefore perceiving it as just a further modification of the body coming after old age there is no justification for sorrow.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

The qualities of sound, feeling, colour, taste and smell with their corresponding faculties known as the senses are called matras because they manifest from the basic fundamental elements of water, fire, earth, air and ether. Contact of the senses with these matras cause such physical perceptions of duality as cold and hot, hard and soft, bitter and sweet that are experienced as pleasure or pain.

The use of cold and heat in this verse is symbolised as the summation of all external experiences. The Supreme Lord instructs Arjuna to tolerate them with courage while fulfilling ones duties to completion. As these external experiences come and go they should not be regarded as impediments to discharging one’s responsibilities by men of courage.

Also they are anitya or temporary, meaning that for whoever has achieved the termination of their karma as in the case of one who has attained mukti or liberation, the dualities of physical sensations are not able to disturb or distract. Are these experiences of the duality of physical sensations causing the perception of pleasure and pain of any value? It will be discoursed in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Because of the traditional conception that a son is born of a father and and that the grandfather died and also due to there being an injunction by the authority of the Vedic books of law that a brahmana remains impure during the ten days following a birth or death in his immeadiate family; how is it possible that one can think of the soul as being birthless and deathless? And if one continues to think of the soul as being born and of dying how can one alleviate their grief when the physical body dies? Can the authority of the Vedic books of law be denied? To clarify such doubts Lord Krishna uses the word dehinah meaning attributed to the embodied soul. It is the embodied soul who occupies the physical body which is the vehicle to experience the consequences of all ones actions. The embodied soul allocated a particular body experiences infancy, childhood, youth and old age, each stage of life which possess its own distinct attributes at different time periods. But although there is a difference in the stages and a difference in the perception of identity there is absolutely no difference in the soul. This is because although the activities one experiences continuously reside in the compartment of the memory and because when one is experiencing these different stages there developes the conception of identifying with the bodily designation in the form of it was I who in a young body played upon a fathers lap and was fed by a mother in infancy and it is I who now in an old body experience various relationships with children and grandchildren in old age. Only the bodily conception has changed the soul remains the same. In the same way that the embodied soul experiences the changing physical body, the embodied soul changes physical bodies at the time of death. There is no difference in the soul during any of these modifications of the physcical body and there is no difference in the soul due to the natural process of receiving another new body. One who is spiritually intelligent realizes that there is no birth or death associated with the soul and is not deluded by the apparent disfunctiong of the physical body even in the death of a son or father.

From this verse up until verse 30 beginning with dehi nityam avadhyo meaning the embodied soul can never be destroyed, the use of the singular is in the collective sense referring to all existing souls and this does not suggest that these embodied soul although of the nature of the Supreme Soul are on the same paltform with. This collectivity of the individual souls referred to is taught by the expert preceptor in the line of disciplic succession that the soul is eternal and never suject in any way to old age and death.

Statements supporting the varieagatedness of attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousnes can be found in almost all of the chapters of Bhagavad-Gita and this variegatedness is supported based on the context by which they are written. Statements such as those of great virtue whose sins have been dissolved, those being freed from the delusion of the dualities, those great souls who possess the divine nature offer exclusive worship to the Supreme Lord, with their minds and lives surrendered to the Supreme Lord, those free from pride and infatuation, those who have conquered the vice of attachment and those whose desires have completely dissapeared, This varieagatedness is delieanated for those whose nescience is completely dissolved, whose doubts have been dispelled by knowledge, whose minds are firmly established in God, whose are righteously engaged in promoting the welfare of all living entities whose sins have been washed away, who are free from lust and anger, who have controlled their minds and who have realised the Ultimate Truth.

If this were not the case then accepting the conception of the oneness of all souls in all bodies would mean that we all would have a singular uniform experience. If we were all one soul then whether one were sleeping, another was waking and another fainting, all would experience the same sensations of pleasure pain simultaneously. Moreover there would be no difference in anyones perception due to the absence of any individuality and perceptions of you are and I am. But it is factually not like this in this world and this can be clearly understood by ones individual consciousness. Therefore it is established that those who propound oneness of the soul in all living entities are mistaken for even in the eternal soul there is also varieagatedness. So regarding death of the soul and other such fallacious arguements those with spiritual intelligence neither lament nor are deluded.
.

Sloka 2.14 audio recital in Sanskrit     

मात्रास्पर्शास्तु कौन्तेय शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदाः |
आगमापायिनोऽनित्यास्तांस्तितिक्षस्व भारत ||२- १४||

mAtrAsparshAstu kaunteya shItoShNasukhaduHkhadAH |
AgamApAyino.anityAstA.nstitikShasva bhArata || 2-14 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.14

Anvaya: matra–sensuous; sparsah–perception; tu–only; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; sita–winter; usna–summer; sukha–happiness; duhkha-dah–giving pain; agama–appearing; apayinah–disappearing; anityah–nonpermanent; tan–all of them; titiksasva–just try to tolerate; bharata–O descendant of the Bharata dynasty.

Translation: O son of Kunti, the nonpermanent appearance of happiness and distress, and their disappearance in due course, are like the appearance and disappearance of winter and summer seasons. They arise from sense perception, O scion of Bharata, and one must learn to tolerate them without being disturbed.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be countered by Arjuna that he was not grieving for those who have died or are living but he was grieving for himself who would be miserable and forlorn by their loss. This is being perfectly answered by the Supreme Lord in this verse. That by which the objects of the senses are preceived is called matra or the functions of the senses which are hearing, seeing, smelling, touching and tasting. Their contact with their appropriate objects produces the sensations of hot and cold, loud and soft, sweet and sour and the like. But as they are solely dependent upon external objects and these objects are always coming and going, they are known to be temporary and thus should be tolerated. Just as contact with the different elements of weather such as snow and sunlight by their very nature give rise to cold and heat. Similarly the contact with the objects of the senses gives rise to pleasure and pain for all living entities and as theses contacts are transitory being temporary one being situated in spiritual knowledge should with fortitude tolerate them and not succumb to lamentation or exaltation because of them.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Even then, in the absence of self-realisation there is always sorrow. therefore it is clarified thus matra means sensuous experience and sparsas means contact with them thus matra-sparsas is the interaction of the senses with sense objects. These interactions are like hot and cold or pleasure and pain. Although only the body is what is actually experiencing these things, anyone with lack of sufficient knowledge who considers that they are their body automatically classifies the soul as the body as well and this misconception is factually the cause of all sorrow.

The experience of sorrow does not affect the individual consciousness by itself. Why is this? Because it appears and disappears. If these contacts of the senses were factually within the individual consciousness then they would also exist in the state of deep sleep. Therefore since it is evident that contact with the senses is experienced only in the waking state and not in any other state; the summation is clear that only when there is contact with the physical body which includes the mind, is there an effect and this proves that the individual consciousness itself is not affected.

Regarding the individual consciousness there is no contact of the sense objects except when it desires a relationship through the experience of senses. Because of their nature of appearing and disappearing like objects floating past on a river, they cannot be classified as eternal due to the fact they cease to exist during deep sleep. Hence they are said to be a- nitya or not eternal.

Consequently when the individual consciousness is deluded into relating to itself as the body, pleasure and pain is experienced; but when the individual consciousness sees itself as separate from the physical body then the sorrow arising from the death of friends and relatives would not arise. Therefore it is by rejection of ones constitutional position as individual consciousness and accepting the position of considering oneself the body that the perception of pleasure, pain, happiness, sorrow and all the rest manifests.

Now begins the summation.

Because of their temporary nature Lord Krishna counsels that reactions arising in the body due to perceptions of the senses should be tolerated as they are temporary. Appearing and disappearing at random with no auspices to the indivdual consciousness.
.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Although the delusion of death is not appropriate regarding the misconception of the souls destruction when it is in fact eternal and immortal; still it could be submitted that loss of life would result in great unhappiness when preceptors, friends and relatives are slain in battle departing their physical bodies and from this the delusion that they are dead may arise. To dispel this doubt Lord Krishna replies: that sensory perception or the contact between the senses and their objects give rise to feelings of heat and cold, pleasure and pain. If they are soft and sweet they are pleasing but if they are bitter and harsh they are unpleasant. These things are all temporary, they are not eternal like the soul; but of a fleeting impermanent nature which comes and goes. Therefore one should just tolerate them with discrimination, patience and fortitude for they will disappear in due course of time. By addressing Arjuna as Bharata signifies the great heritage in his ancestry on his fathers side. To address him as Kaunteya signifies the great heritage in his ancestry on his mothers side. This suggests that such delusion is quite improper for Arjuna.
.

Sloka 2.15 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्षभ |
समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते ||२- १५||

ya.n hi na vyathayantyete puruShaM puruSharShabha .
samaduHkhasukha.n dhIra.n so.amR^itatvAya kalpate || 2-15 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.15

Anvaya: yam–one whom; hi–certainly; na–never; vyathayanti–are distressing; ete–all these; purusam–to a person; purusa-rsabha–O best among men; sama–unaltered; duhkha–distressed; sukham–happiness; dhiram–patient; sah–he; amrtatvaya–for liberation; kalpate–is considered eligible.

Translation: O best among men [Arjuna], the person who is not disturbed by happiness and distress and is steady in both is certainly eligible for liberation.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Rather than attempting to adopt a technique or remedy to try to purify the contacts of the senses with the sense objects; one should simply tolerate them as this leads to prodigious results. The Supreme Lord is declaring that whomever the sense objects are unable to overpower, subdue or afflict and who is equipoised in pleasure and pain not being attached to either due to spiritual knowledge becomes a fit candidate for immortality. which is liberation from the material bondage of birth and death due to the acquisition of spiritual knowledge.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Here the results of the action are being described by this prescription. In this way one without attachment to the senses does not grieve. Inside one is equipoised and peaceful. Contrarily by being attached to the physical body everything is influenced by sorrow. The adjective purusa is used when one is not subject to sorrow. Why is there no grief? Because of being equipoised in both pleasure and pain. How is this possible? It is possible by being determined.

Now begins the summation.

The results gained is described by this prescription. Not by the merely being equipoised and dispelling all sorrow does one become self realised; but this indicates the correct process. When one has relinquished all conceptions of being the physical body one becomes naturally filled with the spiritual attributes that are inherent of the soul. Fixed in this awareness one is known as a purusa, thus this has been written in Pravritta scripture. The word pura in purusa signifies full, so full in noble attributes and full in wisdom the meaning of the word purusa is illuminated.
.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
If one were to question what would be the result if one ignores the connection between the senses and the sense objects Lord Krishna answers this by explaining that one who is performing their natural duty in life which is prescribed in the Vedic scriptures according to their own individual qualifications, without desiring any gratification for their actions; what then can deter this living entity and cause them to deviate irresponsibly. The spiritually intelligent, living entity, possessing patience, whom remains equal in happiness and unhappiness becomes eligible for immortality, by which lifes highest goal is acquired of ones individual spiritual nature devoid of the imperfections connected with the physical body such as of old age, disease and death.
.

Sloka 2.16 audio recital in Sanskrit     

नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः |
उभयोरपि दृष्टोऽन्तस्त्वनयोस्तत्त्वदर्शिभिः ||२- १६||

nAsato vidyate bhAvo nAbhAvo vidyate sataH |
ubhayorapi dR^iShTo.antastvanayostattvadarshibhiH || 2-16 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.16

Anvaya: na–never; asatah–of the nonexistent; vidyate–there is; bhavah–endurance; na–never; abhavah–changing quality; vidyate–there is; satah–of the eternal; ubhayoh–of the two; api–verily; drstah–observed; antah–conclusion; tu–but; anayoh–of them; tattva–truth; darsibhih–by the seers.

Translation: Those who are seers of the truth have concluded that of the nonexistent there is no endurance, and of the existent there is no cessation. This seers have concluded by studying the nature of both.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be submitted that the objects of the sense like excessive heat and cold are extremely difficult to endure. Sometimes it is seen that exposure to elements like heat and cold can even cause the destruction of the body. In answer to this to convey that it is possible to endure anything with the correct discrimination of the truth the Supreme Lord states this verse. The unreal being of the nature of the impermanent is not reality having no existence in the self. The real of the nature of the eternal has no destruction being always existent. Thus the conclusion about both of these the real and the unreal has been determined. By whom? As the verse states by the knoweres of the Ultimate Truth who understand the true nature of things. So the conclusion is that by such discrimination one must learn to tolerate and endure them.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
The soul is eternal as verified in the Vedas. Why is the soul eternal? Is there anything else eternal as well? Hence it is stated in the verse beginning nasato vidyate. There is no annihilation of a-sat meaning prakriti which is the material substratum or sat referring to the Ultimate Truth because it is declared in the Visnu Purana that prakriti, purusa and kala or time are eternal. Because the word vidyate has been seperately used in relation to sat and a-sat and because it has been said in Srimad Bhagavatam also known as Bhagavat Purana that a-sat is the physical manifestation and sat is of the subtle form the Ultimate Truth of reality, a-sat is known as manifestation of sat, the unmanifest. This understanding for both a-sat and sat and is confirmed by the word anta meaning summation.

Now begins the summation.

The actual sorrow expressed by Arjuna is not being felt because the consequences of war lead to misery in the next life. The rule in the material existence is that every action has its corresponding and equal reaction, thus it is seen that by unrighteous actions there is no happiness and by righteous actions there can be no unhappiness. The words referring to sat bhavah are all connected to happiness and the words connected to a- sat abhava are those which are connected to sorrow.

Thus it is stated in Shabda Nirnaya that sat bhava is sadhu bhava, having meritorious disposition and we will see this word used again further in the Gita. Therefore for whatever is in righteousness the word sat is used. Whoever has thought they have become a-sat, asat brahmeti, for this person their personal conceptions have become a-sat and consequently they become sorrowful.

It should not be misconstrued that the purpose of this verse is to deny the existence of what is appearing now in the present, was non-existing before creation and would be non-existent after destruction. This would be a contradiction in itself. The statement nasato vidyate bhavo is specifically used to emphasise a spiritual truth. Although in normal everyday life people relate to the material manifestation as if it did not exist before and will also cease to exist hereafter. For example a flower to be offered to the Lord which blossomed today, did not exist last week and by next week it will have ceased to exist but still it is utilised while it is here. So there is no reason to reflect that any of this is due to delusion.

Thus it is stated in the Brahma Tarka :

All acts prior to creation and all acts after the dissolution of creation cease to exist is the Vedic statement. If in each action the specific form was not manifest before it was born but came to be formed only later, then wisdom and normal circumstances would not justify such a statement. If according to wisdom and normal circumstances an archetype existed before the form came to exist then before anything is born it did not, in fact exist. Even due to the experiences of modification there is action and its result. Because of these modifications the experiences of the physical body become apparent. Normal affairs in this world take place on the basis of these modifications and the experience connected with these modifications solely.

It is not correct to accept that this world is made up of special attributes such as sat the Ultimate Truth due to its perception of modification and a-sat as the physical manifestation by its being self evident. Both the experiences are subjected to delusion. The physical manifestation is spoken as such because it is evident not because it is understood. If it is non-existent then its knowledge is without purpose even if it is non-manifesting.

A falsehood can never be validated by another falsehood. In delusion the false appearing as truth can never be accepted as real. In normal life the unreal cannot cease to be in any case. That which exists as its form may also appear as real and the same is the case with delusion.

Even though it is indescribable, when what is real appears as truth verily such appearance of truth cannot be accepted as false on the assumption that it is delusion. Thus the truth which appears as unreal should also be accepted then there is no contradiction.

In the Vedic scriptures it is stated the cosmic manifestation is truth. What is created is the truth. The sages and rishi’s who contemplating deeply describe the Ultimate Truth as Self evolved and Self evident and by such words declare the eternal existence of all things created.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary
That which is known to be asat or material cannot be made to be sat or spiritual and that which is sat or spiritual annot be made to be asat or material. To those established in truth, the ultimate nature of both are matters discerned by the direct perception of observation.

The literal meaning of anta is end. Here it means the summation or conclusion of the essential natures of sat and asat. The authoritative conclusion arrived at by elevated sages in this matter is that the nature of the physical body is asat being temporary and that the nature of the spiritual soul is sat being eternal. That which is asat is therefore known by its perishable nature and that which is sat is known by its imperishable nature. Hence it is clear that what is indicated by satva and asatva are the soul and the body.

In the Visnu Purana the reverend sage Parasara states: knowledge of the atma or soul is indeed satyam or truth and everything else is that which is not truth. That which is imperishable is that which is the highest truth. But that which is derived by means of perishable things is undoubtedly perishable as well.

The context here has no connection or reference to what is known as satkarya-vada of the Sankhya philosophy which vaguely states: what is not cannot come to be and what is cannot cease to be. For in this context the Supreme Lord Krishna is specifically instructing Arjuna to dispel his delusion, due to not correctly understanding the difference between the perishable nature of the body and the imperishable nature of the soul. It was in order to emphasise this that the previous verse Chapter 2, verse 2 was spoken and it is to further elaborate this subject that the subsequent two verses are revealed. But how is it that the souls imperishable nature is known? The next verse states this.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
It is seen that one feels extreme discomfort due to bodily experiences of excessive heat and cold and the like; if this is the case then what is the experience for one who remains unconscious of the soul even unto the moment of a very painful demise. How can they realize that heat, cold and pain to be impermanent and how can they imagine the eternal reality of the souls immortality. Such questions and bewilderment is clarified by Lord Krishna with the words in the impermanent like heat, cold, pleasure and pain there is no duration and in the permanent as the eternal soul there is no cessation. It must be understood that this nature of the duration and cessation of things in this world cannot be ascertained by one lacking spiritual intelligence. Lord Krishna emphasizes the point that the reality of the duration and cessation in the material existence has been perceived by those elevated souls who have attained the Ultimate Truth. The eternal reality of the souls immortality is revealed in various places in the Vedic scriptures and this has been realized by those who have achieved this understanding.
.

Sloka 2.17 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अविनाशि तु तद्विद्धि येन सर्वमिदं ततम् |
विनाशमव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित्कर्तुमर्हति ||२- १७||

avinAshi tu tadviddhi yena sarvamida.n tatam.h |
vinAshamavyayasyAsya na kashchitkartumarhati || 2-17 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.17

Anvaya: avinasi–imperishable; tu–but; tat–that; viddhi–know it; yena–by whom; sarvam–all of the body; idam–this; tatam–pervaded; vinasam–destruction; avyayasya–of the imperishable; asya–of it; na kascit–no one; kartum–to do; arhati–is able.

Translation: Know that which pervades the entire body is indestructible. No one is able to destroy the imperishable soul.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The imperishable soul whose existence is a reality has been delineated and emphasised in a general manner. Now in this verse it is stated: but know that, meaning to know the reality of the eternal soul within every living entity. Pervading as the witness to the physical body which is subject to the transient modifications in the beginning known as birth and at its end is known as death. But it is not possible to modify the soul which is imperishable and impossible to destroy.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
In how many ways is this to be understood? Endlessly, not limited by space, eternal, indestructible. It can not be destroyed by curses or magic and while being unable to be destroyed is also immutable.

Now begins the summation.

Thus it is stated in the Maha Varaha Purana:

Even though the soul within the physical body of every living entity is eternal and even though in all respects the use of the word tu confirms that eternity refers only to Lord Krishna alone, the temporal transmigration of bodies, feeling pain, incompleteness, these four attributes of destruction are never spoken as referring to Lord Krishna. However in relation to all other things there surely is a result in loss.

Thus is stated in the Parama Sruti:

Attributes are threefold: relating to time, relating to place and to being complete in themselves. All these attributes are residing fully only in the Supreme Lord Krishna exclusively.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

It should be understood that the soul is indestructible and is the principle by which the physical body is permeated. The insentient body is completely distinct from the sentient soul. By reason of its pervasive nature the soul is very subtle, in fact so exceedingly subtle is the soul that it is verily incapable of being destroyed being subatomic in essence. There is no thing which is of different or of a dissimilar nature from it which in any way is capable of destroying the soul. For whatever there is existing is pervaded by the soul as well and being pervaded by the soul itself verifies its less gross and most subtle position of all being subatomic. Such things as weapons, water, fire, air, cold etc. can not influence or be the agents of destruction for the imperishable soul, being all pervaded by it.

The rationale of a hammer striking an object and disintegrating it is now given. When a hammer strikes an object with excessive force an extreme vibration produces a molecular disruption which causes the destruction of the object. But in the case of the soul there is no facility for destruction as when light penetrates a glass jar is not destroyed when the glass is destroyed; similarly the soul is like unto this in relation to the body. Thus it can be understood the imperishable nature of the soul.

Now the next verse explains that being perishable is the very nature of the physical body.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
In this verse the Supreme Lord Krishna emphasizes the conclusive position of the soul with the word avyayasya meaning indestructible. How this is to be understood is given by the word yena meaning by which indicating the difference between the soul and the physical body which the soul pervades. This pervasiveness is so extremely subtle that it is impossible for anything to cause the destruction of its indestructible nature because whatever would be attempting to destroy it is also completely pervaded by it as well.
.

Sloka 2.18 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अन्तवन्त इमे देहा नित्यस्योक्ताः शरीरिणः |
अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य तस्माद्युध्यस्व भारत ||२- १८||

antavanta ime dehA nityasyoktAH sharIriNaH |
anAshino.aprameyasya tasmAdyudhyasva bhArata || 2-18 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.18

Anvaya:anta-vantah–perishable; ime–all these; dehah–material bodies; nityasya–eternal in existence; uktah–it is so said; saririnah–the embodied soul; anasinah–never to be destroyed; aprameyasya–immeasurable; tasmat–therefore; yudhyasva–fight; bharata–O descendant of Bharata.

Translation: Only the material body of the indestructible, immeasurable and eternal living entity is subject to destruction; therefore, fight, O descendant of Bharata.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
That which is characterised by a beginning and an end is clarified as being unreal. The physical body is subject to pleasure and pain, old age and disease. Although the eternal soul is embodied within the physical body; its position is not compromised or affected by the modifications of the physical body. It is therefore aprameyasya or immeasurable, existing always in the same condition, complete within itself. This instruction of the Supreme Lord verifies that the immortal soul being distinct from the body has no factual connection with pleasure, pain, old age or disease so He directs Arjuna not to yield to lamentation born from delusion but to accept his duty as a ksatriya and duly engage in battle.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
This verse confirms that there is no eternal existence for the physical body. As when a mirror is destroyed the reflection in the mirror is also destroyed; but this not true in regards to the soul. When the body is destroyed the soul is never destroyed for the soul is eternal. Sharirinah refers to the Supreme Lord in His manifestation as the indwelling monitor of all living entities. There is no destruction of the soul, it is referred to as indestructible. Why is this so? Because of the presence of imperceivable transcendental manifestation of the Supreme Lord within the heart of all living entities. But there is no upadhi or limitation here as in the example of the destruction of the mirror, where the reflection is destroyed. In this case the soul itself is the reflector through the medium of the individual consciousness. The Supreme Lord is unlimited, there exists no limitations for Him. The individual consciousness of the living entity attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness of the Supreme Lord realises the eternal form of the soul. Thereafter the individual consciousness attaining a direct connection to the Ultimate Consciousness is eternally absorbed in the unlimited bliss of the Supreme Ultimate Personality.

Now begins the summation.

For the sharirinah which is the Supreme Lord in His manifestation of indwelling monitor of all living entities, there is the appearance of the destruction of the physical body. The physical bodybeing the container in the material existence by which the individual consciousness is identified. There is no space, attributes or completeness for the living entities. Because without any alternative the physical body has its own inherent attributes which are impelled by the anguish of birth, existence and death

The destruction of the physical body in battle is also a form of worship of the inconceivable Supreme Lord. The final state of destruction being under the control of the Supreme Lord grants relief from both pain and pleasure. By surrendering all actions to the Supreme Lord Krishna, and being exclusively devoted to Him, one will be totally protected by Him.

Spoken of as being to be eternal referring to the soul, the word indestructible is repeated and by the statement the words indestructible and incomprehensible used in this regard are directly referring to the Supreme Lord. By specifying the words ime dehe the eternal transcendental form comprised of transcendental consciousness and bliss within the physical bodies of realised souls is revealed.

In the Srimad Bhagavatam it is stated:

Where rajas passion and tamas ignorance do not have any effect neither truth, light nor influence of time. Where illusion exists not except at its source of reality. Where aspirants both noble and ignoble earnestly propitiate. Where He of beautiful darkish colour, with eyes like a hundred blooming lotus flowers, attired in shiny yellow garments, splendid with perfect form, having His arms, neck and ears adorned with precious and dazzling ornaments, wearing a flowing flower garland. Effulgent and self- illuminating. Where the souls liberated from the ocean of birth and death go to and reside.

In the Parama smrti it is stated:

Acquiring transcendental consciousness and bliss the liberated souls imbibing the attributes of the Supreme Lord, internally and externally a part of Him, enjoy the pleasures of devotional service to Him according to their individual capacity.

Even after attaining the state of liberation there is no state of united oneness of the individual consciousness of the living entity with the Ultimate Consciousness of the Supreme Lord. By realisation of this wisdom the living entities with sincere and determined effort acquire similar attributes as the Supreme Lord.

In the Taittiriya Upanisad it is stated :

One who knows the Supreme Lord as the Ultimate Truth, as what is real, as what is knowledge and as what is infinite; simultaneously existing within the heart of all living entities as well as in the eternal spiritual world has realised all there is that needs to be known.

Transcending to that state of awareness which consists of total bliss, descending and ascending in various worlds, assuming the form one desires, all actions manifesting according to one’s desires, one sings and chants the holy names of the Supreme Lord Krishna in sublime ecstasy.

All revel in ecstasy singing their attainment in the accompaniment of the liberated souls having realised their own eternal spiritual form. The Supreme Lord seeing them although still possessing their material forms makes sure that no trace of evil besets them and giving them the divine taste of immortality sees them as immortals controlling their senses.

Among those delivered, the four faced Brahma, the managing director of this universe, being extremely well endowed, recites the Rig Veda in full devotion with one mouth. With his second mouth he recites the sacred gayatri. With his third mouth he recites the Puranas and with his fourth mouth he recites and meditates on the various incarnations of the Supreme Lord Krishna such as fish, tortoise, boar and others.

Realising the Supreme Lord within one’s heart and within the heart of every living entity and subsequently acquiring one’s eternal spiritual form, one revels in exaltation performing loving devotional service to Him. Thus the spiritually intelligent, transcending the dualities of material existence attains the transcendental state and acquires unparalleled affinity to the Supreme Lord.

Attaining this transcendental state of affinity to the Supreme Lord, being completely protected in this state, the individual soul resides blissfully in full consciousness according to the gradation of individual qualification determined by one’s inherent attributes. Humans, celestials, departed ancestors are superseded 100 fold by immortals, managerial deities and the deities of the elements along with Indra, Shiva and Brahma in this order having one hundred times the attributes those who are liberated. None of these are equal to the Brahman even in the state of liberation. Superior 1000 fold to the Brahman is Sri or Laksmi devi who resides as the pleasure potency of each and every incarnation and superior to her are the authorised incarnations of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Only He as the source of all creation, being endowed with innumerable and immeasurable transcendental attributes has no one anywhere in existence superior or even equal to Him. But those possessing noble eyes like lotus petals and ears like conch shells, imbibing His attributes, have fraternal feelings and become alike in mind with each other and with Him.

Where all desires are fulfilled in that state let me attain. By such words of separation with one another the state of taratamya or gradation is confirmed even after attaining the state of liberation. Where in liberation everything has become even like unto the self, then who is it that is seen and by whom.

In the Brihad Aranyak Upanisad it is stated:

Verily when in that state of liberation there is no seeing although everything is seen. Because of attaining the transcendental state, becoming imperishable in consciousness, there is nothing perceived other than the transcendental state which permeates everything and which is the self. Thus there is nothing separate from the self which can be differentiated and in this way everything can be seen as transcendental, as brahman.

Consequently with this proper understanding, statements such as knowing the supreme brahman one becomes like brahman or aham brahmasi which means I am brahman understood in this light can be seen not to be in any way contrary to Vedanta.

If by liberation the individual consciousness ceases to exist then what is the purpose of deliverance? By this one could be confused and bewildered; but in Mahabharata the reverend sage Yajnavalkya eradicated this doubt by his clarifying statement that in this transcendental state all the mundane academic perceptions of empirical knowledge cease to exist being replaced by the transcendental perception and realisation of the Ultimate Truth. How could it ever be possible that cessation of mundane perceptions of empirical knowledge could simultaneously cause cessation of the soul? It is not possible nor can it ever be possible. The eternal soul being independent from the mind and body is not subject to cessation.

Essentially the Supreme Lord Krishna is different from the creation of the material manifestation. Because the universe is dependent upon creation it is said to be different as it is. In regard to enjoyment of the senses of smell, sight etc. they are known to be perceived only due to the potency generated by the presence of the soul. Thus the empirical experience of the self is similar to the realisation of the Supreme Lord. There is nothing else is to be known, when one realises one’s soul one realises the Supreme Lord and everything is already known by realisation of the soul. How can human effort alone be involved and in the absence of the transcendental soul what is the impetus for self-realisation? Therefore there is variance in empirical knowledge in relation to the Supreme Lord Krishna and one does not lose the ability to enjoy their association and relationship with the Supreme Lord even after self-realisation, it cannot be otherwise.

When the soul does not see anything as different from its own self then there is no perception of separateness from anything and a oneness with everything. In the same way the Supreme Lord does not see anything as separate from Himself. Brahma and others are all different from the Supreme Lord therefore they appear separate from Him. But even though by their very nature they are different from Him, in the eyes of the Supreme Lord there is no difference He seeing them as part of Himself. When one attains this state of perception there is no separateness between the individual consciousness and the Ultimate Consciousness and there is no delusion ever regarding knowledge of Lord Krishna’s supreme position.

Technically all living entities can be designated as brahman and all liberated souls can be designated as para brahman. The material substratum known as prakriti can also be designated as para brahman as well; but the Supreme Lord Krishna’s is the supreme para brahman. Neither liberatated souls nor the material substratum can be superior to the Supreme Lord Krishna. But by knowledge of Him, by knowledge of His name and form, by having knowledge of His sagacious instructions, by the knowledge of His pastimes, qualities and associatiates all living entities can experience the essence of the Supreme Lord according to their qualification. When one attains communion with the Supreme Lord how can there be any difficulties? How can there be any ignorance? How can there be any bewilderment in the absence of ignorance? It is not possible for one who is not devoted to the Supreme Lord to be liberated by the mercy of the Supreme Lord.

From aheya the word aham has been derived which symbolises the immutable Supreme Lord Krishna. Because He possesses all attributes He is known as para brahman. He is known as asmi because he destroys all evil and is existing eternally. Being resplendent He is known as tvam. All these words intimating activity, intimating elements and intimating attributes refer solely to the Supreme Lord. Because He is the foremost among all performers of activities He is known as yushmat. Because He abides in the heart of all living entities with His potencies He is known by the word asmat and because He is imperceivable He is known by the word tat. On attaining self- realisation one will understand that all these indications represent only His predominant role.

Having studied all the Vedas the sage Svetaketu becoming extremely conceited, arrogantly assumed because he was so knowledgeable that he was not human but a partial manifestation of the Supreme Lord Himself. Thinking thus, he became disrespectful to his own father. Seeing that his son was deluded being devoid of proper etiquette, his father inquired from him how had such inauspicious characteristics attached themselves to him; telling him that with all his studying he had not acquired realisation of the Supreme Lord, by whom knowing the essence all knowledge is known. The Supreme Lord being predominate in Himself, with the cosmic manifestation created by Him, subservient only to Himself and thus knowing the Supreme Lord in this way one acquires unfathomable wisdom. But if one believes the Earth and the universe within the cosmic manifestation are all independent of Him then they are deluded and such delusion brings along with it perpetual misery.

Knowledge that a clod of earth is the substance that clay pots and other similar objects are fashioned from and made known and the knowing of the word mrutika meaning eternal, one can understand what is transitory and impermanent. Similarly by knowledge of the Supreme Lord Krishna, the Ultimate Personality, the creator of all, the cause of all causes, who is independent in Himself; the true knowledge of all existence is gained. Even attaining the state of liberation all living entities are under His shelter and subservient to Him. The Supreme Lord is omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent, full of all attributes. Within the Supreme Lord rests all the universes thus one can never be on the same platform as the Supreme Lord.

Even as their is difference between a bird and a thread, the essences of different flowers, the ocean and a river, salt from water, a person from his place of dwelling, the robber and the robbed, the dead and the living; in the same way their is difference between the living entity and the Supreme Lord although the living entity is also eternal. The Supreme Lord being totally independent and the living entity being eternally dependent. How is it the possible for the dependent to be equal to the independent. The Supreme Lord resides within the heart of all living entities giving them life as their primary cause of existence, everyone and everything is completely dependent solely upon the Supreme Lord Krishna for their breath, life and very existence; yet the Supreme Lord Krishna, the cause of all causes is not dependent on anything.

Their is a difference between the Supreme Lord and the living entities and the Supreme Lord and the material energy. There is difference between one individual living entity from another and also between the individual living entities and the material energy as well as difference between the earth and the material energy. These are the basic five-fold differences. They are all eternal and although born are not capable of destruction. Therefore eternal are these five-fold differences and because these differences were originated by the Supreme Lord Krishna they are eternal truths and should not be imagined to be illusory. Being the Supreme Ultimate Reality, the resplendent Supreme Lord Krishna is immutable, advaita incomparable in all attributes omnipotent. By knowledge of the omniscient, omnipresent, blissful Supreme Lord one becomes aware of being dependent upon Him. Such are the attributes of the Supreme Lord Krishna and none else. The Supreme Lord possessing such supreme, transcendental attributes as being the Supreme Lord of all does not negate the existence of any living entity. They certainly exist. If difference was the result of mere imagination it would have been false; but this difference is clearly perceivable by knowledge. Therefore among the wise, there is never any occasion to doubt the non-dual aspect of the Supreme Lord.

In this regard all the Vedic scriptures endorse the difference between the Supreme Lord and the living entities. Otherwise erroneous interpretations would be prescribed to Him and knowledge of the all will not arise. In the same way, one who has only seen the silver shine in an oyster shell should not conclude all knowledge about silver is known. By these examples the difference between the Supreme Lord and the living entities have been given thus here atat tvam asi meaning you are not that has been explained.

If the statement tatvamasi is considered as indicating difference then it will not contradict the previous statement etad atmyamidam sarvam which refers to the Supreme Lord as independent and all the living entities as dependent upon Him and therefore not separate from Him.

Etad atyamidam refers to the Ultimate Consciousness which is indicative only to the Supreme Lord. It is not correct to imagine it refers to the living entities. It is simply similarity due to the relationship of the Supreme Lord as dominator and the living entities as dominated. It would be a sign of acute ignorance, knowing that the Supreme Lord created the material manifestation and all living entities separate from Himself to imagine that the Supreme Lord and the living entities are the same. If the material manifestation is to be regarded as only a description then the statement that from Him all this is created would not be clear. How can it be possible for the non-dual nature of the Supreme Lord be refuted after understanding the inherent difference between the Supreme Lord and His creation?

At the end of every section the difference from the Supreme Lord has been enunciated and who it should be given to is emphasised in the following manner: to one who has stayed continuously serving the preceptor for one year should this knowledge be given, not to one who is uninitiated.

One in knowledge understands that individual consciousness is beyond the material manifestation.

In the spiritual worlds the Ultimate Personality, the Supreme Lord dwells. Thus the knowers of the Ultimate Truth are realised and offer perpetual obeisance’s to the Supreme Lord Krishna whom they perceive within their heart of hearts as the indwelling monitor.

If it is argued that the Supreme Lord is neither distinct nor is He self- evident, nor is He averred as being non-dual with all manifestations a mere illusion, then the Vedic scriptures would not be logical. The apparent appearances will not be superior to the real appearance neither can the apparent appearances have any special attributes attached to it. The Vedic scriptures are eternal and not subject to illusion. Being the Ultimate Truth they are proof in themselves. Thus illusion will always remain illusion and the Ultimate Truth will always remain the Ultimate Truth.

It is not possible to substantiate that the difference between the Supreme Lord and the living entities is qualified by any limitations, if this were the case then that would infer that by the acquiring of such limitations could be subject to illusion; but the Supreme Lord is never subject in any way to illusion. If it is stated that the Supreme Lord having many feet, hands and mouths are different from them then these differences will be defects. But the Supreme Lord is non-different from any of His individual parts and so it is not possible to make any comparisons of this nature.

Therefore the difference between the Supreme Lord and the living entities can only be established based on the authority of the Vedic scriptures.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary
The term deha meaning body is derived from the word dih meaning to increase and correspondingly those bodies having increase must also have decrease and therefore are of a perishable nature. The elements combine to form the body dictated by karma ato render service to the imperishable soul to enable the living entity to experience the positive and negative fruits of their actions. In the Brihad- aranyaka Upanisad it is stated: by accruring merit one becomes meritorious. A living entity is forced to accept a body only until all ones positive and negative karma is exhausted and then the physical body is no longer bound to exist in the physical plane.

As for the soul it is indestructible, it is imperishable and it is inconceivable. As the aggregate of all facets of consciousness the soul is the subject and all individual facets of consciousness are the object. All pervading throughout the body of every living entity the soul as the cogniser is perceived by its unique distinction of being transcendental from the body. Nor can the soul be perceived as of a mutable nature as in the case of the senses. Thus by the fact of its all pervading nature it is verified that the soul is not something which can increase or decrease because of or due to aggregation. By reason of its all pervasiveness the factual reality of the souls eternality is apparent.

As regarding the body because it is subject to decrease and increase, because it is for the felicitation of the embodied soul in the experiencing the results of karma, because it is of multiforms and because it is subject to decay it is destructible.

So it can be clearly seen that because the body is of a perishable nature and because the soul is of an eternal nature neither of the two can be just reason for regret. Therefore the Supreme Lord instructs Arjuna to bear with fortitude the unavoidable sharp contact of piercing arrows upon him and upon others and thus going to battle as a matter of duty, without the desire for any results, prepare his way for immortality.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
It might be questioned that if the soul is eternal due to the impossibility of ever being able to be destroyed then why is it that feelings of remorse arise at the demise of family members and loved ones. To clarify this Lord Krishna states that it is only the physical body which is made up of the five fundamental elements of material existence: being earth, water, air, fire and ether and which is the vehicle for enjoying the fruits of ones actions which is subject to destruction. Countless mothers and fathers and countless sons and daughters all established with experience in this world have come and gone and will come and go in the future. There are countless of places of joy and countless of places of grief in the worlds but only the unintelligent are affected by there influenced and not the spiritually intelligent. The soul is always eternal but what the soul is pervading which is known to be both the physical body and the subtle body of all living entities is not eternal and subject to destruction. Only what is eternal can be determined as being truly real what is not eternal can be deemed as unreal. So there is no doubt however that the physical body is perishable and hence not eternal as it is composed of destructible substances. This is on the authority of the Vedic scriptures.

It might be wondered that if the soul is eternal and indestructible why is this not perceived at the time of death? This is also clarified by Lord Krishna with the use of the word apramesya meaning inconceivable. It is not possible to cognisize the soul as it is this or it is that because not being on the material platform although embodied in a physical body; there is no material conception to compare it to by the strenghth of ones mind. Unless and until one has received the mercy of the Supreme Lord by the direct connection of the authentic spiritual master who is in the line of one of the four empowered and authorised channels of disciplic succession, there is no possibility of perceiving the soul. It is to be known only in this way is this is on authority of the Vedic scriptures. Whatever apprehension one experiences in the physical body that apprehension is destructible; but the soul is never subjected to this. To the contrary the soul is apprehended only by the apprehension of I know, I am, I experience etc. and as it is immortal the soul should never be lamented for. Neither should the body be lamented for because it is perishable. Therefore Arjuna is being instructed to unsnare himself from his delusion and do his duty.
.

Sloka 2.19 audio recital in Sanskrit     

य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारं यश्चैनं मन्यते हतम् |
उभौ तौ न विजानीतो नायं हन्ति न हन्यते ||२- १९||

ya ena.n vetti hantAra.n yashchainaM manyate hatam.h |
ubhau tau na vijAnIto nAya.n hanti na hanyate || 2-19 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.19

Anvaya: yah–anyone; enam–this; vetti–knows; hantaram–the killer; yah–anyone; ca–also; enam–this; manyate–thinks; hatam–killed; ubhau–both of them; tau–they; na–never; vijanitah–in knowledge; na–never; ayam–this; hanti–kills; na–nor; hanyate–be killed.

Translation:He who thinks that the living entity is the slayer or that he is slain, does not understand. One who is in knowledge knows that the self slays not nor is slain.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Thus it can be clearly demonstrated that the grief that would arise due to the death of Bhishma and other exalted superiors has been negated. Also Arjunas statement in chapter one, verse thirty-five of not wanting to slay them has been proven equally groundless as well by the Supreme Lords explanation of the Ultimate Truth revealing that the eternal soul does not slay anything and the eternal soul cannot be slain by anything. The reason for this is given in the next verse.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
In the minds of living entities identifying themselves only as their physical bodies, or as their species, planet, or country as the case may be; the declaration that one who thinks that one can be factually slain or one who thinks that one can factually slay are both deluded, poses bewilderment. What can be factually slain is the physical body but not the embodied soul. The living entity becomes alive only by the energising facility of the Supreme Lord by the activation of the soul. Thus the Supreme Lord is always to be worshipped and glorified.

Now begins the summation.

If the statement one who thinks the living entity is able to kill another living entity independently on their own would be considered then the statement of the Supreme Lord in chapter 11, verse 34 kill those whom have already been killed by Me would be contradictory. The word hantaram being applicable to the soul is applicable to the Supreme Lord as well.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Whoever speculates that it is possible by any means to kill the soul and whoever speculates that anyone can be instrumental in killing the soul is factually deficient in actual knowledge. The soul being of an eternal nature can never be destroyed by anything nor can the soul ever destroy anything. The root word hanti meaning to slay connotes an act which connects with the soul; but the action of killing indicates that there is a separation of the soul from the body. Thus the Vedic injunctions: na himsyad bhutani meaning no creature shall be harmed and brahmano na hantavyah that no brahmana shall ever be killed specifically emphasises that it is an act of acute and heinous unrighteousness to cause the separation of any soul from its embodied state unnaturally which happens at the time of death.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
In this way after establishing the immortality of the soul, Lord Krishna informs Arjuna that for anyone to believe that it is possible for the soul to be slain or anyone believing that they can be responsible for the slaying of the soul, are both in complete ignorance. Not being able to fathom the intrinsic nature of the soul they cannot realize that the soul is never the instigator of any action nor is the soul ever the recepient of any action.
.

Sloka 2.20 audio recital in Sanskrit     

न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचिन्
नायं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः |
अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो
न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ||२- २०||

na jAyate mriyate vA kadAchin.h
nAyaM bhUtvA bhavitA vA na bhUyaH |
ajo nityaH shAshvato.ayaM purANo
na hanyate hanyamAne sharIre || 2-20 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.20

Anvaya: na–never; jayate–takes birth; mriyate–never dies; va–either; kadacit–at any time (past, present or future); na–never; ayam–this; bhutva–came into being; bhavita–will come to be; va–or; na–not; bhuyah–or has coming to be; ajah–unborn; nityah–eternal; sasvatah–permanent; ayam–this; puranah–the oldest; na–never; hanyate–is killed; hanyamane–being killed; sarire–by the body.

Translation: For the soul there is never birth nor death. Nor, having once been, does he ever cease to be. He is unborn, eternal, ever-existing, undying and primeval. He is not slain when the body is slain.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The understanding that the eternal soul is never slain is being confirmed by its freedom from the six changes of material existence being: birth, existence, growth, modification, decay and death which are controlling all living entities high and low in the material existence. The Supreme Lord by declaring the eternal soul is not born confirms the absence of any birth and by declaring the eternal soul does not die confirms the absence of any destruction. The word va occurring twice is used in the sense of and as in and the immortal soul does not come into existence by birth. The immortal soul is already by nature itself eternal. So existence by conception is proven false due to the fact the eternal soul is birthless. That which is conceived attains existence after birth; but that which already eternally exists by its own nature cannot be conceived again. This is the purport of this verse. Constant means not subject to modification. This confirms the absence of growth. Eternal confirms the absence of decay. Ancient confirms the absence of ageing ever beyond time the eternal soul is ageless. Thus there is never a repetition regarding the existence of the eternal soul and the six changes of the physical of birth, existence, growth, modification, decay and death mentioned by Yaksa and other expounders of the Vedic scriptures as to the nature of things in this world never is applicable to the eternal soul which factually every living entity born from a womb possesses. The imperishable nature of the soul and the fact that the six changes of the physical body have no influence on it which is the topic presently under discussion has now been satisfactorily concluded and so it is confirmed that the eternal soul does not perish when the body perishes.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Here to emphasise the authority of the Vedic scriptures the Supreme Lord Krishna uses the words na jayate meaning never takes birth. The knowledge of the Lord is not born nor does it cease to be in the literal sense of the words. In all situations, time and places as well as in all stages it is never subject to modification. Nor is the knowledge of the soul ever subject to destruction and this is fully established in the Vedic scriptures. How one may ask? Due to the attributes like ajah the unborn referring to the Supreme Lord, sasvatah means permanent signifying that He remains in His spiritual form of consciousness and bliss without any modification, puranam means that the eternal embodied soul acquires another pura or body. Thus it can be understood that the soul is not ever destroyed even when the physical body perishes.

Now begins the summation.

The living entity and the Supreme Lord are both irrevocably established as unborn, eternal and indestructible. The Supreme Lord possessing a spiritual body does not come into existence by being associated with the material manifestation; but is eternally existing independently. Death correctly comprehended is merely the separation of the embodied soul from the physical body leaving it lifeless. Since for the Supreme Lord there is never any destruction of His form, there cannot be any connection to death by Him.

The eternal soul is also unborn and indestructible, otherwise creation could be considered simply a repetitive exercise going on and on absent of purpose. The eternal soul is also permanent but the eternal soul never exists independently; it has limited power, limited knowledge, incomplete in itself, dependent upon the transcendental energy of the Supreme Lord. In juxtaposition to that are the sublime attributes of the Supreme Lord who is omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent. These are the natural attributes of the 2 there is no modifications to be found in them. Therefore the holy sages and rishi’s designated them both as sasvatah or permanent. Thus in the Visnu Purana because the living entity is embodied in countless bodies from the beginning of time it is known as puranah meaning ancient.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

For the reasons previously described, characteristics which are natural to all living entities such as birth, ageing and death do not pertain to or have any influence on the indestructible soul as it has no modification due to its eternal nature. The bodily experience has no affect on the eternal soul thus it is spoken of as it is not born nor does it die. It cannot be proven that having been before a kalpa the soul is not going to exist after a kalpa. Such births and deaths at the beginning and end of every kalpa are told by the Agamas in the Vedic scriptures as replacing each Brahma who manages and directs the functioning and maintenance of creation in one singular universe in the infinite celestial firmament. But this reference pertains only to the physical body and does not affect the eternal soul.

The imperishable soul which pervades the physical body of all living entities is aja or unborn and thus it is known to be eternal and constant only changing its external embodied form. The two characteristics of eternality and constancy denote that like the material substratum known as prakriti even the most subtle and infinitesimal modifications in the stage preceding manifestation has no ability in any way to affect the eternal soul.

The word purana means ancient. Etymologically it stems from purapi navah meaning old yet new illustrating that the eternal soul although ancient is experienced with every birth as ever new. Thus it has been clarified that the physical body only perishes but never can the eternal soul perish.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
As to questions of how the soul is neither the instigator of any actions or the recepient of any actions, Lord Krishna explains that the soul being eternal is not subject to the six modifications of material existence which are: birth, being, growth, transformation, dimunition and death. The soul is never born and never dies at any time. How can this be? It is not that the soul did not exist before and will not exist in the future. The soul exists eternally but opting the experiences of the material existence accepts a physical body. What did not exist in the past but is manifested only in the present is called conceived and that which exists now but will cease to exist eventually is called dead. But the soul is not conceived as it eternally exists and it will never die because it is immortal. With the 2 words ajah meaning unborn and nityah meaning eternal, it is made clear that the 2 modifications of birth and death are not applicable in regards to the soul. In order to also negate the idea of the soul posessing any modifications by even being, Lord Krishna explains that the soul is everlasting which means it is free from being or unbeing. The modification of any growth of the soul is neutralisd by the word puranah meaning ancient, that it always existed as it is. One posessing a body grows by the increase of the bodily parts; but the soul being bodiless does not increase it is the same eternally. The remaining 2 modifications of transformation and dimunition are rendered inapplicable by inference in understanding that the soul being eternal without any need to increase remains as it is and is changeless. Hence the soul being bereft of any of the six modifications of the physical body can never be destroyed even when the physical body is destroyed.

.

Sloka 2.21 audio recital in Sanskrit     

वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनमजमव्ययम् |
कथं स पुरुषः पार्थ कं घातयति हन्ति कम् ||२- २१||

vedAvinAshina.n nitya.n ya enamajamavyayam.h |
katha.n sa puruShaH pArtha ka.n ghAtayati hanti kam.h || 2-21 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.21

Anvaya: veda–in knowledge; avinasinam–indestructible; nityam–always; yah–one who; enam–this (soul); ajam–unborn; avyayam–immutable; katham–how; sah–he; purusah–person; partha–O Partha (Arjuna); kam–whom; ghatayati–hurts; hanti–kills; kam–whom.

Translation: O Partha, how can a person who knows that the soul is indestructible, unborn, eternal and immutable, kill anyone or cause anyone to kill?

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The denial of any possibility in the slaying of any living entity has been established, for all living entities continually maintain their existence through the agency of the immortal soul. Who can that person slay and how? When knowing its eternality which is free from modification, its immutability which is free from decay, unborn being free from birth and indestructible being free from death. For it is impossible to destroy the immortal soul by any means. So who then can factually claim to be the cause of another perishing? There is none who can claim this or by any means achieve this. So the Supreme Lord by clarifying this point is also informing Arjuna to that He is not directing him to slay anyone because the soul is factually never slain.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
One who understands that the eternal soul is incapable of being destroyed who can be slain and how? The word avinasinam means indestructible, nityam means eternal and therefore by its own inherent nature the immortal soul is imperishable without any defects because what is eternal is never in a state of modification. The word defect is commonly used for that which is not of perfection. The physical body of the living entities is not perfect it is defective, thus the word destruction is applicable to the physical body but never to the eternal soul.

Now begins the summation.

The word avinasinam is indicative of one whose body is indestructible. Eternal in form only applies to the Supreme Lord. Unlimited activity is the attribute of being independent, total independence is found only in the case of the Supreme Lord, who being immutable is without any support outside of Himself.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

So possessing spiritual intelligence, knowing the soul to be eternal, understanding it to be birthless and deathless being of an inexhaustible nature how is it possible for anyone to commit any act of destruction against the immortal soul which dwells in trillions of various and diverse living entities among the 8 million 400 thousand species of life throughout the billions of material universes. Whom can anyone destroy? How can anyone destroy anyone? Who can cause anyone to be destroyed? No one can! Thus it can be seen that ignorance of the eternal nature of the soul is the cause of all grief by not understanding that the soul is immortal and thinking that the eternal soul perishes when the physical body perishes. Comprehending that what happens to the immortal soul when the physical body ceases to function is factually the withdrawal from an old physical body to enter into a new physical body. So it can be understood that those who have deep regret for the loss of the physical body, serving as it does as the facility for securing and enjoying material pleasures; these living entities should reflect on the futility and temporal nature of material existence rather than trying to eternally exploit their senses. This will be further expounded in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
As to remove any doubts concerning the Vedic injunction against the killing of cows and the killing of a brahmana such as Drona, the perpetrators of these heinious crimes go directly to hell to suffer at the termination of their material existence. To mitigate this Lord Krishna tells Arjuna that one who knows the soul to be indestructible and thus eternal as well as unborn and unmodifiable although uniquely different within every body knows that no one in anyway can cause the destruction of the soul. Who is the doer in the action of killing? Whom can one cause to be killed? Can one be the agent in the death of the soul? The answer is no to all and it is indicated that there should be no doubt about the veracity of the Vedic scriptures regarding the sin incurred either when one causes another to be killed or when one is directed to kill another. By this the Vedic injunctions prohibiting cow slaughter and the slaying of brahmanas and the great sin attached thereof must be accepted as fact even though one is in knowledge about the factual nature of the eternal reality of the souls immortality.
.

Sloka 2.22 audio recital in Sanskrit     

वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय
नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि |
तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णा
न्यन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही ||२- २२||

vAsA.nsi jIrNAni yathA vihAya
navAni gR^ihNAti naro.aparANi |
tathA sharIrANi vihAya jIrNA\-
nyanyAni sa.nyAti navAni dehI || 2-22 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.22

Anvaya:vasamsi–garments; jirnani–old and worn out; yatha–as it is; vihaya–giving up; navani–new garments; grhnati–does accept; narah–a man; aparani–other; tatha–in the same way; sarirani–bodies; vihaya–giving up; jirnani–old and useless; anyani–different; samyati–verily accepts; navani–new sets; dehi–the embodied.

Translation: As a person puts on new garments, giving up old ones, similarly, the soul accepts new material bodies, giving up the old and useless ones.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be submitted that although the eternal soul is not slain; yet and still reflecting on the total destruction of the physical body one might still grieve. To answer this it is being put forth that just as new physical bodies which are dependent on karma or reactions from one’s actions in a present life will surely continue; so there is no need for grief at the destruction of old, worm out bodies. This is the proper understanding.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
In this verse the Supreme Lord clarifies the distinction between the physical body and the eternal soul by giving this succinct analogy.

Now begins the summation.

The living entities propensity of acquiring and discarding physical bodies is factually the process of birth and death and therefore should be understood as not deserving to be the cause of sorrow. Thus the Supreme Lord gave explanation was given to delineate this.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

We learn from the Vedic scriptures that those who lose their physical bodies fighting for righteousness receive superior physical bodies in heavenly spheres of blessedness. Such a transition can be compared to discarding old, used, worn out clothes and attiring oneself in fresh, new raiment. So from another angle of vision it is being confirmed that the eternal soul is indestructible changing its embodied form for another when the physical body perishes. Now in the next verse some examples are emphasised to give a more developed and comprehensive understanding of this indestructibility in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Although by reflection it can be clearly understood that the soul is indestructible and not to be lamented for; yet and still the physical body is destructible. With the termination in battle of the physical body of a very dear one such as preceptor, protector or loved ones the seperation from whom will undoubtedly cause deep lamentation. To categorically clarify this misusage Lord Krishna explains that just as there is no grief when one discards old worn out garments and there is joy at accepting new garments in the same way the embodied soul discarding old worn out bodies joyfully accepts new ones. So if preceptors like Bhisma were to lose their body in this war of righteousness then they would receive a new and better physical body in their next life and it would be beneficial for them and not unfavorable.
.

Sloka 2.23 audio recital in Sanskrit     

नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः |
न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ||२- २३||

naina.n chhindanti shastrANi naina.n dahati pAvakaH |
na chaina.n kledayantyApo na shoShayati mArutaH || 2-23 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.23

Anvaya:na–never; enam–this soul; chindanti–can cut to pieces; sastrani–all weapons; na–never; enam–unto this soul; dahati–burns; pavakah–fire; na–never; ca–also; enam–unto this soul; kledayanti–moistens; apah–water; na–never; sosayati–dries; marutah–wind.

Translation: The soul can never be cut into pieces by any weapon, nor can he be burned by fire, nor moistened by water, nor withered by the wind.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The imperishable nature of the eternal soul is being explicitly proven by showing the impossibility of any means to slay it by these examples in answer to the previous statement of how can the eternal soul be slain in any way?

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
In the normal course of events in the material existence although there is no destruction there may appear that some being is destroyed like in the case of Daksa losing his head due to the wrath of Siva. To avoid misinterpretations in this way the Supreme Lord mentions the fact that the soul can not be pierced in any way.

Now begins the summation.

As there is no means for the destruction of the Supreme Lord there is also no means of destruction for the immortal soul.
.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
It could be interjected that just as in a burning house the occupants of the house are burned along with it, so also in the case of the soul if the physical body is burnt or cut might not the soul be burnt or cut as well. To annihilate this misconception the Supreme Lord Krishna expains that never can the soul be cut by weapons, never can the soul be burned by fire, never can the soul be moistened by water and never can the soul be withered by air. Although only one use of the word na meaning never would have been sufficient to establish the premise of utter futility in trying to destroy the soul, it is used four times to strengthen the empasis insuring there is not even the slightest vestige of doubt.
.

Sloka 2.24 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अच्छेद्योऽयमदाह्योऽयमक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च |
नित्यः सर्वगतः स्थाणुरचलोऽयं सनातनः ||२- २४||

achchhedyo.ayamadAhyo.ayamakledyo.ashoShya eva cha .
nityaH sarvagataH sthANurachalo.aya.n sanAtanaH || 2-24 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.24

Anvaya:acchedyah–unbreakable; ayam–this soul; adahyah–cannot be burned; ayam–this soul; akledyah–insoluble; asosyah–cannot be dried; eva–certainly; ca–and; nityah–everlasting; sarva-gatah–all-pervading; sthanuh–unchangeable; acalah–immovable; ayam–this soul; sanatanah–eternally the same.

Translation: This individual soul is unbreakable and insoluble, and can be neither burned nor dried. He is everlasting, all-pervading, unchangeable, immovable and eternally the same.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The reasons given as evidence supporting the eternal souls immortal position is that being acchedyah or indestructible it is incapable of being cut. Being adahyah or incombustible it is incapable of being burned. Being akledyah or insoluble it is incapable of being moistened. Being free from moisture it is asosyah or incapable of being dried. This is the idea. Another reason for why the soul is not liable to cutting, burning, moistening or drying is because it is everlasting, all pervading, immutable, never undergoing modification and primordial as it has no beginning.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
By opposition to the indestructibility of the eternal soul the possibility of such destruction in the future could be indicated; but by showing the impossibility of the eternal soul for destruction it is clarified that there is no destruction of the eternal soul in the future as well. How is it incapable of destruction? Understanding that the eternal soul being the essential constitution of all living entities is immortal and all pervading reflecting these qualities from the Supreme Lord. The word sthanuh meaning unchangeable defines the position of the eternal soul confirming permanence and by this all doubts about the eternality of the immortal soul should be dispelled. Similarly by the words nitya meaning everlasting, sanantanah meaning eternally the same and others these doubts are also dispelled verifying the factual position of the eternal soul from all angles of vision. Otherwise these examples would be merely repetitive.

Having previously described the living entities by virtue of their immortal soul as being a reflection of the Supreme Lord, the attributes already spoken but not repeated will not be considered as a defect. That is because the transcendental qualities of the Supreme Lord, the same in quality but minuscule in quantity is reflected in the form of the eternal soul without any modification.

Statements in the Vedic scriptures such as the Upanisads of rupam rupam pratirupo babhuva in each and every form is His reflection and abhasa eva ca is like a reflection confirm the Supreme Lord being all pervasive and in Brahma Sutra this is also established. So there is not even the slightest contradiction of the individual living entities being fragments of the Supreme Lord because it is perfectly established by His all pervasive presence due to the auspices of the eternal soul which is the eternal connection to the Supreme Lord Krishna bequeathed upon all living entities which are created from the natural interaction of males and females who were both born from the natural interaction of males and females. Being a reflection in the form of being a fragment means being a portion or a part of the whole and simply by being blessed by the presence of an immortal soul we an everlasting part of the whole connected to the Supreme Lord eternally.

Similarly words like sthanu and aikshata are also not contradictory due to the Supreme Lord Krishna being the Supreme Lord of all. Both words are given in the Vedic scriptures and are not because of the effect of illusion but due to the impossibility of being ever able conceptualize the Supreme Lord’s qualities completely various Vedic scriptures supply the qualities and attributes appropriate to the knowledge that is being elucidated at the time. Passages referring to Him as the Supreme Lord and passages referring to Him as the unmanifested brahman not contradictory because He possesses both these attributes which is feasible to understand because He is the primary cause and effect of all manifestations. So on the surface it may appear that various statements in the Vedic scriptures regarding His attributes could be construed as being contradictory but comprehending the over all understanding it can be easily seen that they actually are not.

The final summation is that in the Supreme Lord alone all contradictions are automatically resolved. In deliverance from the endless cycle of birth and death which only can be bequeathed to that exalted and blessed living entity who by has discovered the presence of the Supreme Lord within themselves as well as in every living entity born from the womb of a female who was also born from the womb of a female is a living entities greatest attainment factually fulfilled and the purpose of human existence is finally achieved. This alone is what is truly meant as moksa or liberation and this is actual deliverance. Because in accordance to the words of the Vedic scriptures it is seen that the variegated pleasures, the ecstatic happiness and the marvellous heavenly spheres gained due to the performance of meritorious actions disappear when that merit is eventually exhausted.

It should be emphasised that moksa or deliverance is only attainable by the grace of the Supreme Lord and no other way. When the Supreme Lord Krishna is worshipped and glorified how could liberation not be achieved ? If the Supreme Lord is pleased whatever could not be possible? So it should be understood that only by receiving the mercy of the Supreme Lord is a living entity able to be delivered from the ocean of birth and death in the material existence. In whom the Supreme Lord has given everlasting compassion is that living entity free from all self-deception of the bodily conception and delusions of illusion regarding the physical body which at death is simply an empty shell fit for consumption by worms and insects. By realising the Supreme Lord within by His grace one will be able to transgress the web of this transitory existence.

If the Supreme Lord is pleased, then verily what is not possible? Even artha which is wealth and kama which are desires are both unnecessary because they grant without a doubt results which are permanent. O ‘ Lord kindly protect us because we are burning in the fire of material existence suffering from the three fold miseries of old age, disease and death. Therefore one should always seek the shelter of serving the Supreme Lord which is the source of real happiness. When the Supreme Lord is finally understood to be the eternal support of all living entities, how can there not be deliverance for all who receive His grace. That grace is only possible for those whose righteous actions are determined by authentic knowledge. This is well known throughout all the universes and this authoritative fact should be realised as a truth. One who factually knows about the Supreme Lord without any delusion is situated in wisdom.

In the Narada Purana it is stated:

Truth is truth and always will be truth. If divided into a hundredth part of a hundred million it is still truth and even if that hundred millionth part of truth is divided into innumerable parts and further innumerable parts are made up again of that part it still remains truth. Thus is the ultimate greatness of the Supreme Lord and due only to Him is the greatness of Sri, Sesa, Brahma and Siva. This is the reason why the greatness of the heavenly denizens is spoken only due to their relationship with the Supreme Lord.

Among all Vedic scriptures the best is Mahabharata and the best part of Mahabharata hidden deep within like a treasure chest is Srimad Bhagavad- Gita. Who else but the Supreme Lord Krishna could have revealed such glorious and transcendental subject matters. There is none equal to the Supreme Lord and there will be none equal to Him in the future and by such statements the effulgent glory and greatness of Mahabharata is established eternally. Everything will be accomplished by faith in and knowledge of this truth. The Supreme Lord, by whose will Brahma manifested with a pleasant face and Rudra manifested with an angry face. There is nothing equal to or superior to the Supreme Lord. This statement has no need to be asserted in normal context as the Supreme Lord’s position is naturally far superior; but it was a reply to a specific query. In other cases this statement has been made in exceptional circumstances in regards to the celestial demigods. In such situations demigods such as Agni the demigod in charge of fire and Indra the king of all the demigods are referred to exemplifying the Supreme Lords omnipotence with praises such as: He is Agni meaning as fire is universal so is He. He is Indra meaning as Indra is supreme among the demigods, so is He. The supreme brahman meaning the transcendental embodiment of the Ultimate Truth. So this is the correct understanding and should be applied to other similar Vedic statements.

The potency of Siva and others have been described and clarified by their relationship with the Supreme Lord in their respective Puranas. In the Skanda Purana it has been stated: The difference which exists between a tiger and a lion, between Mt. Meru and Mt. Vindhya, between the sun and its reflection, the same difference exists between Siva and Indra. The difference which exists between a lion and an elephant in the forest, which exists between the sun and the moon in the sky, that which exists between the rivers Ganga and Yamuna, the same difference exists between Brahma and Siva. The difference which exists between the waters at the time of dissolution and the tiny drops of water forming mist in the casual ocean, that which exists between the spark and the fire at the time of conflagration, that same difference is between Visnu and Siva. Eternally omnipotent the Supreme Lord is incomparable to all others; but in order to indicate Siva’s power and potency as being connected to the Supreme Lord examples of his praise such as: none is equal or superior to, existing everywhere at every moment and that he alone are adored are given.

In the Padma Purana in the episode relating to Siva regarding Markandeya declining to be blessed with moksa or liberation in the future, it is cited that liberation only from the Supreme Lord is appropriate and commendable. He commented that Siva can grant the pleasures to be enjoyed by the senses; but liberation in the material existence from the cycle of birth and death can only be granted by the Surpreme Lord Krishna.

It should be known that the Vedic scriptures must be interpreted in conjunction with the authentic historical accounts found within the Mahabharata. In this way there will be no contradiction. This is a very crucial point to comprehend and knowledge of the Mahabharata is essential; otherwise doubt will arise about the actual status of Siva, Indra and the rest. The distinctive and extraordinary nature of the Supreme Lord is clearly revealed. Thus the eternal supremacy of the Supreme Lord Krishna is the summation of all the Vedic scriptures.

Even by this universally established fact, the truth about the Supreme Lord’s omnipotence is established there being no possibility in any circumstance to ever usurp this. For facts which are established conclusively there is no necessity for additional evidence. Since diverse qualities are common in various things, perceiving these qualities are possessed by others one should not conclude that they are absent in the Supreme Lord. So in the establishment of a premise if assistance of another premise is required to support it then there is possibility of imperfection by this system.

The Supreme Lord Krishna is confirmed in the Vedic scriptures as the supreme controller without purposeful intent because it is a fact. This is the summation of all the Vedic literatures. All the Vedas speak of the Supreme Lord Krishna or His sastrically authorised expansions and incarnations as the goal of all the Vedas. This is not a contradiction but it is ordained by the Supreme Lord Himself and being eternal it is eternally established like actions and time. Therefore it can be ascertained that the Vedas exist without any secondary purpose solely out of adoration for the Supreme Lord and by this it is conclusively confirmed that devotion to the Supreme Lord is the ultimate goal of existence.

For any conceptions of a formless intangible Supreme Lord, when wisdom arises, it itself is the form and tangibility for this formlessness and is endowed with its own unfathomable, inalienable power of independence as well being definitely not a product of illusion.

From the point of view of action: Austerity in the heart and the physical body is itself learning and action is verily the form itself. Therefore all is not like an illusion. In view of statements in the Vedas referring to the Supreme Lord such as: You are that wealth and other similar expressions denoting attributes it is not correct to categorise them as illusion. By one possessing unlimited wisdom, unlimited attributes and unlimited forms Brahma the manager of the universe was created. He was endowed with science and power from the source of unlimited potencies. Thus the Supreme Lord is known by His potencies as well as the possessors upon whom He has bequeathed his potency.

Now begins the summation.

The Supreme Lord Krishna is stating that just as He is indestructible the eternal soul within the living entities born from the womb of a female that was born from the womb of a female. The eternal soul being sub-atomic meaning even smaller than an atom is under the complete control of the Supreme Lord Krishna being qualitatively the same but quantitatively but an infinitesimal spark. Since the Supreme Lord Krishna is omnipresent He does not move therefore He is the basis of all existence. This existence never ceasing to exist is known as immovable and because He is identified by the primal sound Om He is eternally resonating and perennial.

The Visnu Purana states that the immortal soul is eternally existing under the control of the Supreme Lord Krishna and by being under His control verily makes the living entity immovable as well. Full of the attributes of the inviolable injunctions of the Vedas the eternal soul is know as sanatan or perennial. The eternal soul is stated as indivisible to show that as it can not be divided in any way it also can not be separated from the complete control of the Supreme Lord Krishna in any way. For one whom the eternal soul has been realised it is indescribable because it is inconceivable and one who understands the Supreme Lord Krishna on this platform has all their miseries mitigated. Therefore the Supreme Lord Krishna is saying to Arjuna that he need not lament because He always redeems them.

The Supreme Lord Krishna states earlier in chapter 2 beginning with verse 12 : na tu evaham jatu nasam meaning never was there a time when He did not exist nor did Arjuna not exist confirming the eternal position of both the Supreme Lord and the living entity. By the use of the word dehinah in verse 13 meaning the embodied and dehantara meaning the transference into bodies as well as in verse 18 the word saririnah meaning the embodied souls reveals the inherent qualities of the individual consciousness of the living entities subject to the state of transmigration from body to body. Words in verse 17 such as avinasa imperishable, yena sarvam idam tatam meaning by whom the body is pervaded, verse 18 anasinah meaning indestructible and aprameyasya meaning immeasurable, in verse 20 na mriyate never dies, in verse 21 avinasinam indestructible and avyayam immutable and in verse 25 avyakto yam acintyo yam avikaryo yam ucyate meaning imperceptible, inconceivable, immutable and the like are all the attributes of the Ultimate Consciousness.

The living entities do not pervade everywhere, nor are they inconceivable neither are they eternally indestructible or incomprehensible and unmodifiable, nor once born do they cease to be born again in another physical body. Because the Supreme Lord Krishna is one-hundred percent completely spiritual there is no question of any separation or distinction between His internal existence and His external appearance which although seemingly manifests as a product of this material existence is factually transcendental to the material existence in all respects, thus the word avinasi is only applicable to Him.

By whom the demigods are born but whom remains independent from them, to whom all others are subservient to; the Supreme Lord Krishna alone is capable of revealing the eternal goals of all living entities and establishing what is eternal righteousness. Therefore His glorification is a meritorious act. Similarly the word yuddha meaning the battle is an example of this in this instance by following His instructions.

For all living entities in the material existence the physical body has a beginning and an end this is verifiable because the physical body is material subject to the process of birth and death. The living entities physical bodies being incapable of existing independent from the eternal soul are not capable of slaying another eternal soul or having their own eternal soul slain by another. Therefore it is not sagacious to assume that anyone can kill or be killed.

The Supreme Lord Krishna possessing a completely spiritual body, transcendental to the material existence has not the propensity for death to separate His spirtual self from His spiritual body because they are both not of material nature. The Supreme Lord Krishna is never born, He manifests Himself from the spiritual world into the material existence by His own potency according to His own desire. Therefore the Supreme Lord Krishna being exclusively independent is independently the creating and terminating cause of existence for all living entities.

Although the physical bodies of all living entities are destroyed by the medium of time the essential nature of all living entities being the eternal soul is never destroyed. Thus to that extent the eternality of the living entity is insured by the auspices of the eternal soul. Therefore when one knows the essential nature of the eternal soul as being indestructible and the Supreme Lord as being the independent creator of all, how can one think of themselves as slaying or being slain by anyone?

Like clothes which become worn and old in time, even so the physical body becomes worn and old in time. Perceiving oneself dependent in all respects in all circumstances, the living entities realise that they are not independent as is in the case of the omnipotent Supreme Lord Krishna.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Weapons are powerless to inflict any injury by cutting or piercing, fire is powerless to burn, water is powerless to wet and air is powerless to dry the eternal soul. The soul having the propensity of pervading everything being capable by its nature of interpenetrating all substances. It is subtler than any substance and no substance can penetrate it. The effects of cutting, burning, soaking, drying and others which takes place by weapons, fire, water, air and the rest penetrate the object which is the focus of their direction; but due to its impregnable nature the soul is uninfluenced being beyond the scope of the material substratum. Hence the eternal soul is unchangeable, immovable and everlasting.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
In this verse Lord Krishna states the reasons why the soul can never be destroyed and these three descriptions are because the soul is incombustible, insoluble and unwitherable. Why is this so? Because the soul is nitya or eternal. Only the transitory physical body can be burned, moistened or withered. The soul is extremely subtle, subatomic in nature and sarva-gatah meaning all pervading. Being all pervasive the soul is extremely supra-subtle, more so than air or even than atoms. Being the subtlest of the subtlest it is sthanuh or unchangeable as it is incapable of being modified in any way. As it is acalah or permanent it is devoid of any nature of change and constant and as it is constant it is sananatah or everlasting and eternally existing.
.

Sloka 2.25 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अव्यक्तोऽयमचिन्त्योऽयमविकार्योऽयमुच्यते |
तस्मादेवं विदित्वैनं नानुशोचितुमर्हसि ||२- २५||

avyakto.ayamachintyo.ayamavikAryo.ayamuchyate |
tasmAdeva.n viditvaina.n nAnushochitumarhasi || 2-25 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.25

Anvaya: avyaktah–invisible; ayam–this soul; acintyah–inconceivable; ayam–this soul; avikaryah–unchangeable; ayam–this soul; ucyate–is said; tasmat–therefore; evam–like this; viditva–knowing it well; enam–this soul; na–do not; anusocitum–may lament over; arhasi–you deserve.

Translation: It is said that the soul is invisible, inconceivable, immutable, and unchangeable. Knowing this, you should not grieve for the body.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Analysing the subject further it is known as avyaktah or unmanifest not being able to be perceived by the eye or any other of the senses, acintyah or inconceivable not being able to be perceived by the mind. The word avikaryah meaning unchangeable is in the sense of not being modifiable by any of the organs of action. The word ucyate meaning it is said thus indicates that authoritative testimony corroborates the validity of the immortal soul being eternal and everlasting as given in the previous verse. The word tasmat means therefore and by its use it is shown that this is a concluding statement.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
The Supreme Lord is verily the manifestation of the inconceivable Himself.

Now begins the summation.

It might be questioned that if the Supreme Lord is all pervading why is He not visible? The reason is because He is inconceivable. It may be further queried how does He appear so endowed? Because of His power of remaining unthinkable; but this power does not come from any outside source but is contained solely within Himself. Whatever forms He exhibits in all these He alone manifests fully. To emphasise words like enam and ayam indicating the eternal soul are used in different contexts. In the case of the living entities it is to show that their eternal soul has qualitatively the same essence and attributes as the Supreme Lord but infinitesimal quantitatively. This is further confirmed in various Vedic scriptures.

In the Paingi Struti it is stated:

The physical body, pleasures and fragrances, light of wisdom, impeccable bravery; these things reflect the best of all wisdom, the best of all pleasures and bravery which find their source within the Ultimate Supreme Personality the Supreme Lord Krishna.

In the Parama Sruti it is stated:

The Supreme Lord Krishna is known to be both possessing a body and devoid of body. This is because He possesses a spiritual transcendental body but he is not possessing a physical body. Because His body is not constituted from the elements of material nature it is said to be a-dehah. The head, the feet, the arms and other parts of this spiritual, transcendental body are made up of the Supreme Lord Himself. There exists nothing which is distinctive from this spiritual, transcendental nature which can be called His body therefore He is called a-dehah without body. He Himself is His form and this spiritual, transcendental form is eternally existing beyond the scope of material existence.

Other than the Supreme Lord Krishna, none else is competent to comprehend this form. There is never for the Supreme Lord the creation or separation or destruction of His spiritual, transcendental body. He and His body are one and the same spiritual, transcendental essence. All of His beauty and all of His wonderful and phenomenal attributes are recorded only to understand that He is the source, the original repository of all attributes. The awareness that I am this physical body is an experience common to all living entities. Even though such a distinct awareness is normal it is perceived as special. Even though it is special, one does not perceive it as being separate from one’s own individual consciousness. So how can there ever be a manifestation of the resplendent Supreme Lord for one who cannot even first perceive their own individual consciousness within themselves?

Although attributes may which appear contradictory in normal, mundane human behaviour, it should be understood without a doubt that no such discrepancy ever exists in regard to the Supreme Lord when spoken of in various scriptures. Discrepancies imagined during reflection or speculated due to non-reflection are all a product of ignorance. They do not exist as a reality. These attributes are self revealed.

In the Suparna section of the Rig Veda it is stated:

The one only, without a second, before which there was nothing else whatsoever. Death was enveloped by death. Nothing else was visible. Like the waters which emanate from the mountains flow down in various rivers, whoever sees the attributes of the Supreme Lord in various manifested forms loses merit. Whoever sees even the slightest difference in the descents of the Supreme Lord Krishna’s multifarious and variegated incarnations such as Narasingha, Kurma and others from His attributes and actions and also a difference in these manifestations will go to the world of nescience. Therefore living entities who desire to learn about the Supreme Lord should start by knowing Him as indivisible.

Even if there appears to be some special difference it should be understood to be so due to time and circumstance. For example there is no difference between His special attributes and His special strength. There is as well no factual difference whatsoever between any special attribute and any of His special incarnation and His supreme distinctive and indivisible aspect. There is complete and absolute continuity and similarity in all respects in His original two armed form as the Supreme Lord Krishna and all of His unlimited incarnations and expansions.

There are six categories of incarnations of the Supreme Lord Krishna. The Four Kumaras, Hamsa, Varaha, Narada, Nara-Narayana, Kapila, Yagna, Dattatreya, Hayagriva, Prsnigarbha, Rsabha, Prithu, Matsya, Kurma, Dhanvantari, Mohini, Narasimha, Vamana, Parasurama, Vyasa, Rama, Balarama, Buddha and Kalki are known as Lila Avatars. The three manifestations of Visnu are known as Purusa Avataras of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Brahma and Shiva are known as Guna Avatars, incarnations such as Hari and Ajita are known as Manvantara Avatars, incarnations such as Anantadeva and Sesha Naga are known as Saktyavesa Avatars and incarnations such as Sukla, Rakta, Shyama and Pita are known as Yuga Avatars.

In the Varaha Purana it is stated:

All these avatars are bonafide incarnations of the Supreme Lord Krishna and then there are still all of His numerous, authorised expansions and His unlimited associates who descend to a material world with Him to assist in His pastimes. Those who have been blessed to know the Supreme Lord in this manner, onto them is the love of the Supreme Lord Krishna bestowed. Those who think otherwise due to misguided false conceptions, lack of opportunity for learning the Ultimate Truth or the inherent limitations of their own mind will fall permanently into the worlds of nescience.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

The word avyaktah means invisible or imperceivable this is because the eternal soul being totally transcendental to the material existence cannot be practically examined as can objects which possess qualities of a physical nature.

The word acintyah means inconceivable because the eternal soul is impossible to perceive by the mind and the senses being in every way transcendental to the material substratum which is what the consciousness of the living entities base their understanding on. The eternal soul differs from all other existences and levels of existence is in transcendence. Therefore it is avikaryah unchangeable and immutable. The Supreme Lord Krishna instructs that by knowing the eternal soul to be immortal there is no cause for grief.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
In this verse Lord Krishna gives additional reasons why one should never grieve for the soul. Because the soul is unmanifest it is not able to be cut or burned like objects which are manifest in this world and being unmanifest it is inconceivable as it is not possible to equate it with the form or nature of anything that one could imagine in the material existence. Being unable to imagine the constitution of the soul indicates it is immutable because it is devoid of any process of modification for example milk transforming to youghurt. Therfore comprehending the nature and quality of the soul as enunciated above one should not be under the delusion of lamentation.
.

Sloka 2.26 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम् |
तथापि त्वं महाबाहो नैवं शोचितुमर्हसि ||२- २६||

atha chaina.n nityajAta.n nitya.n vA manyase mR^itam.h |
tathApi tvaM mahAbAho naiva.n shochitumarhasi || 2-26 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.26

Anvaya: atha–if, however; ca–also; enam–this soul; nitya-jatam–always born; nityam–forever; va–either; manyase–so think; mrtam–dead; tatha api–still; tvam–you; maha-baho–O mighty-armed one; na–never; enam–about the soul; socitum–to lament; arhasi–deserve.

Translation: If, however, you think that the soul is perpetually born and always dies, still you still have no reason to lament, O mighty-armed.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Thus it has been stated by authoritative testimony that because the soul is neither subject to birth or death there is no need to lament. Now it is being stated that even if one erroneously believes that the eternal soul is perpetually born when the body is born and perpetually dies with the death of the body then and still there is no need for lamentation. Since both virtue and sin with their resultant reactions of birth and death are also attached to the soul perpetually there is still no need to lament.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Even though the immortal soul is eternal, because of its constant connection and disconnection with the physical body from time immemorial it believes it is experiencing birth and death.

Now begins the summation.

Thus exists this expansive samsara known as the endless cycle of birth and death in the material existence. Until and unless the living entity has attained liberation from the material existence, one is subject to the stringent laws of endless births and deaths in different physical bodies as ordained by the material nature and so are following natural order. Therefore by possessing even this small amount of knowledge there is no need to worry.

In the Shabda Nirnaya it is stated:

Eternal and permanent the immortal soul is known to be and also the immortal soul is eternally in accordance with the cosmic order.

Understanding in the knowledge that there is a cosmic order to existence one should not grieve.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Here the Supreme Lord Krishna gives Arjuna another reason not to lament for He states that even if one considers the eternal soul to be the same as the physical body which is subject to incessant births and deaths and not a separate and distinct reality; then still there is no need for grief because from birth the ageing of the physical body due to the passage of time leads to death and birth and death is a law of nature in the material existence and unavoidable.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
In this way after establishing the eternal reality of the souls immortality according to the authority of Vedic scripture, the Supreme Lord Krishna describes that it is not intelligent to lament about it, even if one accepts the hypothesis of the Digambaras who believe that the soul is the same size as the body and is born and experiences death along with the body. This is referred to by the particle atha meaning if however, indicating according to another view. Accepting even this other view that the soul is constantly being born and constantly dying there is still no reason to lament about it and the reason why Lord Krishna reveals in the next verse.
.

Sloka 2.27 audio recital in Sanskrit     

जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च |
तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ||२- २७||

jAtasya hi dhruvo mR^ityurdhruva.n janma mR^itasya cha |
tasmAdaparihArye.arthe na tva.n shochitumarhasi || 2-27 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.27

Anvaya: jatasya–one who has taken his birth; hi–certainly; dhruvah–a fact; mrtyuh–death; dhruvam–it is also a fact; janma–birth; mrtasya–of the dead; ca–also; tasmat–therefore; apariharye–for that which is unavoidable; arthe–in the matter of; na–do not; tvam–you; socitum–to lament; arhasi–deserve.

Translation: For one who has taken his birth, death is certain; and for one who is dead, birth is certain. Therefore, in the unavoidable discharge of your duty, you should not lament.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Why is there still no need to grieve? This is being given here in this verse. For one who is born death is certain when the results of the actions which originated it are exhausted. Similarly when one dies rebirth is indeed certain due to the reactions good or bad which one has to accept by the karmic actions accrured while one was in that physical body. Therefore for the inevitable fact of birth and death one should never subject oneself to lament for.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Why should one not grieve? Because a natural function is being enacted according to cosmic order.

Now begins the summation.

Therefore understanding the reality of the existence of birth and death there should be no delusion.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

It is evident that death of the physical body is inevitable to whatever is born and that there is no way to escape from this physical termination of the body. Similarly rebirth is unavoidable once one’s physical body has died. How can something which has been lost become again? It is conceivable that something which has already been to become again; but it is inconceivable for that which has never been to become. Therefore there is nothing that can come that has not been. What is known as birth and death is but just different modifications of an ever existing condition. Yarn and other materials exist but when they are woven into a fabric that is a particular arrangement of the yarn itself, it receives the name cloth in its modified state. Even the asat-karya-vadis who follow the fallacious hypothesis that existence comes from non-existence should admit the ever existing state, for what we know as cloth to them is a new creation but is factually the same old yarn only in a new form which has been created. It is not sagacious or well thought out to assume that a new substance has come into being simply because of a modified condition.

Thus coming into existence and disappearing from existence are modified states of an ever existing reality. One of the conditions of this modified state is its appearance called birth and another condition being its diametric opposite is known as death which by disappearing this ever existing reality passes into. For a substance which is intrinsically metamorphic the process of modification is essential. As in the case of a clod of earth, transformed into clay, transformed into a pot, transformed into dust and transformed back to earth again. The manifestation of a subsequent condition is but a modification of a previous condition and that same subsequent condition becomes a prior condition of another subsequent condition. Reasoning in this way it can be understood that it is natural that successive modifications take place in regards to creation and destruction of physical bodies which cannot be avoided and there is no reason to lament due to this.

If there is some slight grief which may be apparent by the passing from a prior modified state to a subsequent modified state even this grief need not arise in the case of living entities such as human beings because… and the next verse 28 clarifies why.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
How is this verse to be understood? For one who is born death is certain. This is because of the reality of a fixed time limit in regard to the continuation of actions relating to the coming into existence of one’s physical body as well as the longevity of one’s present physical body. The fact that this reality is inevitable is due to the nature of activities performed in one’s previous existence which causes one to be continuously connected to the cycle of birth and death in the present body. Therefore it does not behoove one to grieve over the unavoidable regarding the physical body which is dependant on actions.
.

Sloka 2.28 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत |
अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिदेवना ||२- २८||

avyaktAdIni bhUtAni vyaktamadhyAni bhArata |
avyaktanidhanAnyeva tatra kA paridevanA || 2-28 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.28

Anvaya:avyakta-adini–in the beginning unmanifested; bhutani–all that are created; vyakta–manifested; madhyani–in the middle; bharata–O descendant of Bharata; avyakta–nonmanifested; nidhanani–all that are vanquished; eva–it is all like that; tatra–therefore; ka–what; paridevana–lamentation.

Translation: All created beings are unmanifest in their beginning, manifest in their interim state, and unmanifest again when they are annihilated. So what need is there for lamentation?

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
When one considers the nature of the physical body and the facts about birth and death being a physical reality one should not lament. All living entities have the unmanifest as their beginnings, meaning unmanifest in the physical existence because it is only that which exists in the physical world either subtle or physical that is manifested. In the middle all living entities are manifested in the period between birth and death known as life constituting the state of mortal existence. Finally at the moment the body perishes known as death all living entities return once more to the unmanifest state. It is inevitable that all living entities must accept the nature of the material existence being embodied in a physical body so what is the need to lament over the physical body. To lament thus is like a person lamenting over friends seen drowning in a dream after one has woken up.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
In this verse the Supreme Lord Krishna explains the fact that here on Earth whatever happened before birth is unknown by the use of the word avyaktadini.
.
Ramanuja’s Commentary

Living entities like human beings though eternally existing due to the auspices of each one’s eternal soul have an unknown origin before birth, a manifest condition from birth to death and proceed again to an unknown existence at the termination of the physical body. Such alternations constitute material existence and are a natural law. This then gives no cause to grieve. Having just shown that even if one erroneously was under the misapprehension that the physical body itself and the eternal soul are the same; there is still no reason to grieve as in the next verse 29 it is declared that very rarely is a person found who would see, hear, converse, or who could be convinced about the wonderful nature of the eternal soul which is factually distinct from the physical body.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Even when the soul has departed from the physical body and no longer connected as is inevitable at the time of death and the bodies of respected elders like Bhishma are no longer perceptible still what is the necessity for grief? To this Lord Krishna states that all is unmanifest in its primordial state which is characterised by the three qualities known as sattva, rajas and tamas and which is a prior stage of creation to the illusory energy and material creation. All living entities have bodies in substratum as consciousness and this is the original matter of all existence which is beyond perception due to its being extremely subtle and subatomic in essence. But this in no way indicates that there is before all this an antecedent non-existence as the logicians and the impersonalists opine due to there inability to perceive this extremely subtle, subatomic nature. This original matter although extremely subtle and subatomic is revealed in the Vedic scriptures and is perceived by one whose consciousness has attained the realization of that state. Thus they are of the same nature although there is modification during the intermediate stage from birth to death as is established in the Vedanta Sutra, II:XV,XVI of Vedavyasa which states: because of the existence of the cause, the effect is perceived; the effect is non-different from the cause although being posterior because it is existent in the cause.

It should not under any circumstances be erroneously assumed or mistakingly believed that from a non-existent condition the existent was produced and that because of the cause being non-existent then the effect is non- existent and thus the world is also non-existent. This has already been refuted and clarified by Vedavyasa in Vedanta-Sutra, II:XIX where it states: That as a cloth is non-different from its threads, an effect is also non-different from it’s cause. So how can it be reconciled that the something can be produced from nothing as those hypothesising that existence can manifest from the non-existent.

If we were to accept our origin as being non-existent then we can accept that the oil of sesame seeds is produced from sand but this has never been seen or heard. Because it is subatomic it is imperceptible and yet it is still existing. Therefore in the matter of the existence of living entities the unmanifest, imperceptibly subtle, transforms itself into the manifest by modification which is known as birth and after some time again transforms itself into the unmanifest which is known as death. So when the correct understanding of birth and death is realized then what possibly is the necessity for lamentation as it is not befitting one who is situated in spiritual intelligence.
.

Sloka 2.29 audio recital in Sanskrit     

आश्चर्यवत्पश्यति कश्चिदेन
माश्चर्यवद्वदति तथैव चान्यः |
आश्चर्यवच्चैनमन्यः शृणोति
श्रुत्वाप्येनं वेद न चैव कश्चित् ||२- २९||

Ashcharyavatpashyati kashchidena\-
mAshcharyavadvadati tathaiva chAnyaH |
AshcharyavachchainamanyaH shR^iNoti
shrutvApyena.n veda na chaiva kashchit.h || 2-29 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.29

Anvaya: ascarya-vat–amazing; pasyati–see; kascit–some; enam–this soul; ascarya-vat–amazing; vadati–speak; tatha–there; eva–certainly; ca–also; anyah–another; ascarya-vat–similarly amazing; ca–also; enam–this soul; anyah–others; srnoti–hear; srutva–having heard; api–even; enam–this soul; veda–do know; na–never; ca–and; eva–certainly; kascit–anyone.

Translation: Some look at the soul as amazing, some describe him as amazing, and some hear of him as amazing, while others, even after hearing about him, cannot understand him at all.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Why then is it seen that even men possessing intelligence lament in this world? It is simply due to ignorance about the true nature of the eternal soul. Having this theme in mind the abstruseness of the eternal soul is being given. One realising the eternal soul by the understanding the truth found within the Vedic scriptures by the words of the spiritual master sees the eternal soul as amazing. One realising the eternal soul as all pervading and of super natural eternity, knowledge and bliss is bewildered and overcome by its incomprehensibility as in the case of something beyond ones capacity to conceive. Another will talk of the eternal soul as amazing and another will hear of the eternal soul as amazing. Others still misguided by erroneous conceptions and overpowered by false doctrines fail to realise the eternal soul even after correctly hearing about it, indicating that even with the opportunity of learning about the eternal soul does not insure that one can understand it fully.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
The eternal soul being a infinitesimal portion of the Supreme Lord is never destroyed even during the repetitious connection and disconnection with the physical body. As this is all in accordance with cosmic order there is certainly no reason to lament for this. The omnipotence of the Supreme Lord is amazing. Another meaning can be it is very rare. Therefore it is amazing when known. The eternal soul being an infinitesimal portion of the Supreme Lord is also amazing and the living entity who is aware of their own eternal soul is also very rare.

Now begins the summation.

What is there to be amazed at for the Supreme Lord to say: It is amazing? Verily what is amazing is the existence of the Supreme Lord Himself. Therefore the spiritually intelligent see the eternal soul as a marvellous expansion of the Supreme Lord and upon realisation of this reality are amazed. Like when the eye sees the expansive sky as being the form of the sky or perceives the expanse of the ocean as being the form of the ocean.

In the Brahma Tarka it is stated thus:

Amazing indeed is the Supreme Lord and it is not possible to find any other comparable to Him. Therefore wisdom about Him is very similar to perceiving Him.

Not being amazed by the Supreme Lord which exists in some is a symptom of those who are spiritually unintelligent. This is indicated by the word kascit meaning some.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Among innumerable living entities rarely is one to be found who determinedly absolved themselves of all sinful reactions and has accumulated sufficient merit as to become self-realised enabling one to perceive the separate nature and the distinct aspect of the eternal soul within. Such a realised soul may attempt to give this understanding to another similarly disposed or one may make an attempt to understand it by hearing about it and so forth as examples in this verse. But only one who has acquired enough merit to realise the eternal soul within can possess the true understanding of the eternal soul and no other. The conjunctive particle ca used at the end of the verse denotes that even among the philosophers, speakers and seekers of knowledge about the eternal soul; the transference of bonafide information given and received concerning factual knowledge of what the eternal soul actually is, is very rare.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
It may be postulated that in regard to the physical body which is actually the transformation of insentient primordial matter that it will merge again into its origins at the end. But such is not the case here. The soul is always referred to as being eternal. This is because it is immutable by nature. The soul is extremely difficult to realise due to its supra- subtlety but it does not become perceptible simply because it is different from the physical body. So the soul is referred to in this verse as being amazing. It is those beings out of millions of beings who by devotion to Lord Krishna have received the mercy to be free from physical attachment and purify their hearts in order to perceive their soul, they see the soul as amazing. In what way is the soul amazing? The soul is more amazing than anything experienced previously because it is transcendent to everything experienced in the material existence. It is not only amazing to the one who perceives the soul as amazing but also to the preceptor who describes the soul as amazing and to the disciple who learns from the preceptor that the soul is amazing as well. There is nothing in material existence that the soul can be compared with. So some others although hearing about the soul are still unable to comprehend it. The understanding is that the perceiver of the soul, the preceptor who describes the soul and the disciple who learns about the soul are all exceedingly difficult to gain association with in life.
.

Sloka 2.30 audio recital in Sanskrit     

देही नित्यमवध्योऽयं देहे सर्वस्य भारत |
तस्मात्सर्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ||२- ३०||

dehI nityamavadhyo.aya.n dehe sarvasya bhArata |
tasmAtsarvANi bhUtAni na tva.n shochitumarhasi || 2-30 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.30

Anvaya: dehi–the owner of the material body; nityam–eternally; avadhyah–cannot be killed; ayam–this soul; dehe–in the body; sarvasya–of everyone; bharata–O descendant of Bharata; tasmat–therefore; sarvani–all; bhutani–living entities (that are born); na–never; tvam–yourself; socitum–to lament; arhasi–deserve.

Translation: O descendant of Bharata, he who dwells in the body is eternal and can never be slain. Therefore you need not grieve for any creature.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Thus in the course of teaching in brief the incomprehensibility of the eternal soul, the explanation of why one has no need for lamentation of the physical body is being concluded. The embodied self, meaning the eternal soul is quite clear.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
How is the living entity indestructible? By the auspices of the Supreme Lord Krishna, of whom which a portion is residing within every living entity as the eternal soul for the protection of every living entity. This is why the living entity is know to be indestructible not due to any strengths of their own. Physical elements, actions and time are the attributes of all living entities which exist and cease to exist solely by the grace of the Supreme Lord.

Now begins the summation.

In the Padma Purana it is stated:

Establishing Himself within the heart of every living entity the Supreme Lord protects each and every living entity eternally. Permanent objects like the immortal soul are protected eternally and impermanent objects such as the physical body are protected temporarily. In His manifested form or in His unmanifest form, appearing or not appearing, throughout the material existence the Supreme Lord Krishna maintains and sustains all living entities for their highest good.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

The eternal soul embodied within the physical body regardless whether it is a human earthly body or the physical bodies possessed by the demigods in the heavenly spheres; the immortal soul is eternally invulnerable even though the body perishes. Hence understanding this principle as fundamental whatever diversity and varieagatedness in the forms of bodies born from the womb of a female who was also conceived in the womb of a female that exists from the demigods down through the human species as well as to the animal species and the fish species and even including the immovable plants and trees it should be clearly understood that equanimity prevails regarding the essential nature of the immortal soul abiding therein whatever the bodily form and is eternal. Whereas the physical body is transient. So Arjuna is being instructed that factually according to this proper understanding regarding all living entities, he has no basis to lament for any being.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
By the distinctive singular use of the soul being embodied in this verse it is clear that Arjuna is not under illusion that all souls are one. So Lord Krishna speaks of the soul within the body of a every living entity indicating different bodies for different species all being receptacles of enjoyment in variegated ways. But due to the reality that all souls are immortal it does not behove Arjuna to lament as the soul is always entering into various external forms until liberation has been achieved.
.

Sloka 2.31 audio recital in Sanskrit     

स्वधर्ममपि चावेक्ष्य न विकम्पितुमर्हसि |
धर्म्याद्धि युद्धाच्छ्रेयोऽन्यत्क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यते ||२- ३१||

svadharmamapi chAvekShya na vikampitumarhasi |
dharmyAddhi yuddhAchchhreyo.anyatkShatriyasya na vidyate || 2-31 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.31

Anvaya: sva-dharmam–one’s own religious principles; api–also; ca–indeed; aveksya–considering; na–never; vikampitum–to hesitate; arhasi–you deserve; dharmyat–from religious principles; hi–indeed; yuddhat–than fighting; sreyah–better engagements; anyat–anything else; ksatriyasya–of the ksatriya; na–does not; vidyate–exist.

Translation: Considering your specific duty as a ksatriya, you should know that there is no better engagement for you than fighting on religious principles; and so there is no need for hesitation.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Arjuna is being instructed that he should not hesitate in carrying out his duty as a warrior. Just because there is no destruction for the eternal soul. He should without hesitation slay these miscreants who have perpetrated heinous offences. Arjuna stated in chapter one, verse thirty- one that he saw no benefit in slaying kinsman. That argument is now nullified because for a ksatriya there is no better fight than for the sake of righteousness which is in conformity with the Vedic scriptures.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:
The virtuous war the Supreme Lord Krishna is instructing Arjuna about would be recorded in the Mahabharata as the Battle of Kuruksetra. Because it involves such great sacrifices of life it should be regarded as within the sphere of a ksatriya’s legitimate duties the same as a Agnisomiyam which is the performance of sacrifice to Agni and Soma. Understanding that it is to his merit as a ksatriya to fight this battle Arjuna can have no cause for regret. According to the ksatriya code of ethics no infringement has been enacted by Arjuna or his brothers the Pandava’s and so dharma or righteousness is with them. There is no action more meritorious for a ksatriya then to fight for righteousness. The qualities to be found in a ksatriya are heroism, exuberance, determination, resourcefulness, bravery in battle, generosity and leadership. That those slain in battle obtain illustrious heavenly bodies and win other rewards in heavenly spheres has already been mentioned.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Having established the fact that it is not intelligent to lament about the soul of any living entity, Lord Krishna subsequently responds to Arjunas supplication of what is in his highest good with the word svadharmam or principles of righteousness. Not only considering the nature of the soul but one’s duty is indicated here as well. Lord Krishna is emphasising this to Arjuna so that he will follow his duty as a ksatriya and act like a warrior. For to act contrary and hesitate or waver is not in accordance with ksatriya code according to Vedic scriptures and such a deviation by Arjuna would be considered an act of unrighteousness. What then is duty? Righteousness is duty which is not separate from those who are righteous. For a ksatriya there is nothing more welcome then the oppurtunity to fight a battle to protect righteousness. As it is stated in Yagnavalkya that the steps taken in warfare are as sacrifices themselves for those who do not turn their backs from battle even though wounded. It is to be understood that Arjunas previous lamentations such as feeling sympathy for his relatives in battle arrayed against him, his body shaking and his hair standing on end, his mind reeling and his loss of equilibrium are all unfavorable to him in executing his duty and thus are not appropriate in this situation.
.

Sloka 2.32 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यदृच्छया चोपपन्नं स्वर्गद्वारमपावृतम् |
सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः पार्थ लभन्ते युद्धमीदृशम् ||२- ३२||

yadR^ichchhayA chopapanna.n svargadvAramapAvR^itam.h |
sukhinaH kShatriyAH pArtha labhante yuddhamIdR^isham.h || 2-32 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.32

Anvaya: yadrcchaya–by its own accord; ca–also; upapannam–arrived at; svarga–heavenly planet; dvaram–door; apavrtam–wide open; sukhinah–very happy; ksatriyah–the members of the royal order; partha–O son of Prtha; labhante–do achieve; yuddham–war; idrsam–like this.

Translation: O Partha, happy are the ksatriyas to whom such fighting opportunities come unsought, opening for them the doors of the heavenly planets.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Moreover why should there be hesitation when such great good fortune has come unsolicited. Only those who are greatly fortunate get the opportunity to fight such a battle which has manifested unsought of its own accord which is verily a direct gateway to the heavenly spheres. Another interpretation can be that only those warriors who have the opportunity to fight such a battle are happy refuting Arjuna’s earlier statement in chapter one, verse thrity-seven of how can one be happy by in slaying meaning slaying the warriors on the opposite side determined to slay him.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.


Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The impending war is happening by itself, on its own, without any solicitation on the part of Arjuna. Thus when it happens he and his brothers will be fighting on the side of righteousness which constitutes the means for acquiring heavenly happiness without obstacles. Such a war can only be fought by the most fortunate of ksatriyas and Arjuna should understand his good fortune.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Normally one achieves well being after great effort whereas Arjuna is able to achieve it without any effort. This is indicated by the words yadrcchaya upapannam arrived at on its own accord. It is only the most fortunate among ksatriyas who get such unsolicited opportunities without effort. For a ksatriya who fights bravely war brings fame and opulence in this life and the next. By engaging in battle for a righteous cause exhibiting outstanding valour one’s glory is guaranteed. But what happens to those who are slain? Here Lord Krishna confirms that for the valorous who fall in battle there is an open door directly to the heavenly planets the same as for the yogis who fall short of achieving liberation.
.

Sloka 2.33 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं संग्रामं न करिष्यसि |
ततः स्वधर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापमवाप्स्यसि ||२- ३३||

atha chettvamimaM dharmya.n sa.ngrAma.n na kariShyasi |
tataH svadharma.n kIrti.n cha hitvA pApamavApsyasi || 2-33 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.33

Anvaya: atha–therefore; cet–if; tvam–you; imam–this; dharmyam–religious duty; sangramam–fighting; na–do not; karisyasi–perform; tatah–then; sva-dharmam–your religious duty; kirtim–reputation; ca–also; hitva–losing; papam–sinful reaction; avapsyasi–do gain.

Translation: If, however, you do not fight this religious war, then you will certainly incur sins for neglecting your duties and thus lose your reputation as a fighter.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
This verse illustrates the disadvantage of Arjuna acting contrary to his duty as a ksatriya.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:
If through injudicious sentiment or bewildered ignorance Arjuna should fail to perform his prescribed duty as a ksatriya by fighting for the sake of righteousness; he would lose a most excellent opportunity of attaining the heavenly spheres, he would lose his reputation as a hero and he would have to accept great sinful reaction.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Now Lord Krishna responds to Arjunas previous distress of not wanting to slay his enemies such as Bhishma and Drona but instead to allow his enemies to slay him. The use of the word atha is to emphasise another point of view that if Arjuna declines to fight this righteous war and chooses to disregard the acquisition of happiness in either this world or the heavenly worlds as enjoined in the Vedic scriptures which state that the royal orders should conquer over his enemies and rule over the earth. Then by refusing to accept his responsibility and avoiding the battle Arjuna would be abandoning his duty which brings rewards and boundless glory and thus losing his reputation both worldly and divine which results from the victory of a great warrior Arjuna would in fact incur great sin.
.

Sloka 2.34 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अकीर्तिं चापि भूतानि कथयिष्यन्ति तेऽव्ययाम् |
सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते ||२- ३४||

akIrti.n chApi bhUtAni kathayiShyanti te.avyayAm.h |
sambhAvitasya chAkIrtirmaraNAdatirichyate | 2-34 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.34

Anvaya: akirtim–infamy; ca–also; api–over and above; bhutani–all people; kathayisyanti–will speak; te–of you; avyayam–forever; sambhavitasya–for a respectable man; ca–also; akirtih–ill fame; maranat–than death; atiricyate–becomes more than.

Translation: People will always speak of your infamy, and for one who has been honored, dishonor is worse than death.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The consequences of Arjuna acting contrary to his duty as a ksatriya are given in this verse.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.


Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Not only will happiness and fame elude him if he disregards his duty as a ksatriya but the world opinion of those competent to judge and those incompetent as well will chastise him and speak of his act of disgrace public and privately. They will say Arjuna was a coward for when the battle was about to begin he gave only excuses and retreated hastily from the battlefield. The Supreme Lord Krishna is telling him that forever history will brand him for cowardice. If Arjuna was to reply that what the public think is of no consequence to him, the Supreme Lord neutralises that by stating that for a person of honour possessing the qualities of heroism, determination, puissance, courage etc. which are all contrary to cowardice to have to accept infamy is worse than death. If he was to acquire disgrace of this kind death for him would certainly be much better. If reasoning further one was to present the question of how ignominy could attach itself to one who is already a renowned hero and whose resignation from the battle field is prompted only by motives of respect for elders and compassion to friends and relatives then the next verse 34 neutralises that argument.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
By abandoning this war for righteousness not only would Arjuna lose his excellent reputation but great misfortune would arise as well. This is the gist of using the word akirtim meaning infamy. Instead of being the valiant warrior, Arjuna the weilder of the intrepid Gandiva bow has become timid and fled the battlefield. Such undying infamy would spread by word of mouth throughout the world in many countries by those who witnessed it. But not only ksatriya warriors would speak ill of Arjuna but also demi-gods, sages, merchants and even low class sudras. It might be put forth that isn’t infamy better than death? And that one should bear it instead of dying. In the Mahabharata it is stated that one should try to defeat the enemy by: negotiation, bribery, open attack, etc. but should not fight if success is not guaranteed. In that case war should be avoided. To this Lord Krishna is responding that this infamy is more painful than death? Arjuna has never been defeated in battle, he is the son of the king of the demi-gods Indra, he is the dear friend of Lord Krishna, he possess unrivaled valor, possessing extremely praiseworthy virtues with this understanding infamy is much more painful than death.
.

Sloka 2.35 audio recital in Sanskrit     

भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते त्वां महारथाः |
येषां च त्वं बहुमतो भूत्वा यास्यसि लाघवम् ||२- ३५||

bhayAdraNAduparataM ma.nsyante tvAM mahArathAH |
yeShA.n cha tvaM bahumato bhUtvA yAsyasi lAghavam.h || 2-35 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.35

Anvaya: bhayat–out of fear; ranat–from the battlefield; uparatam–ceased; mamsyante–will consider; tvam–unto you; maha-rathah–the great generals; yesam–of those who; ca–also; tvam–you; bahu-matah–in great estimation; bhutva–will become; yasyasi–will go; laghavam–decreased in value.

Translation: The great generals who have highly esteemed your name and fame will think that you have left the battlefield out of fear only, and thus they will consider you a coward.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The opinions of his peers, the mighty chariot warriors regarding Arjuna’s failure to execute his duty as a ksatriya are presented in this verse.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.


Ramanuja’s Commentary:
Whereas Arjuna had been know as a mighty warrior and renown hero, a worthy opponent for any of the valiant warriors of the Kauravas such as Karna, Duryodhana etc. If Arjuna were to retire from the fight on the eve of battle they would all consider him a coward and they immediately would assume that Arjuna had abstained from battle due to feeling dread at their prowess. For Arjuna to think that he would be vindicated by his abstention from battle by motives of fraternity and familial ties would be wrong for these sentiments are not considered sanctions for heroes towards belligerents.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna speaks this verse in the event that Arjuna might still insist in giving the reason for not fighting as compassion for relatives and as such he would rationalise that there is no censure or infamy. If Arjuna were to refrain from fighting the Kauravas, who everyone present knows tried to kill the five Pandavas in various ways like by poison and by fire and then unsuccessful in their attempts tried to steal their kingdom and put them in exile to the forest for 13 years, the same Arjuna who went to the heavenly planets and exhibited extraordinary prowess and valour pleasing his father Indra, king of the celestials. The same Arjuna who Arjuna who pleasing Mahadeva Shiva received his mercy and a boon from him. The same Arjuna whose weapons are more powerful than Bhishmas which were invincible against avatar Parasurama. The same Arjuna who arriving on this present battlefield made the oath “I will defeat all my enemies!” The same Arjuna who so famous for his innumerable exploits, various weapons, valour, spirit and excellence, whom all the mighty warriors on the opposing side are extremely joyous and eager to fight with. The same warriors who Arjuna has instructed Lord Krishna to place his mighty chariot in front of between the two armies and now is stationed by Lord Krishna for all to witness. Arjuna would belittle himself in front of all the mighty warriors headed by Bhishma, Drona and Karna if with his weapons dropped and eyes full of tears he was to leave the battlefield exhibiting grief and all the warriors on both sides would think he left the war out of fear. Where there is no fear a ksatriya never refuses to engage in battle.
.

Sloka 2.36 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अवाच्यवादांश्च बहून्वदिष्यन्ति तवाहिताः |
निन्दन्तस्तव सामर्थ्यं ततो दुःखतरं नु किम् ||२- ३६||

avAchyavAdA.nshcha bahUnvadiShyanti tavAhitAH |
nindantastava sAmarthyaM tato duHkhatara.n nu kim.h || 2-36 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.36

Anvaya: avacya–unkind; vadan–fabricated words; ca–also; bahun–many; vadisyanti–will say; tava–your; ahitah–enemies; nindantah–while vilifying; tava–your; samarthyam–ability; tatah–thereafter; duhkha-taram–more painful; nu–of course; kim–what is there.

Translation: Your enemies will describe you in many unkind words and scorn your ability. What could be more painful for you?

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The condemnations from his enemies regarding Arjuna’s failure to execute his duty as a ksatriya are presented in this verse.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.


Ramanuja’s Commentary:

If in fighting for righteousness Arjuna is slain in the battle then he will attain superior bliss in the heavenly spheres; but if he is victorious in battle by the slaying the miscreants then he will find himself in the position of unrivalled enjoyment and rulership of earthly royalty. Dividing and conquering, defending and ruling are the natural duties of ksatriya royalty. Discharging these duties with no anticipation for the fruits of the results will be the means by which Arjuna attains unparalleled bliss. So Arjuna should properly prepare his mind for war by fortifying himself with the firm conviction that embarking on the course of a righteous war is the guaranteed means for him to achieve moksa or final salvation which means precisely the embodied soul becoming eternally liberated from the fetters of material existence and which is without a doubt the great hurdle to be overcome in human existence. Arjuna is called here Kaunteya to remind him that such conduct is indeed representative as a son of the great devotee Queen Kunti. Next will be revealed the apropos mentality of a living entity aspiring for salvation.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Not only would Arjunas estimation wane in the assembly of mighty warriors but here Lord Krishna uses the word nindantah meaning to vilify. Arjunas enemies such as Duryodhana would say many unbecoming things about him such as: Look at the impotent Arjuna fleeing the battlefield like a dog with its tail between its legs and Karna would smirkingly add that although Arjuna was very valiant in the past now fearing our might he has become feeble- hearted and so he expeditiously leaves the battlefield like a coward to save his own life. Lord Krishna asks Arjuna what can be more painful than this?
.

Sloka 2.37 audio recital in Sanskrit     

हतो वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीम् |
तस्मादुत्तिष्ठ कौन्तेय युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः ||२- ३७||

hato vA prApsyasi svarga.n jitvA vA bhokShyase mahIm.h |
tasmAduttiShTha kaunteya yuddhAya kR^itanishchayaH || 2-37 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.37

Anvaya: hatah–being killed; va–either; prapsyasi–you will gain; svargam–the heavenly kingdom; jitva–by conquering; va–or; bhoksyase–you enjoy; mahim–the world; tasmat–therefore; uttistha–get up; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; yuddhaya–to fight; krta–determined; niscayah–uncertainty.

Translation: O son of Kunti, either you will be killed on the battlefield and attain the heavenly planets, or you will conquer and enjoy the earthly kingdom. Therefore get up and fight with determination.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The previous statement given by Arjuna in Chapter 2, verse six, about his concern of not knowing which is better: to conquer the enemy or be conquered by the enemy, is now being clarified by the Supreme Lords instruction in this verse, that by either conquering he will win dominion of the earth or by being conquered he will directly attain the heavenly spheres.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
If slain in battle while fighting bravely a ksatriya will certainly attain the heavenly spheres. It is also stated in the Vedic scriptures that if a ksatriya is victorious in battle what will be gained is dominion of the Earth and at the end of the life the heavenly spheres are guaranteed as well. Thus those who fight bravely in battle and are undefeated acquire more merit than those who are defeated.
.
There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
So in order to protect both the Earth and the heavenly realms it is better for a mighty warrior to face his enemies and fight. This Lord Krishna emphasises with the word hata meaning slain showing that slain or not slain there is benefit in both. So by this Arjunas previous doubt of not knowing what is better to slay or be slain and will they have victory or not are eradicated as both conclusions give benefit. So Arjuna should rise up and fight.
.

Sloka 2.38 audio recital in Sanskrit     

सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ |
ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि ||२- ३८||

sukhaduHkhe same kR^itvA lAbhAlAbhau jayAjayau |
tato yuddhAya yujyasva naivaM pApamavApsyasi || 2-38 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.38

Anvaya: sukha–happiness; duhkhe–in distress; same–in equanimity; krtva–doing so; labha-alabhau–both in loss and profit; jaya-ajayau–both in defeat and victory; tatah–thereafter; yuddhaya–for the sake of fighting; yujyasva–do fight; na–never; evam–in this way; papam–sinful reaction; avapsyasi–you will gain.

Translation: Do thou fight for the sake of fighting, without considering happiness or distress, loss or gain, victory or defeat–and, by so doing, you shall never incur sin.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The previous statement given by Arjuna in chapter one, verse 36 concerning his apprehension of sin coming upon him is now being nullifed by the Supreme Lord’s instruction of non-attachment to the fruits of action. Regarding as equal pleasure and pain, loss and gain and also the cause of both these dualities which is victory or defeat. The attribute of equanimity is absolute freedom from elation and despondency. Giving up all notions of what is pleasurable, being equipoised by whatever comes of its own accord and by fighting the battle as a matter of ksatriya duty Arjuna will not incur any sin.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The use of the word sankhya determines the proper understanding. Sankhyam is of the eternal soul category which is apprehensible through the understanding by the rational faculty of the mind. The immortal soul as an eternal principle must be understood. That understanding by which to comprehend it has already been given to Arjuna so he would know it in the previous verses in this chapter being verse 12 never at all was that I and verse 30 therefore thou has no cause to grieve for any creature. As for the use of the word yoga meaning karma yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness through actions without desiring fruitive results. It is to be understood that the spiritual intelligence acquired by following this yoga of actions when based on sankhyam or knowledge of the soul is the path which leads to salvation. This precise understanding is what is declared further in this chapter in verse 49; but in the next verse learn just what spiritual knowledge is to be gained by this karma yoga. Imbibing the wisdom from it, cut asunder the bonds of karmic reactions from all actions. The virtue of actions performed in this way will subsequently be given in verse 40.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

.

Sloka 2.39 audio recital in Sanskrit     

एषा तेऽभिहिता साङ्ख्ये बुद्धिर्योगे त्विमां शृणु |
बुद्ध्या युक्तो यया पार्थ कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि ||२- ३९||

eShA te.abhihitA sAN^khye buddhiryoge tvimA.n shR^iNu |
bud.hdhyA yukto yayA pArtha karmabandhaM prahAsyasi || 2-39 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.39

Anvaya: esa–all these; te–unto you; abhihita–described; sankhye–by analytical study; buddhih–intelligence; yoge–work without fruitive result; tu–but; imam–this; srnu–just hear; buddhya–by intelligence; yuktah–dovetailed; yaya–by which; partha–O son of Prtha; karma-bandham–bondage of reaction; prahasyasi–you can be released from.

Translation: Thus far I have declared to you the analytical knowledge of sankhya philosophy. Now listen to the knowledge of yoga whereby one works without fruitive result. O son of Prtha, when you act by such intelligence, you can free yourself from the bondage of works.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
A brief introduction as to the correct understanding concerning the eternality of the immortal soul that has just been described is now concluded and the path of actions known as karma yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness is now being introduced.

That by which the nature of reality is determined is deemed as sankhya which is analytical knowledge and that by which the nature of the eternal soul is revealed is also sankhya. The proper understanding one must utilise in respect to this has just been imparted to Arjuna. If in spite of all these unequivocal instructions regarding the nature of the eternal soul one is still unable to realise it then one should with determination seek to realise the eternal soul by the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness through actions without any hankering for fruitive rewards. This will allow a living entity to attain purity of mind and spiritual intelligence. By the manifestation of spiritual intelligence one will understand how to surrender all actions in righteousness to the Supreme Lord. The cessation of seeking and yearning for fruitive results effectively neutralises any fruitive reactions before they even materialise. Since it is ones own fruitive desires that causes fruitive actions and subsequent reactions, by renouncing the desire for any fruitive results and performing actions as a matter of duty a living entity is automatically freed from any fruitive reactions.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
The wisdom of sankhya being the ability to understand the distinction of spirit from matter leads to the realisation of the eternal soul and is in essence the sankhya philosophy has been given in smriti. The yoga method of the individual consciousness perceiving and then subsequently attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness and the accompanying state which manifests has been revealed in the Bhagavad Purana. Other than these nothing else has been referred to as the sankhya philosophy or the science of yoga ; but in other contexts the word karma yoga has been used and along with Pancaratra has been named as a method for liberation.

In the Vedic scriptures there is always a holistic understanding and comprehensive appreciation present, thus there is no contradiction unless one is in possession of faulty perceptions. It is sometimes seen that due to partial understanding an incorrect interpretation is made due to not acquiring sufficient knowledge. In the Citra Shikhandi Sastra the similarity between Pancaratra and the Vedas has been well documented. Also in all cases the sankhya philosophy and the science of yoga have been similarly described as methods for liberation from the material existence. This is quite proper because spiritual knowledge is the only means of salvation and various methods have been delineated in the Vedic scriptures regarding this. If attainment of salvation can become known by any method than that in itself is spiritual knowledge. By whatever way the sankhya system comes to be known that is the distinction of spirit from matter by that way it has been explained.

Now begins the summation.

Equal importance is also given to both jnana knowledge and sankhya. By yoga both these 2 become united; therefore yoga is the means. Seekers of truth have determined that yoga is the precursor to sankhya as given in the Sabda Nirnaya.

Brahma Tarka is a dialectical method propounded by Visnu incarnation Kapiladeva in his discourse to Devahuti on the original sankhya philosophy which is fully theist in the Bhagavat Purana. The nyaya philosophy of Gautama, the vaisesika philosophy of Kanada and the imitation sankhya philosophy which is athiestic of Kapila Muni are all but dialectical arguments not dialectical methods for attaining the Ultimate Truth. Mayavadi and Pasupata doctrines are considered profane. The mimamsaka philosophy of Jaimini is threefold concerning rituals, brahman and the Supreme Lord. The original sankhya philosophy of Kapiladeva and the mimamsaka of Jaimini are both dialectical methods for the Ultimate Truth. The perfect wisdom of the Vedic scriptures is the only complete source of spiritual knowledge. Those who have realised this eternal truth do not follow anything else. Other philosophies such as tantra or even the astanga yoga system of Pantanjali should not be followed according to the Narada Purana.

The atheist sankhya philosophy as has been stated earlier is a dialectical argument but here in Bhagavad-Gita it is being explained in its original theistic ontology as a dialectical method. The original sankhya philosophy as well as the astanga yoga system both declare that killing causes undesirable reactions.

In the Bhagavad-Gita war is recommended as desirable for upholding dharma or righteousness and in this way according to prescribed duties of a ksatriya is a means for salvation when it is said karma bandham prahasyasi. So it should be understood in this light and there should be no discrepancy between what has been intended in the original sankhya philosophy or the astanga yoga system and what has been related in Bhagavad-Gita as there is factually no contradiction.
.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Having instructed the true knowledge of the soul as being distinctly different from the physical body and seeing that this knowledge has still not been firmly embedded in Arjunas heart, Lord Krishna reiterates this truth again in order to illustrate that this knowledge never becomes firmly embedded without practice of the means which is yoga. To do this He introduces the yoga path of selfless actions as the means to this end. Thus the reality is to perform all actions under the direction of ones mind well cultivated by the aid of spiritual knowledge from the Vedic scriptures exclusively. Although this spiritual knowledge is scientific Arjuna is still unsteady in its application due to lack of practice in assimilation. So Lord Krishna explains that by practice in the performance of actions by the renunciation of their rewards Arjuna will be completely freed from transmigration in the material existence.
.

Sloka 2.40 audio recital in Sanskrit     

नेहाभिक्रमनाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते |
स्वल्पमप्यस्य धर्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात् ||२- ४०||

nehAbhikramanAsho.asti pratyavAyo na vidyate |
svalpamapyasya dharmasya trAyate mahato bhayAt.h || 2-40 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.40

Anvaya: na–there is not; iha–in this world; abhikrama–endeavoring; nasah–loss; asti–there is; pratyavayah–diminution; na–never; vidyate–there is; svalpam–little; api–although; asya–of this; dharmasya–of this occupation; trayate–releases; mahatah–of very great; bhayat–danger.

Translation: In this endeavor there is no loss or diminution, and a little advancement on this path can protect one from the most dangerous type of fear.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be put forth that activities such as farming sometimes fails to produce results due to natural phenomena such as variations in weather, drought, flooding etc. Also it may be submitted that there are chances of incurring reactions in the performance of spiritual rituals if the mantras are spoken improperly or if there are any defects performing the prescribed Vedic ceremony. So there may be some doubt regarding how bondage from actions can be effectively neutralised by karma yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining the Ultimate consciousness by performing actions as a matter of duty. These doubts are now being alleviated in this verse where it states that by the path of karma yoga, being free from fruitive desires there is no loss or diminution from any endeavour which is undertaken in righteousness nor is any effort wasted as is the case with actions having fruitive desires. In this there is no possibility of incurring any sin or reaction from such actions as these actions performed in righteousness are surrendered to the Supreme Lord and completely free from the desire of fruitive results. Moreover even the smallest amount of effort on this path of righteousness saves a living entity from the great danger of transmigration of being born again and again in the material existence endlessly.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
In the Agni Purana it is stated:

That pseudo devotion, inconsistant devotion and defective devotion due to insufficient knowledge or deviation from the Vedic injunctions renders any chance for reciprocation with the Supreme Lord as futile and in vain.

Keeping in mind the preceding words it can be seen that even without any intention whatsoever of propitiating the Supreme Lord; by the performance of righteous actions without any desire for reward or recognition, whether complete or incomplete righteousness is most certainly accrued to the followers of the Supreme Lord regardless. This eternal truth was initiated in the Satya Yuga for the benefit of the worlds in the Vedic scriptures. Except by the mercy of the Supreme Lord pleasure neither a drop of rain may fall; nor a blade of grass may grow. A spiritually intelligent living entity should always be a humble servant of the transcendental Supreme Lord Krishna serving Him with loving devotion without any desires. A living entity reading this material should understand it completely should never have any reservation that there is anything equal to or superior to Him. One should understand that according to revealed scriptures everything in existence has been created by Him and everything in existence is subordinate to Him. Accordingly even the gradation of His eternal and phenomenal incarnations and expansions is determined. These eternal truths initiated by the Supreme Lord Himself are fruitful in Treta Yuga, especially fruitful in Dvarapa Yuga and most especially fruitful in kali yaga. Therefore it should be clearly understood that the blessing of salvation can only be bestowed upon those who by spiritual knowledge have factually attained actual communion with the Supreme Lord Krishna.

The Vedic scriptures are eternal and are instruments of superior knowledge. Righteousness or dharma is also superior and of much more import than the propitiation of various demigods. Even better than all is having factual knowledge of the Supreme Lord is the best of all attributes. Whatever is offerred at the summation of yagna, that verily is for the Supreme Lord. Those knowers of the Vedas return to earth again after enjoying the celestial spheres and again performing meritorious service to the Supreme Lord they again go to the celestial spheres. Awareness of the status and gradation of the various demigods and performing actions which are beneficial to them brings with it similar results in the material existence. However without having comprehensive knowledge according to the Vedic scriptures of the paramount position of the Supreme Lord Krishna, as the Supreme Lord over all there is, all ones prayers, penance and longing for heavenly realms will be in vain; for without relinquishing attachment to the senses and without constant remembrance of the Supreme Lord Krishna even knowledge of the Vedas is in vain. But still due to having some piety they gradually are redeemed by the Supreme Lord at the end when they have realised that surrendering all actions unto the Supreme Lord according to the Vedic injunctions after living many lives performing meritorious actions.

One who has not realised the Supreme Lord Krishna’s paramount position over all there is, even if they perform all the rituals enjoined in the Vedas cannot be spoken of as a real knower of Vedanta. The word vada means speech. One who speaks about the Supreme Lord Krishna who is the Ultimate goal of the Vedas without factually understanding His Supreme position is merely theoretical. One should not be engrossed in debative arguments about the Vedas with living entities of no piety or to those who purposely perform sinful activities or to those who are incorrigible. These unfortunate living entities descend to the worlds of obscurity and darkness perpetually and which are without a beginning and an end. In the Vedic scriptures these worlds are known as vavra meaning from whence there is no return and were dwell living entities languishing in nescience.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

The Supreme Lord Krishna is reaffirming that the science of yoga rather than the various methods of action prescribed in the Vedic scriptures is the one path that has guaranteed certainty. The word vyavasaya derived from nischaya means certainty. The unshakeable conviction one has of such a decisive nature is that which the aspirant of salvation possesses and which can be understood by the actions they perform. The strength of this unshakeable conviction is directly connected to one’s understanding of the eternal reality of the soul’s immortality. Fragmented and not evolved is that mind which entertains ideas of performing actions for the reaping of results. People of this type vaguely know that the soul exists, although mistakenly attributing it as being part of the body and no more knowledge is required in their case as their material wishes for wealth and fame and even heaven can be obtained without having accurate, precise knowledge of the actual transcendental position of the eternal soul.

But on the other hand the conviction of certainty is unique in its singleness of purpose and focused aim. All actions executed by such a living entity has for its sole objective salvation and the means is yoga which is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness. This is the essence of the Vedic scriptures which lead to this conclusion and such being the case there can arise only one unshakeable conviction to one possessing spiritual insight.

For the fulfilment of one single attainment being salvation all actions are dedicated by one fixed in the firm resolve for salvation. Hence as the primary objective of the Vedic scriptures is one, the firm resolve as regarding the purpose of all actions can be but one as in the case for example of the six different kinds of rituals called Darsa-purnamasa. Three rituals are to be performed on the new moon and three are to be performed on the full moon. In their performance they all differ in regards to execution yet they may be said to constitute a single aim for when all are directed to obtaining a single fruit all there seperate differences may be understood as part of a whole.

Whereas in the case of those with fragmented and unfocused minds who engage in various activities each intended to acquire some result such as heaven, wealth, fame, power and so forth and so on the schemes are endless as the desires are endless. Even the results are diverse as in the case again of the Darsa-purnamasa, for although the rituals are directed to be performed for the obtainment of a specific goal, yet they confer minor benefits as well such as good health, vigor and long life. Thus it is stated that the mentality of those not evolved is endless and ramifying.

The conclusion of this verse is that all nitya or daily rites and all naimittika or occasional rites for specific times prescribed in the Vedic scriptures shall be performed with the sole aim of ultimate salvation as the purpose. Although each rite individually is capable of giving its own temporary, material reward; but all such rewards are to be ignored while holding focus solely on salvation.

As for fruitive rites and rituals desiring some material benediction, these shall be performed in the manner prescribed for the four varnas or classes of cultured life being brahmana, ksatriya, vaisya, and sudra in the four asramas or stages of cultured life being brahmacarya or celibate life, grihasta or married life, vanaprastha or renunounced life and sannyasa or dedication and focus solely on the Supreme Lord. Accordingly they should also resign the acquired results of their efforts in favor of salvation.

In the next three verses will be seen that those who engage solely in fruitive activities are condemned.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
In the normal course of events actions and merits have a finish at the end of ones lifetime. The actions have a conclusion in this world and the merits have a conclusion in the next world. It is likened as to a farmer tilling his crops, by industrious action the merits of an abundant harvest are assured. But if he is to omit any of the steps such as watering or pruning within the process the harvest is put into jeopardy. Similarly the demerit of non-comittance by Arjuna is also possible if any action of his duty is not performed. In this regard then by only acting without fruitive desires does not guarantee freedom from the shackles of bondage in the material existence. But here Lord Krishna explains in bhakti-yoga which is His exclusive loving devotional service there is an exemption to the aforementioned rule and that there is never any loss or dimunition to those who are fortunate enough to perform bhakti-yoga in this lifetime or any lifetime. Unlike the cultivation of farming which is always beset by problems of weather, drought, blight and numerous unexpected difficulties. In bhakti-yoga there is no chance of contrary results or fear of demerits in committance or non-committance when carrying out devotional service for the ultimate satisfaction of the Supreme Lord. Hence even the slightest effort in the cultivation of bhakti-yoga which is without fruitive desires and which is also known as acting selflessly assures one complete protection and inevitably saves one from transmigration and the endless cycle of birth and death in the material existence.
.

Sloka 2.41 audio recital in Sanskrit     

व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिरेकेह कुरुनन्दन |
बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च बुद्धयोऽव्यवसायिनाम् ||२- ४१||

vyavasAyAtmikA buddhirekeha kurunandana |
bahushAkhA hyanantAshcha buddhayo.avyavasAyinAm.h || 2-41 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.41

Anvaya: vyavasaya-atmika–resolute Krsna consciousness; buddhih–intelligence; eka–only one; iha–in this world; kuru-nandana–O beloved child of the Kurus; bahu-sakhah–various branches; hi–indeed; anantah–unlimited; ca–also; buddhayah–intelligence; avyavasayinam–of those who are not in Krsna consciousness.

Translation: Those who are on this path are resolute in purpose, and their aim is one. O beloved child of the Kurus, the intelligence of those who are irresolute is many-branched.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be asked why the difference between actions performed without desire and actions done with desire is being given. The answer to this is being given in this verse. By karma yoga which is performed surrendering all actions to the Supreme Lord, there is spiritual intelligence which when bequeathed gives single pointed determination resolute in spiritual consciousness. But in the case of those enacting actions with desires of fruitive rewards their thoughts are endless due to their desires being endless. Indeed they have unlimited diverse branches and thus diluted by having too many conceptions in the form of all their desires. Performance of daily rituals enjoined by the Vedic scriptures such as meditation on the Supreme Lord and occasional rituals performed on special occasions such as the birth ceremony are never done in vain even if there is some defect present. for regarding them it is ordained that one who is duly authorised by the disciplic succession of one of the four authorised sampradaya’s should perform there duties fully according to there capacity and in this way there is no defect or imperfection for they cannot manifest through any righteous actions which are surrendered to the Supreme Lord. But fruitive actions of one motivated by rewards are always tainted by the imperfection of fruitive desires which is binding to fruitive reaction as well as the defect of not surrendering their actions to the Supreme Lord. Hence it can be seen that there is indeed a great difference between the two.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Listen to these words with a balanced and equipoised mind. Thus has it been stated. Unlimited are the various conditioned states of the mind due to the influence of uncountable impressions leading to innumerable opinions. Therefore Arjuna may have a doubt and enquire, how can he have faith in these words without any reservation. Anticipating this the Supreme Lord neutralises this query with this verse. Amongst all the prescribed recommended opinions having truthful attributes there is always singular unity. This is the actual meaning. Propitiation of the Supreme Lord Krishna is performed only by very few as only a very few actually possess the quality of being singular and resolute in their commitment. Any performance done by others is disparate and irresolute due to the overwhelming impressions within their mind giving them an endless procession of distracting opinions.
.
There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
There is a huge difference between the mentality of intelligence involved in actions seeking fruitive reward and the mentality of the spiritually evolved engaged in selfless actions not seeking rewards devoted to the Lord Krishna which bring great happiness. Thus Lord Krishna says the word vyavasa or resolute. The purpose for actions must be resolute. One should perform actions with the thought that it is for the ultimate satisfaction for Lord Krishna thinking that their action will please Him and for not other reason. This resolute intelligence gives one the realization that they will easily be liberated by the Lords grace, from samsara the ocean of birth and death in the material existence and only by His grace. It is one- pointed because its aim is solely for the service and devotion of the omnipotent, omniscient, Supreme Lord Krishna the controller and dispenser of all rewards and the sole destination of all those seeking liberation. This resolute intelligence bestows one result and that is it gives great happiness and thus it is considered as already possessed by those who are in the process of devotion to Lord Krishna already. Those of fragmented intelligence who have not perceived reality and whose endless desires for fame, wealth, power, etc. and who by their actions are dictated by procuring and accumalization and work and reward. Their intelligence is fragmented into endless directions each unique unto itself and of diverse types all leading to misery. These things can only be perceived by direct experience.
.

Sloka 2.42 and 2.43 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः |
वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः ||२- ४२||
कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा जन्मकर्मफलप्रदाम् |
क्रियाविशेषबहुलां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति ||२- ४३||

yAmimAM puShpitAM vAchaM pravadantyavipashchitaH |
vedavAdaratAH pArtha nAnyadastIti vAdinaH || 2-42 ||

kAmAtmAnaH svargaparA janmakarmaphalapradAm.h |
kriyAvisheShabahulAM bhogaishvaryagatiM prati || 2-43 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.42, 2.43

Anvaya: yam imam–all these; puspitam–flowery; vacam–words; pravadanti–say; avipascitah–men with a poor fund of knowledge; veda-vada-ratah–supposed followers of the Vedas; partha–O son of Prtha; na–never; anyat–anything else; asti–there is; iti–thus; vadinah–advocates; kama-atmanah–desirous of sense gratification; svarga-parah–aiming to achieve heavenly planets; janma-karma-phala-pradam–resulting in fruitive actions, good birth, etc.; kriya-visesa–pompous ceremonies; bahulam–various; bhoga–sense enjoyment; aisvarya–opulence; gatim–progress; prati–towards.

Translation: Men of small knowledge are very much attached to the flowery words of the Vedas, which recommend various fruitive activities for elevation to heavenly planets, resultant good birth, power, and so forth. Being desirous of sense gratification and opulent life, they say that there is nothing more than this.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Sridhara Swami’s Commentary

One may wonder why is it that living entities filled with desire fail to relinquish even desires which are very difficult to fulfil and adhere in fixed determination to surrendering their actions to the Supreme Lord? This is now being answered that they are dull witted of limited understanding who consider heaven as the highest attainment. Why do they talk such nonsense? Because they are of dull wits and limited understanding. The reason for their dull wits is that they are enamoured by the panegyric euphemisms of the scriptures. Words like everlasting happiness, eternal life, resurrection and immortality are very appealing to those of limited understanding. With these thoughts motivating them they perform every actions for the attainment of these goals believing they can be attained independent of the mercy of the Supreme Lord

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Why is it that the scholars who have studied the Vedas so fastidiously fail to possess the resolute intelligence? It is because they could not comprehend the essence of the Vedic scriptures and subsequently they missed understanding the true purport of the Vedas. This Lord Krishna emphasises with the word avipascitah meaning the ignorant who are not knowledgeable are attracted to flowery descriptions in the Vedas even as a beautiful flowery creeper may be attractive although it is poisonous. But these living entities are ignorant and not actual scholars of Vedanta because they are only devoted to those parts of the Vedas which help them secure material opulence in this life and the next. Such statements like by performing some ritual one can obtain imperishable merit or by drinking Soma nectar one can become immortal, etc. Their conception of devotion is being devoted to pursuing heavenly delights and they even foolishly argue that there is nothing more beyond the rewards of heavenly pleasures to attain. Why is this so for them? It is because their minds are obsessed by desires due to addiction to material pleasures experienced by contact with the senses of taste, touch, seeing, hearing and smelling. So they look upon heaven although heaven is still in the material existence as being the supreme goal. This is because in heaven there is neither old age or sickness, everything is beautiful and a wonder to behold and the facility to enjoy fully is increased a thousand fold. So all their activities in this life are enacted solely for the sake of accuring benefits in order to reside in the heavenly spheres where they can enjoy and enjoy for a seemingly unlimited time span. But when their merit has expired after enjoying the delights of heaven in various wonderful ways to their hearts content they will again take birth on earth in a rich and learned family who also are following the flowery phrases of the Vedas and they will again follow this path and at lifes end transmigrate to the heavenly planets once again to enact the process. By being born into situations of opulence and prosperity allows one ample means and facility to perform very extravagantly the various prescribed rituals such as astrologically performing activities on the auspicious days each month such as purnima to obtain the maximum result. Thus again and again from body to body they are continuously revolving like a waterwheel. In special situations Indra, the ruler of the demi-gods sometimes appoints one of them as a gandharva celestial musician or as an aspara celestial damsel among the demigods for the duration of time their merit warrants.
.

Sloka 2.44 audio recital in Sanskrit     

भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् |
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते ||२- ४४||

bhogaishvaryaprasaktAnA.n tayApahR^itachetasAm.h |
vyavasAyAtmikA buddhiH samAdhau na vidhIyate || 2-44 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.44

Anvaya: bhoga–material enjoyment; aisvarya–opulence; prasaktanam–those who are so attached; taya–by such things; apahrta-cetasam–bewildered in mind; vyavasaya-atmika–fixed determination; buddhih–devotional service of the Lord; samadhau–in the controlled mind; na–never; vidhiyate–does take place.

Translation: In the minds of those who are too attached to sense enjoyment and material opulence, and who are bewildered by such things, the resolute determination of devotional service to the Supreme Lord does not take place.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The spiritual understanding which leads to a fixed determination is not achieved by those whose minds are carried away by flowery euphemisms which are temporarily so appealing to the mind of those of limited understanding. Those euphemisms which refer to heavenly pleasures and heavenly delights are constituted by them as the highest goal of human existence.. Regarding conceptions of heaven as the highest goal they foolishly endeavour to attain it by the purview of their limited understanding believing that once there they can fully enjoy themselves to their hearts content eternally. Therefore those who are enslaved to wealth, enjoyment and power for their own sake never are able to receive the spiritual intelligence which leads to fixed determination in regard to surrendering all ones actions for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
The opinions of those who are not resolute are contrary to the Vedic scriptures; but the summations of those who are resolute possessing spiritual intelligence are never contrary to the Vedic scriptures. Arjuna may query why the Supreme Lord speaks about things providing pleasures of heaven, this is clarified by the Supreme Lord in this verse. In verse 42 beginning yam to the word taya in verse forty-four it can be ascertained that if salvation is the fruit then any heavenly pleasures are merely the flowers.

Those who revel only in the words of the Vedas are known as Vedavad ratah. They speak only of revelling in the pleasures derived from actions. Those who speak about the Vedas in expectation of fruits are said to revel therein and thus they are motivated by desire. The essence and the objective of the Vedic scriptures is knowledge of the Ultimate, which is the Supreme Lord, who is very pleased by those who are devoted to Him. The instructions and injunctions within the Vedic scriptures should be known to be applicable solely to the Supreme Lord and no other. It is the knowledge of the Supreme Lord that is to be sought and understood. This is what is to be achieved by all living entities to make their life in the material existence successful.

In reference to those pursuing the goals of opulence and pleasure and in reference to the means of acquiring those fruits thereof, these vedavad ratahs declare that this is knowledge of Vedanta. For these persons spiritual intelligence and comprehensive discrimination does not manifest itself in the form of an equinanimous intellect. Only those in whom spiritual intelligence has awakened have comprehensive knowledge of the Supreme Lord and the total satisfaction of mind and senses that accompanies it. Verily this is the means for salvation. It is also specifically mentioned in the Srimad Bhagavatam known also as the Bhagavat Purana.

Not for these vedavad ratahs is the realisation of the Ultimate Truth spoken of in the Vedas in all their entirety. For whom realisation does not dawn that the empirical world is similar to the perception of the world seen in the dream state? In whom then does exist this irresolute intelligence? In those who listen to the words of those without spiritual intelligence? When one’s consciousness is abducted by speculative schemes stemming from fruitive desires it is not possible for satisfaction of the mind to manifest.

Factually as things are, similar is the spiritual intelligence. Knowledge which is distorted, similarly is that satisfaction derived from such knowledge distorted. Spiritual conceptions do not arise in minds which are influenced by distorted knowledge. In these minds only a material conception of heaven and heavenly pleasures can be somewhat envisioned; but not the understanding that the Supreme Lord is actually the controller of all the worlds and the bequeather of all blessings and that only by serving Him, by His grace and only by His grace can all living entities attain salvation. Those living entities who adhere to the Vedic scriptures for the purpose of enjoying material pleasures and acquiring wealth and opulence, perform repeated acts of ritualistic sacrifice which while bestowing their material rewards in future lifetimes become the cause of an endless repetition of birth and death in the material existence.

When the minds of those living entities not prescribed to the Vedic culture become deluded by the words of evil minded living entities who speak words contrary to the Vedic scriptures it becomes impossible for them to receive any spiritual knowledge which would be beneficial for their spiritual development.

In the Atharvana scripture it is stated:

The living entities who being are influenced by such words, doctrines and philosophies which are contrary to the Vedic scriptures, consider that the pursuance and fulfilment of desired objects is the purpose of life and nothing else is superior to this, are most certainly deluded. Enjoying whatever pleasures they have managed to manipulate for themselves they are repeatedly born again and again cast down into the material existence or depending upon the method of how they acquired their material opulence even hurled down to be born in animal species or in the hellish worlds.

One should therefore not become a victim and become prey to those being heretic or devious, who think and act contrary to the spiritual knowledge of the Vedic scriptures which are revealed in the best interest and highest good of every living entities in all of material existence.

Those living entities who are unable to understand the reality of the Supreme Lord Krishna’s unimpeachable position and thus unaware cannot have the realisation of Him as the Supreme Ultimate controller of all the worlds both spiritual and material. Even if they be sincere, receptive, qualified and noble beings; without receiving bonafide instruction from the Vedic scriptures from one in the authorised process of disciplic succession one is devoid of spiritual intelligence returning endlessly again and again into a physical form in the material existence. But for those living entities who are able to understand the reality of the Supreme Lord Krishna’s unparalleled position and realise that He is the ultimate controller of all the worlds both spiritual and material they are never put into jeopardy and even if they accrued some demerits and had to accept some karma which are reactions to previous actions, this karma would definitely all be nullified within the lifetime as these living entities of spiritual intelligence receive the special blessings of the Lord.

Those living entities who perform comprehensive sacrificial activities prescribed by one in the authorised line of disciplic succession for the satisfaction of the Supreme Lord Krishna; but who are in reality opposed to His supremacy; even if they have not acquired any demerits, even if they have satisfied their preceptor with gifts, even if they have manipulated themselves to attain some fleeting pleasures in the heavenly realms; still when whatever merit they have acquired is exhausted they will sink back down into worlds of darkness. Others who remain inimical to the Supreme Lord Krishna and who are inimical to the spiritual knowledge revealed in the Vedic scriptures go directly to the worlds of darkness at the death of their physical body without enjoying any of the heavenly realms.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Here we see the word traigunya indicating the three qualities of material nature being goodness, passion and ignorance. This term refers to the three groups of living entities characterised under the influence of these three aforementioned qualities. If the Vedic scriptures did not address these three classes according to their predilections by prescribing the appropriate method for attainment of the heavenly spheres, then those living entities under the influence of passion and ignorance would be adverse to goodness unwittingly hindering their own progress. Also they would be in the dark as to how to advance themselves from their present position and being lost compounded by being full of desires they would fall into degradation falsely fancying it to lead the way to their goal; and in vain they would be ruined. Hence the Vedic scriptures contain all that the three classification of living entities possessing different qualities could desire. But ideally one should free themselves from passion and ignorance and devote oneself to increasing the quality of goodness fully. This increase should be pure without any dilution of passion and ignorance all intermixture should be fully purged. The word nirdvandvah means free from duality, devoid of any influence of material nature. Nitya-sattva- sthah is one who is ever wedded to increasing goodness without any trace of passion and ignorance. How is this to be accomplished? By being nir-yoga- ksema meaning one is completely unconcerned about acquiring any other advantage apart from the realisation of the soul and the means to effect that end. By this method one becomes atmavan or established in the soul. If one conducts oneself in this manner and remains fixed, the influence of passion and ignorance will cease and goodness will become predominant.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Those addicted to material pleasures and earthly delights are excessively attracted by the flowery promises of the Vedic scriptures to the point of bewilderment. Their intelligence being unqualified to conceptualise and meditate upon the ultimate reality of devotion to Lord Krishna they are unfit and thus unable to perceive and realise the Supreme Lord. As they are of insufficient intelligence they are unable to become resolute and one- pointed in consciousness because they perform no actions in devotion to the Supreme Lord.
.

Sloka 2.45 audio recital in Sanskrit     

त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन |
निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ||२- ४५||

traiguNyaviShayA vedA nistraiguNyo bhavArjuna |
nirdvandvo nityasattvastho niryogakShema AtmavAn.h || 2-45 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.45

Anvaya: trai-gunya–pertaining to the three modes of material nature; visayah–on the subject matter; vedah–Vedic literatures; nistraigunyah–in a pure state of spiritual existence; bhava–be; arjuna–O Arjuna; nirdvandvah–free from the pains of opposites; nitya-sattva-sthah–ever remaining in sattva (goodness); niryoga-ksemah–free from (the thought of) acquisition and preservation; atma-van–established in the self.

Translation: The Vedas mainly deal with the subject of the three modes of material nature. Rise above these modes, O Arjuna. Be transcendental to all of them. Be free from all dualities and from all anxieties for gain and safety, and be established in the Self.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be submitted that if heaven and enjoyment of heavenly realms is not the highest goal, why do the Vedic scriptures prescribes duties and rites as a means of attaining them ? The answer to this is being given in this verse that the Vedas mainly deal with those aspirants who influenced by fruitive desires are controlled by the three modes of material nature. This means that aspirants are given the incentive of reward by adhering to specific activities for a specific period of time to get a specific result. But Arjuna is being instructed by the Supreme Lord to be above the three modes of material existence and free from desires remain beyond the dualities of happiness and misery, pleasure and pain and the rest by enduring them. How is this to be accomplished? By remaining always established in the pure light of spiritual consciousness that is being steadfast. Likewise regardless of gain which is accepting what one has not or preservation which protecting what one already possesses without any exertion for either. Established in the self denotes vigilance. Certainly it is not possible for one influenced by the dualities of opposites, embroiled merely in the acquisition and preservation of tangible things to transcend the three modes of material nature inadvertently.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Up until this verse the intelligence of yoga which is the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate consciousness and other matters regarding the three modes of material existence being goodness, passion and ignorance has been discussed. The Vedic scriptures give the outward appearance of having as their purpose in relating how those living entities in goodness, passion and ignorance can achieve the joys of the heavenly spheres. But the Vedic scriptures also contain confidential meanings as well and thus it has been instructed by Lord Krishna not to accept only the external form of the Vedic scriptures; but to understand the Vedic scriptures by the light of the confidential meanings.

It is also declared that unauthorised interpretations by those outside disciplic succession within the Vedic culture and of course to all the unqualified interpretations by those who are not even attempting to follow the Vedic culture must bring about doubts and confusion even if they do not deny the truth because although they may possess adequate academic intelligence they are not properly situated in spiritual intelligence.

In all the Vedic scriptures which include the Ramayana, the Puranas, Upanisads and Mahabharata, the Supreme Lord Krishna and His direct expansions and incarnations are continuously eulogised in the beginning, middle and end. All the Vedic scriptures speak of His form.

All of the Vedic scriptures and their revelations, the historical activities of the noble and the knowledge revealed regarding the soul are all based on dharma or eternal righteousness. What the Vedic scriptures speak as dharma is righteouness and whatever is contrary to righteousness is spoken of as adharma. Thus in the Vedic scriptures the supremacy of the Supreme Lord Krishna as ever residing within the heart of every living entity is declared and anything in harmony with this understanding in known as dharma or righteousness and anything contrary to this understanding is known as adharma or unrighteousness.

Now begins the summation.

The Vedic scriptures are known for speaking about the three modes of material existence being the qualities of goodness, passion and ignorance because they give instructions about ameliorating the effect of these three modes of material existence. Taking full protection of the Vedic scriptures those of spiritual intelligence free themselves from the three modes of material existence and become fully devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna. Because all of the qualities and attributes and activities of the Supreme Lord Krishna are in themselves the Ultimate Truth and also because he is situated in the heart of every living entity as the Ultimate Consciousness in the soul; meditating on Him incessantly situates one unceasingly in the Ultimate Truth. The Supreme Lord is within every living entity, recognising this eternal truth is spiritual intelligence and is understood to be an eternal principle of existence. This clearly elucidates that any idea or conception of being the same, non-different or one with him is categorically negated because it is not possible for anyone to be within the heart of every living entity; so the Supreme Lord simultaneous seperatness and oneness can thus be correctly comprehended.

When Lord Krishna speaks about being free from gain and preservation this does not mean to deny the things one needs to survive and flourish but relates only to having desires for acquisition of possessions; or else one would be forced to conclude that such instructions such as arise and be equipoised would have no relevance.

Since the injunctions of Vedic scriptures are the means of ameliorating the three modes of material existence, the Vedic scriptures are often spoken of as being the objective of the theses three modes.

Taking refuge in the Vedic scriptures a living entity can be emancipated from the material existence and gains the heavenly planets but taking refuge solely in the Supreme Lord Krishna one attains the spiritual world and is thus far superior. This living entity possessing noble attributes, being ever in goodness, illuminated in the self the soul becomes an ever source of illumination. Continuous remembrance of the Supreme Lord Krishna is ever present within. The full acceptance of the Supreme Lord verily within ones own-self effectively dissolves any conception of being one and the same with the Supreme Lord. This means that one should not only abstain from undertaking any action contrary to realisation of the Ultimate Truth but also one should also refrain from even having any desire for any action which would be contrary to realising the Ultimate Truth.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
If the rewards like heaven are of such an impermanent nature then why do the Vedas which are eternally perfect and beneficial for all beings enjoin practices aimed at achieving heavenly spheres. To answer this Lord Krishna states that the Vedic scriptures deals with the three modes of material nature which are goodness, passion and ignorance and all beings are born into these three modes of material nature. Some beings have a preponderance for goodness, others for passion and others for ignorance while some are mixed. These modes are conditioned within the mind and they typify the three types of created beings. With exception of the Upanisads the Vedic scriptures dealing with the three modes gives prescribed activities and their results. Whatsoever one desires to obtain in heaven the prescription is enjoined for them to achieve it and the description of the various rewards are eulogised as well as the rituals for their fulfilment. If the Vedas were not to reveal and elaborate a way for those within the three modes to benefit themselves according to the three modes of material nature. Then those locked in the cycle of birth and death would forfeit both their opportunities. Firstly unaware of the reward of liberation beyond the three modes and thus being oblivious to it would miss it altogether and secondly if their was no material goal which they could strive for they would lose faith in spiritual knowledge without rituals and practices giving them the means to acquire their cherished goals such as heavenly delights and thus they would lose both chances bequeathed to them with birth into material existence. So it is justly so that the Vedic scriptures deal with the three modes of material nature as they explain the rituals that bring benefits for all those subject to the influence of these modes. But Lord Krishna is instructing through Arjuna to be free from desires of reward and go beyond the influence of the three modes maintaining no faith in heaven and the rituals prescribed for enjoyment therein for these things are temporary even though they are enjoined in the scriptures.

It may be put forth that one may become indifferent to heavenly delights but that the basic requirements for human existence such as food, clothing and shelter which are also veritable modifications of the three modes of material nature are impossible to ignore and become indifferent too. In answer to this Lord Krishna explains to be free from dualities like praise and blame, heat and cold, pleasure and pain. Being free from them means being unattached to them. How is this to be done? By enduring them and becoming established in pure spiritual consciousness. Its characteristic is patience and endurance uninfluenced by passion or covered by ignorance. One should always be tempered by patience for one without patience is easily overpowered by passion and ignorance and becomes uncontrolled and fearful in situations involving the three modes of material nature. So we should overcome the hindrances of passion and ignorance and maintain a balanced state of equilibrium.

But in all this one with worldly possessions desirous of increasing and protecting them may wonder how they may maintain themselves in the material nature. To this Lord Krishna reiterates niryoga-ksema become free from conceptions of acquisition and preservation. But how then would one sustain their lives? By atmavan firmly established in spiritual consciousness of the soul. The essence is to understand that the Supreme Lord is the fulfiller and bestower of all desires. So one should only seek His refuge and accept His shelter. Never fear nor seek any other succour from any other source for the Supreme Lord will provide all sustenance and maintenance to those who understanding Him are fully surrendered.
.

Sloka 2.46 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः सम्प्लुतोदके |
तावान्सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ||२- ४६||

yAvAnartha udapAne sarvataH samplutodake |
tAvAnsarveShu vedeShu brAhmaNasya vijAnataH || 2-46 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.46

Anvaya: yavan–all that; arthah–is meant; uda-pane–in a well of water; sarvatah–in all respects; sampluta-udake–in a great reservoir of water; tavan–similarly; sarvesu–in all; vedesu–Vedic literatures; brahmanasya–of the man who knows the Supreme Brahman; vijanatah–of one who is in complete knowledge.

Translation: All purposes that are served by the small pond can at once be served by the great reservoirs of water. Similarly, all the purposes of the Vedas can be served to one who knows the purpose behind them.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be questioned that fixed determination which seeks service of the Supreme Lord in a disinterested way by renouncing the various fruits described in revealed scriptures is indeed a contradictory resolve. To answer this the Supreme Lord speaks this verse. As a small pot of water all the needs of a person drinking and bathing cannot be satisfied at one place; but all these purposes can be satisfied in a great reservoir of water. Similarly a person who has realised the nature of the Ultimate Truth verily has indeed all the results of all the various prescribed rituals prescribed throughout the Vedic scriptures; for the bliss of the Ultimate Truth contains all finite joys. As is confirmed in the Brihad- aranyaka Upanisad 4.3.32 states: On a fraction of the basis of the Ultimate truth do all living entities exist. Therefore the fixed determination of surrendering in righteousness all ones actions unto the Supreme Lord alone is the correct resolve.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Therefore the rewards available to those who act with spiritual intelligence are not accessible to those who are seekers of fruitive desires. But even still there is some similarity, therefore Lord Krishna states in this verse that all the purposes which can be served by a well of water are easily served by a large reservoir of water as well. So similarly whatever rewards are given in the Vedic scriptures are easily available to one established in spiritual intelligence of brahman or the Ultimate Truth because in such a state of consciousness all benefits are inclusive. Therefore one who knows the science of brahman is known as a brahmana. The word vijanatah meaning one who is complete in knowledge receives the reward of knowing the Ultimate Truth.

Now begins the summation.

Being the source of all creation without the assistance of anything else, complete in all attributes, the Supreme Lord Krishna is known as the reservoir or shelter of all. Reservoir can also mean body of water and at the time of universal dissolution the Supreme Lord assumes the very nature of water on all sides enveloping all.

Whatever benefit is there by the Supreme Lord being pleased with an aspirant, the same benefit is available to one who is knowledgeable of the Vedic scriptures; yet all the meanings of the Vedic scriptures have been understood by one who has realised devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna. By such enlightened understanding, the Supreme Lord, who is the Ultimate dispenser of all rewards becomes pleased.

During the course of universal dissolution whatever rewards are ordained by the Supreme Lord Krishna, who is full of all attributes, independent from any support and transcendental to time; the same fruits are available for one who has knowledge of the confidential meanings in the Vedic scriptures.

At the time of universal dissolution nothing else exists in the material worlds excepting the Supreme Lord. Those who by dint of their spiritual intelligence who have become self-realised and have discovered their soul will not be without shelter being under the complete protection of the Supreme Lord. These delivered souls will not be subject to the vagaries of time but insulated by the transcendental energy of the Supreme Lord will be delivered to the spiritual worlds.

Without the essential assistance of His primal breath which is indispensable and is originating from His inherent impulse that alone existed when nothing else other than Him existed. Darkness was enveloped by darkness and in the beginning all was enveloped by water on all sides enveloping all.

In the beginning of creation water alone existed itself solely as impulse and within this impulse generated by the Supreme Lord Himself, the Supreme Lord reclined in all His undivided oneness as revealed in the Vedic scriptures.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna instructs Arjuna that for one who is fixed in goodness, whose sole aim is for liberation; the routine of performing daily duties, occasional duties and fruit bearing duties should be performed automatically and whatever recompense assigned to each of them should not be hankered for desiring rewards and benefits or else it becomes fruitive. The desire for reward and benefits has a binding effect keeping one bound in the material existence. But free from these impediments the same action performed as worship to the Supreme Lord becomes the veritable means to secure liberation. Therefore be devoid of motive for actions nor desire to reap the reward from actions. Though all living entities are acting their part in this world, those who are situated in goodness aspiring for liberation are considered not to be entangled as so. It can be understood that when one eats the hunger one had is appeased and the desire is satisfied as well; yet one would not consider theirself as the cause of the appeasal and satisfaction.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Now the three modes that were dealt with in the Vedas has been set aside for there is not a single thing within the material existence that is apart from the three modes. So in lieu of this one may question that in seeking liberation from material existence one would have to abandon everything, even that which is required for the performance of worship and thus there would be no motivation. To this Lord Krishna instructs this verse that just as different wells for drinking, bathing, washing animals etc. can be used all their uses can be satisfied by a large reservoir of water. Thinking in this way one desiring liberation who is enlightened by the reality of the Vedas realises and follows the conclusion of the Vedas. One should follow that portion of the Vedas to perform activities that are most pleasing to Lord Krishna which is in the best interests of all beings. It is not that one must just adopt everything that is said in the Vedas. One should never do activities against the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures but according to qualification and circumstances one must follow what is prescribed in the Vedas. For example certain rituals such as the agnihotra are prescribed to be performed in the Vedas; but they are prescribed for married householders. They are not to be performed by sannyasis. Also celibacy is prescribed in the Vedic scriptures but it is prescribed for brahmacaris and sannyasis. It is not prescribed for married householders. So it is not that everything in the Vedas is to be followed by everyone although all the four orders must certainly follow the Vedas but according to ones ashram. This is the discrimination regarding this matter.
.

Sloka 2.47 audio recital in Sanskrit     

कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन |
मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि ||२- ४७||

karmaNyevAdhikAraste mA phaleShu kadAchana |
mA karmaphalaheturbhUrmA te saN^go.astvakarmaNi || 2-47 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.47

Anvaya: karmani–prescribed duties; eva–certainly; adhikarah–right; te–of you; ma–never; phalesu–in the fruits; kadacana–at any time; ma–never; karma-phala–in the result of the work; hetuh–cause; bhuh–become; ma–never; te–of you; sangah–attachment; astu–be there; akarmani–in not doing.

Translation: You have a right to perform your prescribed duty, but you are not entitled to the fruits of action. Never consider yourself to be the cause of the results of your activities, and never be attached to not doing your duty.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be postulated that since the results of all actions are attained simply by worshipping the Supreme Lord, what is the use of any other actions other than devotion to Him? To counter this conclusion the Supreme Lord states that all living entities have the right to perform actions but none have the right to claim the results. An aspirant of the highest knowledge must know that to hanker or yearn for reward for one’s actions is the cause of bondage in the material existence. But it may be said that all actions produce a result, just as eating satisfies the urge of hunger. Anticipating this question the Supreme Lord states that one should not let the anticipated results of actions be the cause of motivation. Be not one who is controlled by fruitive desires. As heaven is attained only when desired being connected to the living entity who performed the rites in the scriptures to attain such an end it can be seen that what is not desired does not take place. Then on the other hand although fruitive actions are binding be not attached and not devoted from fear of this bondage to inaction. This is the idea of this verse.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
An embodied soul controlled by mundane desires is considered to be reprehensible. Even the desire for heavenly enjoyments are to be shunned as they have the taint of fruitiveness as well. Therefore for those possessing spiritual intelligence, motivation for the desire of reward is not advisable. Arjuna is certainly spiritually intelligent and being the son of Indra the ruler of the demigods he certainly has sufficient adhikari or qualities. Only for the purpose of giving His unequivocal instructions for posterity has the Supreme Lord Krishna utilised him to benefit all the worlds.

Only those actions prompted by desire for reward are prohibited. Because all rewards are factually independently ordained by the Supreme Lord it is not correct to imagine that any reward which one receives is due only to ones own efforts. Similarly the desire for the rewards of fruitive rewards is also provided without any aspiration for such. Therefore even by not performing any actions an opposite result may occur and it can be seen that rewards are available neither through wisdom nor through desire. So one spiritually situated performs actions unattached to reward. Verily such is the way of action. Neither by accepting desires nor by rejecting desires is wisdom gained.

Desire is the anticipation of a reward, action motivated by desire for reward makes an action fruitive and therefore binding. Even so, one who desires engages in the performance of austerities and penance as a means of sacrificing these desires. One should not perform penance and austerities with the hope of obtaining reward otherwise these activities also become frutive as well. Actions performed without desire as a matter of duty are full of wisdom. Therefore the wise are not bound by desire for rewards. This is why the Supreme Lord Krishna states the words ma te meaning never. Never be attached to the fruits of actions. Any desires which appear are ordained according to the will of the Supreme Lord. Those that receive the causeless mercy of the Supreme Lord Krishna are the devotees of the Supreme Lord and by His grace they are benedicted by the desire only to exclusively serve Him. They have no desire for even liberation from material existence if it is to be separated from Him. When they are requested to ask for any desire to be granted their only desire is to remain in service to Him birth after birth, lifetime after lifetime. It is seen and realised that by possessing the desire to serve the Supreme Lord Krishna in devotion ones love for Him automatically increases. So from this it can be understood that those who are imbued with true wisdom perform exclusive devotional service unto the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Now begins the summation.

Actions alone are all that living entities are entitled to. The results however are only within the power of the Supreme Lord Krishna to give. So it is apparent that one who is governed by the desire for fruitive results is not properly situated and have subconsciously desired the impossible delusion of usurping the Supreme Lords infallible position. One should understand that it is fallacious to believe that one is the ultimate controller of their own destiny because all results are ultimately ordained by the Supreme Lord. By this revealing statement which is found in the Paingi scripture it is again clarified that the living entities are always distinctly different from the Supreme Lord.
.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
The question may arise that if one seeking liberation from the material existence should instead acquire firmness in spiritual knowledge and then what is the use of actions. To this Lord Krishna instructs that everyone has the right to perform actions in order to purify ones existence and advance in spiritual knowledge. But one should not cultivate ones mind to think that by the right to perform actions one receives rewards. This mentality is destructive to spiritual advancement because then one will get attachment to the actions and then subsequently to the rewards. So Lord Krishna emphasises never be attached to the rewards of actions or even consider the rewards because this attachment will keep up locked in the material existence. A living entity performing actions without considering the rewards will never develop the fragmentation and indeterminate nature of one whose mentality is attached to the fruits of their actions. It is also important to understand that it is not that the person who is performing actions without attachment to the rewards will not receive the rewards thereof. To the contrary they will certainly receive rewards as well but the difference is they are not concerned about the reward do not let reward be the reason for the motivation of their activities. We must perform all of our actions without being motivated by the fruit. Now in contrast it may be proposed that instead of performing actions without motivation to the rewards perhaps it might be better to perform no actions at all. To this Lord Krishna instructs that one should neither be attached to inaction of not performing ones prescribed activities. We should not allow our egos to dictate to us that we should be inactive because then we incur the sin of non-committance in performing our natural duties everyday and duties in special circumstances and thus not being responsible as declared in Vedic scriptures. One inclines towards spiritual advancement should never perform prohibited actions and should avoid performing frivolous actions but with the understanding of responsibility one should always perform ones obligatory activities daily and occasionaly.
.

Sloka 2.48 audio recital in Sanskrit     

योगस्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय |
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ||२- ४८||

yogasthaH kuru karmANi saN^ga.n tyaktvA dhana~njaya |
sid.hdhyasid.hdhyoH samo bhUtvA samatva.n yoga uchyate || 2-48 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.48

Anvaya: yoga-sthah–steadfast in yoga; kuru–perform; karmani–your duties; sangam–attachment; tyaktva–having abandoned; dhananjaya–O Dhananjaya; siddhi-asiddhyoh–success and failure; samah–the same; bhutva–having become; samatvam–evenness of mind; yogah–yoga; ucyate–is called.

Translation: Be steadfast in yoga, O Arjuna. Perform your duty and abandon all attachment to success or failure. Such evenness of mind is called yoga.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The fundamental question which might be raised is what then is factually to be done? This is now being answered in this verse. Established in the science of yoga perform all activities. Yoga is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness. Being established by this yoga perform actions relinquishing attachment, motivation for rewards and depend solely upon the mercy of the Supreme Lord in all one’s activities. Totally unconcerned about success or failure, attainment or non-attainment resultant surrender in righteousness all actions as an offering unto the Supreme Lord. This is the eternal path called yoga by the wise as it consists of fixed concentration of the mind.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
The previous verse 47 is further clarified here. Yoga, equanimity is the methodology encouraged. Relinquishing desire and attachment to the rewards of actions while steadfastly remaining equipoised in either success or failure. This verily is what is meant by equanimity.

Now begins the summation.

The meaning of the word sangam is attachment. Attachment to what? The rewards of one’s fruitive actions.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Actions performed with fruitive motivations are far inferior to actions performed as a matter of duty. The mind of those whose actions are performed as a matter of duty are not disturbed or unbalanced by delusions of rewards gained or lost. The activities performed in spiritual intelligence removes all suffering in the world and leads to liberation from the material existence. Contrarily activities performed for the acquisition of rewards assuredly results in suffering and affliction in the material existence. Phala-hetavah are those who sole motivation is dictated be the prospects of reward. It should be understood that such living entities are krpanah or pitiable due to the fact but acting in this way they are imprisoned in the material existence unable to attain their spiritual nature.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
What should one do? Lord Krishna states here to remain balanced and equipoised. Discard the mentality of being attached. Be balanced in either victory or defeat and perform your duties. Karmani refers to duties the plural usage of duties indicates various obligatory and occasional duties; but the optional duty is not to be included among these as they are not required. Otherwise there would be contradiction between the former and the latter statements. Yoga is explained by Lord Krishna Himself as being in the state of equanimity.
.

Sloka 2.49 audio recital in Sanskrit     

दूरेण ह्यवरं कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्धनञ्जय |
बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ कृपणाः फलहेतवः ||२- ४९||

dUreNa hyavara.n karma buddhiyogAddhana~njaya |
buddhau sharaNamanvichchha kR^ipaNAH phalahetavaH || 2-49 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.49

Anvaya: durena–by discarding it at a long distance; hi–certainly; avaram–abominable; karma–activities; buddhi-yogat–on the strength of Krsna consciousness; dhananjaya–O conqueror of wealth; buddhau–in such consciousness; saranam–full surrender; anviccha–desire; krpanah–the misers; phala-hetavah–those desiring fruitive action.

Translation: O Dhananjaya, rid yourself of all fruitive activities by devotional service, and surrender fully to that consciousness. Those who want to enjoy the fruits of their work are misers.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Actions initiated by desire for rewards are debased and abominable. Actions performed in spiritual intelligence by the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness are far superior. Therefore perform actions in spiritual intelligence and take complete shelter of the Supreme Lord. But those who are impelled and motivated by desire have only misery and wretchedness. For the Brihad- aranyaka Upanisad 3.8.10 states: Whoever departs from this Earth having no knowledge of the Supreme Lord is in a miserable condition.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
In the verse Lord Krishna prescribes to endeavour for equanimity revealing that the path is by yoga and by wisdom. Avaram means abominable and durena means to discard; so discarding all fruitive activities one should adhere to spiritual intelligence and remain steadfast in wisdom. One whose only objective is based on fruitive desires wishes to enjoy the rewards of their actions and is degraded.

Now begins the summation.

For all living entities the Supreme Lord is the only refuge. When this realisation finally dawns upon the intellect of a living entity whether they are ignorant, wise or liberated they surrender unto the Supreme Lord without reservation. Those who in delusion consider themselves the same as the Supreme Lord Krishna who is distinctly different due to His inconceivable potencies and transcendental attributes, descend to the hellish worlds of darkness without a doubt. They are doomed to eternal damnation in hellish conditions.

In the Narada Purana it is stated:

Those who see a separation in the Supreme Lord Krishna from His name, form, attributes, pastimes, incarnations and those who deride and seek to diminish the glory of the Supreme Lord Krishna’s devotees sink to an existence in the hellish worlds of darkness.
.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
One performing actions with the thought of receiving rewards gets the desired resultant. This appears positive but it is repeatedly denounced. Why? Because actions performed due to selfish motives are inferior to actions performed due to selfless motives. Selfless motives are balanced in equanimity. Equanimity possesses a determinate consciousness. Because of this reality one should seek the shelter of evenness of mind in equanimity. Arjuna had acquired so many riches before naturally following his duty so why should he try to avoid his duty worrying about success or failure. Those motivated to perform activities craving only to get a reward for their actions are inferior and wretched.
.

Sloka 2.50 audio recital in Sanskrit     

बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते |
तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् ||२- ५०|||

buddhiyukto jahAtIha ubhe sukR^itaduShkR^ite |
tasmAdyogAya yujyasva yogaH karmasu kaushalam.h || 2-50 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.50

Anvaya: buddhi-yuktah–one who is engaged in devotional service; jahati–can get rid of; iha–in this life; ubhe–in both; sukrta-duskrte–in good and bad results; tasmat–therefore; yogaya–for the sake of devotional service; yujyasva–be so engaged; yogah–Krsna consciousness; karmasu–in all activities; kausalam–art.

Translation: A man engaged in devotional service rids himself of both good and bad actions even in this life. Therefore strive for yoga, O Arjuna, which is the art of all work.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
But one who is engaged in actions performed in spiritual intelligence is superior. By the grace of the Supreme Lord one acting in this way is relieved of both good actions which leads to heaven and evil actions which lead to hell even in this very life. Therefore verily one should always engage oneself in the sacred science of one’s individual consciousness attaining communion with the Ultimate Consciousness by consecrating in righteousness all activities unto the Supreme Lord for this. This is known as karma yoga. Because this sacred science is the actual skill in performing all activities, is the formula for righteous actions which turns even ordinary activities that normally lead to bondage into the means of liberation by offering them in righteousness unto the Supreme Lord Krishna.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna speaks of directing one’s consciousness by spiritual intelligence. The merits one gains in the course of human existence such as fame, relations, power and wealth though pleasant should not be deemed important or be attached to. But those superior merits one has acquired by surrender and meditation to the Supreme Lord such as righteousness, compassion for all living entities, devotion and love of God should be most attached to. For one whose consciousness is situated in the ignorance of nescience, whatever sacrifice, charity, penance or austerity one performs even for thousands of years are to no avail and bequeath no benefit. This has been well delineated in many Vedic scriptures. Hence it is clearly to be understood that the ignorant do not gain anything spiritual by their actions. Vedic scriptures reveal that both merits and demerits are destroyed if actions are performed in unfavourable circumstances. If merit gets destroyed as well it is always detrimental; but there is no possibility for destruction of any merit for one who is situated in spiritual intelligence even if there is some remnant of desire present.

If one completely liberated by the wisdom of spiritual intelligence happens to desire the realm of the ancestors by his very wish they will be evoked before him. If this liberated one wishes to enter higher planetary systems or even the heavenly realms by his wish it is accomplished. Objectives deemed impossible by relative perspectives which the liberated self desires manifests on its own accord due to the inherent potency acquired by uniting one’s individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness of the Supreme Lord and by receiving the power of the Supreme Lords grace.

It is not that one ever can lose their individual existence by uniting ones individual consciousness to the Supreme Lords ultimate consciousness. The soul is always connected with the Supreme Lord but those in the nescience of ignorance are unaware of the souls existence. The difference between the Supreme Lord and all living entities is eternal and thus the individual existence of all living entities is established as being different from the Supreme Lord. The Supreme Lords activities are beyond the parameters of the material existence indicating his eternal transcendental position whereas all living entities in the material existence are subject to the cycle of birth and death.

By the dissolution of all illusions the reflection also ends and any and all concepts of losing one’s individual existence by merging, immediately is terminated as knowledge of the eternal difference between the Supreme Lord and all living entities is self-evident by self-realisation. Such conceptions of merging are contrary to wisdom due to the distinct spiritual form of the Supreme Lord.

Not even with imagination can it be suggested that an object reflected is at the same time united with its reflection although one determines the other. Nor in the cessation of consciousness is there any evidence of merging of reflection and reflected. Otherwise how would it be possible to experience the perception of the duality between the two. The misery of the material existence is definitely a reality. As long as the self is incarcerated within a physical body this misery continues to be. Thus it can be understood that the self is also eternal. So the Supreme Lord and the self or soul are eternal and other statement concerning this are either temporary or symbolic.

Narada Muni has personally seen liberated souls different as separate individual beings from the Supreme Lord. The statements found of becoming one with the Lord are indicating that one attains the qualitative spiritual existence and association of the Supreme Lord. Different determinations are found to be stated due to different angles of vision. When a man and a woman are married it is often said that they have become one; but does that mean they have each lost their separate individual existence? No not at all. The proper rational and analysis must be exercised when differentiation is seen in the statements of the scriptures and by doing so the basic principle is strengthened. By proper understanding and rationalisation alone can differentiation be harmonised. Like a river entering the ocean. It is all water but the river maintains its own characteristics which are simultaneously one and different from the ocean.

Yet even if in those instances where difference is not accepted, it still must be admitted that with the entry of the river the volume of the ocean has definitely increased and cannot be denied. The Supreme Lord can be likened unto the sea always open to receive; but because of the seas immensity the total perception is restricted.

Narada Muni has also gone on to declare that the Supreme Lord cannot be attained by even Brahma, Shiva and all the host of demigods. By such words Narada negates equality with the Supreme Lord. Similarly with the words yatra nanyat pashyati, where nothing else is perceived even by such words then deference and subservience to the Supreme Lord is always shown or else how is known to be the Supreme. All these statement have been revealed to dispel illusion and clarify reality and they have been deliberated and determined in various scriptures by powerful summations and profound summations.

These statements should not be considered contradictory as the demigods have temporal physical bodies. Although eternal spiritual beings also have their bodies they are not temporal being spiritually surcharged and being eternally devoid of limitations by the power of devotion to and the power of mercy from the Supreme Lord Krishna. Therefore in the Narayana Shatakshara Kalpa the 16 distinctive signs on the bodies of eternal spiritual beings is given.

In normal parlance due to their exalted nature, eternal spiritual beings are referred to as being beyond duality, beyond the influence of material nature and transcendental to the material existence.

Although material bodies are continuously perishing and returning to the elements. The bodies of the eternal spiritual beings do not perish for they are neither dependent on creation or destruction. But due to the fact that externally they have similar forms that appear to be the same, words are used that describe them in terms that are comprehensible according to time and circumstances. When one hears of descriptions like dwellers of the spiritual worlds possess no bodies and senses sometimes used by Narada Muni it should be understood that these spiritual beings possess no physical bodies and senses as we know of but possess only spiritual bodies filled with spiritual senses and light and bliss.

For eternal spiritual beings this very state itself is the verification for mukti or liberation. What is the use of speaking more if liberation has not been achieved and Swetadwipa has not been attained? According to Vedic scriptures one is not a yogi until one is liberated. Other forms of liberation are negated in the Aditya Purana. Even those demons terminated by Vausdeva Krishna like Sishupal in the end finally get liberation but to attain Swetadwipa special attributes are required.

King Yudisthira asked about liberation and it was confirmed that the other four forms of liberation based on merging with the Lord have been rejected. Only similarity with the form of the Lord is the accepted form of liberation. Achieving liberation and acquiring a spiritual body and through that body entering the abode of the Lord and lovingly interacting in ones eternal position with the Supreme Lord is understood to be liberation in similarity to Lord Krishna and not merging into Him as confirmed in the Narayana Shatkakshara Kalpa

Therefore by achieving liberation all undesirable qualities are destroyed at the root and all things antagonistic to spiritual development are terminated. Then without misery, devoid of all pains and worries, deliverance, beyond sorrow, they go to the place where none returns beyond birth and death. These special statements found in the Vedic scriptures prove that those who become self-realised and achieve liberation do not perceive similarity with the Lord but realise an affinity with the Supreme Lord and in the process by the sole dissolution of their collective karma they enjoy closeness with the Supreme Lord in uninterrupted bliss.

Therefore it is written in Vedic scriptures that after becoming so qualified one enters the eternal spiritual worlds without fail of this there is no doubt. Hence all impurities are completely readicated and seperated from the eternal spirit soul of the liberated spiritual being. Even Brahma prays to attain that pure spiritual state according to his understanding.. “I desire to attain that supreme state of Brahman. O Supreme Brahman, Lord Krishna, Janardana”. Thus Brahma and even Shiva duly pray for this Supreme state. Such a state is not only the removal of all impurities but also the natural condition of eternal bliss.

There is nothing comparable to liberation from the material existence in the material worlds. Neither is there anything comparable to the experiences of this superior bliss once one has achieved liberation. This all encompassing and all pervading bliss transcends speech and is even not found within the mind. Thus it is established that the bliss accompanying liberation is superior to the bliss of brahman. Thus become firmly attuned to equanimity by yoga and getting wisdom perform those excellent actions solely as a matter of duty as offerings to the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Now begins the summation.

Knowledge of the Supreme Lord Krishna and by that knowledge renouncing the fruits of ones actions neutralises the effects of ones actions and is known as excellent actions. Knowledge of the Supreme Lord Krishna is known as spiritual intelligence.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Those whose activities are inherently protected under the secure guidance of spiritual intelligence are released from the bondage of continuous rebirth in the material existence. Hence one should undeviatingly remain steadfast in spiritual intelligence. Although cultivating spiritual intelligence indeed takes enormous effort to achieve, once attained is not difficult to maintain. All actions performed from the platform of spiritual intelligence are not binding and the mind is preserved in a perfectly equipoised state which can be compared to a state of a blissful a genius sometimes experiences which is very wonderful.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
After pointing out the defects of performing optional activities which are not essential, Lord Krishna extols the virtues of equanimity in that it neutralises all reactions without a doubt both positive and negative. Therefore everyone should make a diligent endeavour to achieve this consciousness of equanimity. For one expertly engaged in actions which do not incur reactions on their path to attain liberation form the material existence and the ultimate truth is the highest skill.
.

Sloka 2.51 audio recital in Sanskrit     

कर्मजं बुद्धियुक्ता हि फलं त्यक्त्वा मनीषिणः |
जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः पदं गच्छन्त्यनामयम् ||२- ५१||

karmajaM buddhiyuktA hi phalaM tyaktvA manIShiNaH |
janmabandhavinirmuktAH padaM gachchhantyanAmayam.h || 2-51 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.51

Anvaya: karma-jam–because of fruitive activities; buddhi-yuktah–being done in devotional service; hi–certainly; phalam–results; tyaktva–giving up; manisinah–devotees who are great sages; janma-bandha–the bondage of birth and death; vinirmuktah–liberated soul; padam–position; gacchanti–reached; anamayam–without miseries.

Translation: The wise, engaged in devotional service, take refuge in the Lord, and free themselves from the cycle of birth and death by renouncing the fruits of action in the material world. In this way they can attain that state beyond all miseries.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
How actions are able to turn out to be the means of liberation are being now given. Those with spiritual intelligence who relinquish all fruitive desires for the results of all actions, perform in righteousness activities as an offering unto the Supreme Lord are blessed with self-realisation, and being released from the bondage of birth and death they being liberated attain the eternal and everlasting spiritual worlds of the Supreme Lord Krishna.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna instructs the solution in this verse. That is to perform all actions free from fruitive craving. Offer all actions to the Supreme Lord without desiring rewards. Endowed with spiritual intelligence and comprehension of reality one attains the supreme stage. To get there the performance of actions with equanimity is the way to wisdom and is the means for assured liberation.
.
Ramanuja’s Commentary

Those who are factually situated in spiritual intelligence perform activities as a matter of duty free from conceptions of gain and loss, unconcerned about the resultant rewards. They are assuredly delivered from the bondage of birth and death in the material existence and are liberated to the spiritual realms. This information is well documented in the Vedic scriptures.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
An objection might be made that although it is definitely beneficial to avoid evil activities; but why should one abandon good actions. Lord Krishna responds that the wise who consider the true nature of things and have contemplated the cause of birth and death realised that while evil deeds give rise to horrible reactions also reactions to good deeds propels one to be born in noble and wealthy families while still remaining in the material existence are still subject to pleasure and pain and subject to old age, disease and death and thus should also be avoided. Liberation from the material existence is the direction to strive for and attaining the blissful state of the spiritual worlds described in the Upanisads as Vaikuntha which free from all misery and is eternally beyond the illusion of maya which is a product of the material nature. The conclusion is that in order to attain the unlimited bliss of boundless joy in the spiritual worlds one must abandon meritorious deeds also or else they will bestow trivial material rewards.
.

Sloka 2.52 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति |
तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ||२- ५२||

yadA te mohakalilaM buddhirvyatitariShyati |
tadA gantAsi nirvedaM shrotavyasya shrutasya cha || 2-52 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.52

Anvaya: yada–when; te–your; moha–illusory; kalilam–dense forest; buddhih–transcendental service with intelligence; vyatitarisyati–surpasses; tada–at that time; ganta asi–you shall go; nirvedam–callousness; srotavyasya–all that is to be heard; srutasya–all that is already heard; ca–also.

Translation: When your intelligence has passed out of the dense forest of delusion, you shall become indifferent to all that has been heard and all that is to be heard.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
With genuine concern one may ask: When will I be able to attain that eternal and everlasting spiritual world? An important question but first one must successfully circumnavigate the maze of delusion in the material existence. When one has factually rejected the conception of identifying oneself as the physical body then one will by navigating oneself out of the maze of delusion successfully escape the net of illusion which is likened to a bottomless abyss. Therefore it should be understood that by surrendering all activities in righteousness unto the Supreme Lord Krishna through the auspices of disciplic succession, by His mercy the spiritual intelligence will naturally manifest within and one will begin to clearly comprehend that the physical body is distinctly separate from the individual consciousness. From this understanding one will attain indifference towards the activities that are heard about or that will be heard about. The desire to inquire about temporal things will cease as it will be perceived that only existing temporarily they are not worth pursuing. This is the meaning.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
To answer the query regarding what is essential for one aspiring for liberation the answer is given in this verse by Lord Krishna. The word nirvedam means indifferent, renunciation is not indicated here. Rather it is to be understood that by spiritual intelligence in the process of acquiring wisdom one becomes indifferent to mundane pursuits. It is not that one with spiritual intelligence is indifferent regarding the sublime activities of the Supreme Lord. Liberated sages immersed in the delight of the soul through their highly developed mental state advance onwards by devotion without any desires. Lord Krishna is very attracted to those following devotion possessing these attributes. The austerities and penance performed by Sukadeva and others give them immeasurable satisfaction and great happiness.

Those who meditate on the lotus feet of Lord Krishna relishing His glories and phenomenal pastimes and that of His devotees, they derive a greater satisfaction that is not even available to one fully realised. So needless to speak about the satisfaction of those in the heavenly realms who are forced to descend down to earth again once they have exhausted their benefits. For only those situated with the wisdom of spiritual intelligence can understand Lord Krishna’s paramount position and thus perform all actions accordingly.

Even in liberation there is taratamya gradation. If there were no gradation then men of wisdom could not realise the mercy of Lord Krishna’s divine grace which is the sole cause of liberation. In this way no one will desire similarity with Him. Even if it is offered it will not be accepted. Thus even those not desiring liberation receive it anyway as the result of devotion and those so desiring it, liberation comes manifesting auspiciousness. This auspiciousness manifests even though undesired. Just as those exalted devotees with special devotion to Lord Krishna receive special mercy at the end of their lives that can be perceived. In the same way dispensation is received by those situated in wisdom at the termination of the physical body. Other dispensation is given for the ascetics at the severance of their mortal coil and still those who experience supreme bliss with distinctive character as experienced. In all these different levels gradation always exists.

Liberation by whatever means is deliverance and in this no one can surpass one for one will be fully situated in the ultimate wisdom of devotion to Lord Krishna by spiritual intelligence. So in the matter of equilibrium it must be regarded in abundance as well as in experiencing misery. Even though abundance and misery must be regarded equally for the supreme bliss it is the realisation in wisdom by spiritual intelligence that is the key ingredient for liberation from the material existence as given in the Narayana Ashtaksha Kalpa. Hence renunciation is not indicated as a means of liberation in Vedic scriptures. There also does not exist any direction to other methods regarding liberation. Thus the understanding for this verse is that by listening to the potent words of great self-realised beings the true purport of the Vedas will be learned.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Performing actions as prescribed in the previous verses and therefore purged of all dross the realisation one attains will extricate them from the perplexities of worldliness arising from identification with actions and the reward of actions. From that point on all that one has hitherto heard regarding the wisdom of renouncing the rewards of action as the cause of motivation for action as well as what one would subsequently hear regarding the fruitiveness of actions will by one’s own free will be regarded with complete indifference. What has thus far been given is in the next verse to be described. It is known as yoga which is the science of uniting the individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness by actions performed with the light of spiritual intelligence based on bonafide knowledge of the immortal soul.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
If someone were to enquire that if they perform actions in the prescribed manner will indifference to worldly topics come quickly. Lord Krishna indicates that it is up to the individual by use of the word yada meaning when. There is no exact time. Whenever one spiritual intelligence revives itself and allows ones mind to cross over the gigantic dross and mud of mental delusion then and only then one will achieve indifference to all worldly objects that are worthy of hearing and yet to be heard and the rewards of actions in which to accomplish them as written in the Vedic scriptures for this world and the heavenly kingdoms.
.

Sloka 2.53 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला |
समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि ||२- ५३||

shrutivipratipannA te yadA sthAsyati nishchalA |
samAdhAvachalA buddhistadA yogamavApsyasi || 2-53 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.53

Anvaya: sruti–Vedic revelation; vipratipanna–without being influenced by the fruitive results of the Vedas; te–your; yada–when; sthasyati–remains; niscala–unmoved; samadhau–in transcendental consciousness, or Krsna consciousness; acala–unflinching; buddhih–intelligence; tada–at that time; yogam–self-realization; avapsyasi–you will achieve.

Translation: When your mind is no longer disturbed by the flowery language of the Vedas, and when it remains fixed in the trance of self-realization, then you will have attained the divine consciousness.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The Supreme Lord Krishna further explains that when Arjuna’s understanding which is now bewildered by the distraction of various scriptural conclusions describing actions which lead to heaven and actions which lead to hell, as well as worldly conceptions of possessing kingdoms and riches will get his mind fixed in samadhi or transcendental consciousness, then steadfastly focused on the supreme, not attracted to anything else due to expertise in yoga permanently is ecstatically enthralled thereby attaining the fruit of yoga which is absolute realisation of the Ultimate Truth.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna further clarifies the same point in this verse as well. The intellect that was confused by contradictory arguments in the Vedas becomes perfectly stabilised by the proper interpretation of the Vedas. Then equanimity of the mind becomes unshakeable like the resonance of a drum. Then with intense meditation on the bliss of the supreme one shall attain communion with the ultimate truth within and succeed in all one’s efforts.

Now begins the summation.

The word nirvedam indicates detachment. When delusion is forsaken and all other signs of nescience and non-awareness disappears then detachment from the mundane arises and a living entity acquires the beneficial result from listening to the Vedas from a self-realised being. Thereafter adhering to the path established by the Vedas in mind and in conduct the uncompromised meaning derived thereof is apparent delivering with it an unimaginable experience of spiritual satisfaction. Thus communion with Lord Krishna will be attained through liberation by equanimity of the mind developed in wisdom by spiritual intelligence. Sruti vipraptipanna means not being influenced to act fruitively by the rewards given in the Vedic scriptures.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna begins this verse with the word sruti. Sruti refers to Vedanta which implies sravanam or hearing from them. For it is by the hearing of transcendental instructions that the mind is evolved as it begins to reflect and contemplate on the immortal, incomparable and exceedingly subtle nature of the eternal soul. When this consciousness which is by its very nature is steadfast and stable is firmly rooted within a mind purified of all dross and selfish actions, then at that time one shall achieve yoga and realise enlightenment. The understanding is that by practice in performing activities in the selfless parameters of karma-yoga with knowledge of the eternal soul as revealed in the Vedic scriptures develops an illumination in consciousness called sthita-prajnata and that by sustained effort of this consciousness one is gradually achieves self- realisation. Hearing this Arjuna next desires to understand the components of this unique consciousness. Is it achieved by willpower, by yoga, by knowledge of the soul, by detachment or is it a combination of all of the above? This Arjuna will question in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
If one were to enquire further that after achieving indifference to worldly topics by performing selfless activities free from desire for reward, will equanimity manifest. Lord Krishna states that when our minds caught between the dichotomy of dualities due to hearing throughout our lives conflicting conclusions and adhering to false conceptions, with little or no knowledge of the ultimate truth and becomes steadfast. Then unshakeable and fixed in the flow of all mental aspirations culminating in an unending focus of the soul, perceiving no other goal. One will immediately be in the state of equanimity as the fruit of equanimity is the gradual experience of the soul itself.

.

Sloka 2.54 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अर्जुन उवाच |
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव |
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ||२- ५४||

arjuna uvAcha |
sthitapraGYasya kA bhAShA samAdhisthasya keshava |
sthitadhIH kiM prabhASheta kimAsIta vrajeta kim.h || 2-54 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.54

Anvaya: arjunah uvaca–Arjuna said; sthita-prajnasya–of one who is situated in fixed Krsna consciousness; ka–what; bhasa–language; samadhi-sthasya–of one situated in trance; kesava–O Krsna; sthita-dhih–one fixed in Krsna consciousness; kim–what; prabhaseta–speak; kim–how; asita–does remain; vrajeta–walks; kim–how.

Translation: Arjuna said: What are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in Transcendence? How does he speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk?

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Desiring to know the characteristics of one who is self-realised in transcendental consciousness referred to in the previous verse Arjuna asks: What is the definition of a person whose spiritual intelligence by nature resides in transcendence and is steady in wisdom? That by which something is described is definable and has characteristics. Due to possessing what characteristics is one called a person of steady wisdom and how does such a person of steady wisdom conduct themselves? This is the meaning which is meant to be conveyed here.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
One whose consciousness is firmly established in transcendence is sthita- prajna. Such consciousness can be perceived by such characteristics of speech known as bhasa. Arjuna raises this question to determine whether characteristics other than those mentioned previously are present here. Firmly established in spiritual intelligence is emphasized here. Arjuna refers to Lord Krishna here as Keshava. Ka refers to Brahma and Isa refers to Rudra and as he is the source of both of them he is called Keshava. Another example is also given in the Harivamsa in connection to Lord Krishna during Rudras travel to Mt. Kailas. It says Hiranyagarbha or Brahma of the golden womb is Ka and Sankara is Isa and you as ordained of creation are known as Keshava. Kim asit means how and for what purpose does one so situated recline? It is not that Arjuna is unaware of these characteristics. Earlier kings and emperors of the world and yogis and sages and even demi-gods would ask such questions even if they knew of the eternal principles of righteousness as well as esoteric subjects that are mystical and confidential. These esoteric subjects are not comprehensible by those lacking spiritual intelligence. So it says in the Puranas.

Now begins the summation.

What is the manner of speech and how does one speak and in what mood does one speak who situated with spiritual intelligence is in transcendent consciousness. One who possesses equanimity of consciousness is without contradictions in their consciousness.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

What is it that which defines the sthita-prajnah or the adept fixed with spiritual intelligence who is immersed in transcendent consciousness? What are the characteristics to be recognised by such a one so situated in this state of mind? How does he speak and how does he act? This will be answered next.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
When the mind becomes fixed remaining steadfast then equanimity will arise. One with spiritual knowledge in transcendent meditation realises the ultimate truth perceiving God within. Understanding this fully Arjuna desirous of knowing the characteristics of such a being such as the way they talk, walk, sit, etc. requests Lord Krishna to reveal to him what are the signs of one stable in transcendence. How was this state achieved? In the world how does such a one speak and act. How does such a one move about. Arjuna asks this question because these things must be different for one situated in nescience. To remove the doubt that qualities such as these by one of tranquil mind such as Brahma or extremely powerful such as Shiva, in addressing Lord Krishna the vocative Keahava is used by Arjuna. Why is this? The creator and controller of both Brahma and Shiva is Lord Krishna who imparts spiritual knowledge to them. Thus Lord Krishna must be accepted as the sole refuge of all of creation because He is omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent. This is substantiated in the Vedic scriptures. He who creates Brahma and sends the eternal Vedas to him, He the effulgent and illuminating light of the soul and the mind should be supplicated to in full surrender for those desiring liberation from the material existence. From the forehead of He who was mediating on His inner self, Shiva of the trident was produced. In the smrtis it is said that Ka is the name of Brahma and Shiva is Isa the controller of all the embodied souls in material bodies. Both Brahma and Shiva are manifested from Lord Krishna thus Arjuna has called Him by the name Keshava.
.

Sloka 2.55 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रीभगवानुवाच |
प्रजहाति यदा कामान्सर्वान्पार्थ मनोगतान् |
आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ||२- ५५||

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha |
prajahAti yadA kAmAnsarvAnpArtha manogatAn.h |
AtmanyevAtmanA tuShTaH sthitapraGYastadochyate || 2-55 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.55

Anvaya: sri-bhagavan uvaca–the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; prajahati–gives up; yada–when; kaman–desires for sense gratification; sarvan–of all varieties; partha–O son of Prtha; manah-gatan–of mental concoction; atmani–in the pure state of the soul; eva–certainly; atmana–by the purified mind; tustah–satisfied; sthita-prajnah–transcendentally situated; tada–at that time; ucyate–is said.

Translation: The Blessed Lord said: O Partha, when a man gives up all varieties of sense desire which arise from mental concoction, and when his mind finds satisfaction in the self alone, then he is said to be in pure transcendental consciousness.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Now it is revealed what are the means to knowledge for an aspirant and what are the natural characteristics exhibited once one has attained transcendence. Hence by merely relating the characteristics of one possessing spiritual intelligence the means of direct knowledge are simultaneously transmitted as well throughout the conclusion of this chapter. Now the answer to the first question in the previous verse is given in this verse and the next. When a person gives up all desires of the mind, relinquishing them completely, which results when by determination one has perceived the Ultimate Truth by strength of one’s individual consciousness. Then and only then one delights in the inconceivable joy of communion with the Ultimate Consciousness whose eternal nature is supreme bliss. Experiencing the delight of this supreme bliss one automatically loses all desire for even the most equisite material pleasures and thus by this possessing this characteristic one can be understood to be a person of steady wisdom.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Before illuminating the characteristics of those situated with spiritual intelligence who often are indistinguishable from others not so situated as requested by Arjuna in the previous verse; Lord Krishna reveals the attributes of the spiritual intelligent in this verse. Thus in understanding how one being satisfied by the supreme state of transcendent consciousness performs actions is the explanation introduced in this verse. One situated in spiritual intelligence realises the soul by the grace of the Supreme Lord but the this can be sooner or longer to achieve subject to the degree of ones attachments held earlier in their life; but anyway to some extent their will be realisation. In actuality such a one discards all desires. Even as in the case of Sukadeva and Dhruva after they had darshan or vision of the Supreme Lord. The spiritual intelligent, those knowing the Ultimate truth always enthusiastically desire communion with the Supreme Lord incessantly seeking the mercy to serve, worship and glorify Him.

In regard to Indra and the demigods, undesirable desires are not present therefore their knowledge is known to be supernal. It is therefore declared that the qualified living entity is verily so due to the performance of great activities. Because of such achievements they become distinguished from others. Therefore due to distinguished activities their distinctive attributes are manifested. But it should be emphasised that even if one unqualified by spiritual intelligence happens to distinguish themselves, still they can never be considered as situated in transcendent consciousness. This point should be clearly understood. In this verse the attributes of one who is in samadhi transcendent consciousness is not discussed. This is because one who is unattached in all respects shows no attachment for anything at any time. For one in the transcendent consciousness of samadhi there is no experience of auspicious or inauspicious because there is no connection to material consciousness which is the antithesis to samadhi. Therefore conceptions of this nature do not apply.

Wants and desires do not arise in those who have cleansed their mind and purified their consciousness and who situated in spiritual intelligence have taken complete refuge of the Supreme Lord Krishna. This is recorded in Vedic scriptures.

Desires are hidden within the mind but it is in this same mind where spiritual intelligence must manifest to neutralise and eradicate such desires. This is indicated by the word mano-gatan concoctions of the mind. This dichotomy between attachment to desires and attachment to the soul is further referred to in verse 59 of this chapter illustrating that even though refrain of actions is induced the desires continue within the mind. It is not that only by refraining from desires one in spiritual transcendence may be perceived for desires may hide within. The word atmani meaning by purified consciousness of the soul denotes by the assistance of the Supreme soul. The ultimate truth verily, dwells in the Supreme soul. Since the soul is completely abiding in the ultimate truth, by the sole grace of the Supreme soul alone attainment is achieved. Thus one who takes the initiative renouncing attachment, abides in the Supreme Lord by the grace of the Supreme Lord and is provided with all that is necessary to attain this end and not by any other means whatsoever. This all has been spoken of in the Narayana Shataksara Kalpa. Thus the soul referred to here is paramatma the ultimate soul.

Now begins the summation.

It is not that those of spiritual intelligence can always stop the flow of inappropriate desires. Renouncing what is inappropriate means one has renounced desire. Even those who have experienced the transcendent state to some degree and have perceived the reality of the ultimate truth, still inappropriate desires may arise in the mind when they are not in that transcendent experience. Evidence of this is seen in Vedic scriptures when Shiva to protect his worshiper fought in battle against Lord Krishna. Thus only when one is not in the transcendent experience can one be in an equaniminous state for in the transcendent experience such designations do not apply. Situated in spiritual intelligence with concerted endeavour one becomes qualified and eligible for the supreme grace to attain the transcendent state. Another point to note is that by the awakening of devotion in the heart for the Supreme Lord the ineligible will also become qualified to also receive the grace to attain the transcendent state in due to course of time without fail. The word atmani indicates Lord Krishna. It is only by His grace may one attain the transcendent state.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna explains that when the particular activities of the adept of spiritual intelligence are described then the characteristics are recognised. Because one with spiritual intelligence focus their mind to be fully immersed solely in the soul, they are known as being soul satisfied. When such a one is so absorbed in the soul that all other desires abiding therein are completely banished then such a one is known as sthita-prajnah situated in transcendent consciousness. This is the paramount platform of spiritual intelligence in the mind. After this the next lower intermediate stage will be defined.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
In order to answer Arjunas four questions Lord Krishna begins here and continues till the end of the chapter. To answer the first question He explains that when one thoroughly abandons all cravings of the mind one is sthita-prajna situated in transcendent consciousness. What is the indication that one has abandoned all cravings of the mind? Lord Krishna explains that such a being is immersed in the soul and is completely satisfied by the soul. The stability of ones mind can be known when one becomes pleased and satisfied by the resultant purity of the mind after completely abandoning all desires and lust. In the soul, self-contained by its own inherent nature in the form of knowledge, eternality and bliss is characterised by the total annihilation of all sins as declared by Prajapati in the spiritual discourse he delivered as seen in the Upanisads.
.

Sloka 2.56 audio recital in Sanskrit     

दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः |
वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ||२- ५६||

duHkheShvanudvignamanAH sukheShu vigataspR^ihaH |
vItarAgabhayakrodhaH sthitadhIrmuniruchyate || 2-56 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.56

Anvaya: duhkhesu–in the threefold miseries; anudvigna-manah–without being agitated in mind; sukhesu–in happiness; vigata-sprhah–without being too interested; vita–free from; raga–attachment; bhaya–fear; krodhah–anger; sthita-dhih–one who is steady; munih–a sage; ucyate–is called.

Translation: One who is not disturbed in spite of the threefold miseries, who is not elated when there is happiness, and who is free from attachment, fear and anger, is called a sage of steady mind.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The Supreme Lord Krishna continuing the answer to the first question of verse 54 states that: He who is unperturbed, who is free from desires though amidst pleasures is not agitated even upon being put into misery because there is the absence of any attachment, affection, fear or anger. Thus by being devoid of all these characteristics one can be understood to be a person of steady wisdom.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna gives an expansion of this in the next three verses. For those situated in wisdom these instructions are essential being the means. It has been declared that whatever instructions have been recommended for those seeking advancement, these selfsame instructions are seen distinctively in the actions of those situated in wisdom. To assume erroneously that something is pleasant then it becomes a source of attachment. Rasa sentiment, raga attachment and rakti beauty are said to be erroneous assumptions.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

To be free from an agitated mind is not to become aggrieved when situations arise of impending affliction and difficulty or bereavement for something cherished and lost. To not be elated in happiness is to remain in an unattached and passive state even when joyous events occur. Desire is the longing for things not obtained. One must learn to be free from this. Fear is worrying for prospective sorrow which may be caused by bereavement of what is cherished and the projection of the coming of unwanted things. One must learn to be free from this. Anger is that disturbed state of mind and irritated feelings produced of pain from others causing separation from what is cherished or giving the experience of things not cherished. One must learn to be free from this. Such a being is a muni or one of profound contemplation on the soul. This being is known as sthita-prajna situated in perfect knowledge of transcendental consciousness. Lord Krishna describes the next lower stage in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
These characteristics Lord Krishna mentions are all within the purview of self-experience. How could others recognise such an inner state. To this he states undisturbed in sorrow. There are three types of sorrow or pain: adyatmika or physical, adhidaivika or supernatural and adhibhautika or natural. Adyatmika is pain of the body and pain of the mind. The pain of the body is diseases and ailments attacking it such as fever, rheumatism, gout, etc. The pain of the mind is due to insult, jealousy, shame and the like. Adhidaivika is pain caused by drought, flooding, cyclones, earthquakes, hurricanes, etc. Adhibhautika is pain caused from people, demons, animals, ghosts, etc. All these three are destined by fate and as such are not transitory and after experiencing them they fade into oblivion. Determining in this way that those whose minds remain unperturbed in affliction coming due to fate as well as in happiness rising up by chance, these beings have become devoid of desires in whatever results occur. The reason is they are free from passion, fear and anger. Passion is the extreme mental attachment to objects cherished with intense desire with the intention of never letting possession of these objects be discontinued. Fear is the pain caused from the approaching agony arising from separation from what is cherished. Anger is a specific mental attitude which appears in one who experiences separation at the time of loss of cherished objects. These three passion, fear and anger all arise due to the lack of discrimination regarding the eternal nature of the soul. By the gradual development of this discrimination one becomes free from these three impediments and by this discrimination when the introspective one’s contemplation becomes mature they’re known as sthita-prajna.
.

Sloka 2.57 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् |
नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२- ५७||

yaH sarvatrAnabhisnehastattatprApya shubhAshubham.h |
nAbhinandati na dveShTi tasya praGYA pratiShThitA || 2-57 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.57

Anvaya: yah–one who; sarvatra–everywhere; anabhisnehah–without affection; tat–that; tat–that; prapya–achieving; subha–good; asubham–evil; na–never; abhinandati–praise; na–never; dvesti–envies; tasya–his; prajna–perfect knowledge; pratisthita–fixed.

Translation: He who is without attachment, who does not rejoice when he obtains good, nor lament when he obtains evil, is firmly fixed in perfect knowledge.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
The question how does such a person talk is now being answered. He who is without affection even towards friends and relatives, neither praising what is congenial or criticising what is uncongenial is steady in wisdom. This is the meaning.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna explains here that one devoid of attachment to everything, when exposed to that which is good does not rejoice, neither does such a one lament when exposed to that which is not good.
.
Ramanuja’s Commentary

Forming no attachments in any situation means to be indifferent, unconcerned in an aloof state or attitude. Auspicious is a situation that is pleasing and inauspicious is a situation that is displeasing. Lord Krishna is instructing not to be overjoyed by the pleasing nor despondent over the unpleasant. One who can successfully engage themselves thus is sthita-prajna situated in the perfect knowledge of transcendental consciousness. The next lower stage is given in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna now answers the question of how one situated in transcendent consciousness speaks. He does this by explaining that one who is unattached to everything without a mental inclination towards anything totally indifferent to all sense objects. When exposed to sources of pleasure like mouth watering vegetable preperations, delicious nectarian fruit drinks, silky, fashionable clothes or luxurious homes such a one does not rejoice at receiving these things nor give praise to those who have bequeathed these things. Similarly when exposed to sources of unpleasantness like unpalatable food and drink, coarse unfashionable clothes and humble homes such a one does not show disdain and is indifferent to statements made by people to criticise him such as being called a pseudo yogi or a hypocrite. Thus the essence is such a one uses his words sparsely, praises no one and blames no one and because he possesses neither love nor hatred for any living being benefits all. Such a one is situated in transcendent consciousness.
.

Sloka 2.58 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः |
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२- ५८||

yadA sa.nharate chAyaM kUrmo.aN^gAnIva sarvashaH |
indriyANIndriyArthebhyastasya praGYA pratiShThitA || 2-58 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.58

Anvaya: yada–when; samharate–winds up; ca–also; ayam–all these; kurmah–tortoise; angani–limbs; iva–like; sarvasah–altogether; indriyani–senses; indriya-arthebhyah–from the sense objects; tasya–his; prajna–consciousness; pratisthita–fixed up.

Translation: One who is able to withdraw his senses from sense objects, as the tortoise draws its limbs within the shell, is to be understood as truly situated in knowledge.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Further it is stated that when one withdraws his senses from the objects of the senses such as the ears from sound, the eyes from sight, the tongue from taste and so forth then one becomes steady in wisdom. Regarding the effortless manner in which this withdrawal of the senses is to be enacted is indicated by the example of a turtle withdrawing its limbs within its body.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.


Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna gives the analogy of a turtle which withdraws its limbs inside. Similarly when one is able to keep their senses from pursuing sensual objects of mundane pleasure by withdrawing the senses inside and who also consciously reflects upon the soul within, such a one is sthita- prajna situated in the perfect knowledge of transcendent meditation. There are four stages in developing to this platform each of which develops backwards from its preceding stage. The difficulty in following this is revealed by Lord Krishna in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna answers the question, How does such a one sit? With the word yada meaning when, when one is in meditation they do not let their senses go out, for example like the following of sounds by the ear and compels the organs of action to perform only the basic functions of utmost necessity. The illustration used is of the turtle which out of fear of something protects itself by drawing its limbs and head inside its shell. After the danger passes the turtle again lets out its limbs again and in a controlled manner continues on its way. In the same way one who is sthita-prajna situated in the perfect knowledge of transcendent meditation acts thus.

.

Sloka 2.59 audio recital in Sanskrit     

विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः |
रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ||२- ५९||

viShayA vinivartante nirAhArasya dehinaH |
rasavarja.n raso.apyasya para.n dR^iShTvA nivartate || 2-59 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.59

Anvaya: visayah–objects for sense enjoyment; vinivartante–are practiced to be refrained from; niraharasya–by negative restrictions; dehinah–for the embodied; rasa-varjam–giving up the taste; rasah–sense of enjoyment; api–although there is; asya–his; param–far superior things; drstva–by experiencing; nivartate–ceases from.

Translation: The embodied soul may be restricted from sense enjoyment, though the taste for sense objects remains. But, ceasing such engagements by experiencing a higher taste, he is fixed in consciousness.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
It may be submitted that the lack of inclination of the senses towards sense objects may not necessarily be a viable characteristic in determining one of steady wisdom. This is because it is seen that the sick, the lethargic and those fasting from food also have no inclination in this regard. This argument is being neutralised in this verse. Enjoying the objects of the senses is known as ahara. Restricting the objects of the senses is known as niraharasya. An embodied being or one who identifies themselves as their body is in ignorance. When one declines to enjoy sense objects with the objects of the senses the physical experience ceases; yet the residue desire for sense objects still remains and the craving for them actually has not departed. But when one has experienced what is Supreme then even this residue desire for sense objects factually is dissolved. Another meaning is that although inclination for the objects of the sense automatically ceases for one who is sick having no desire to enjoy the senses; but as soon as one’s health has been regained the desire to relish the objects of the senses returns again being only temporarily inoperative. The rest is self-explanatory.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
The attributes of those who are stitha-prajna situated in transcendent meditation do not manifest without effort. This is also explained in the subsequent verses. By the body abstaining from food and drink there develops a weakness in the body against experiencing sensual objects. But although the bodily desire is nullified the inner desire to enjoy the sense objects remains. Thus the rasa or taste for enjoyment is not terminated. Lord Krishna states that this taste can only be terminated by spiritual intelligence and by the attainment of stitha-prajna transcendent meditation. In the Vedic scriptures it has been stated that the wise master their senses by abstaining from feeding them. But this verse illustrates abstinence alone is not enough because even when abstaining attachment to them continues to grow.
.
Ramanuja’s Commentary

Sensual objects of enjoyment are fuel for the senses. Lord Krishna states that the desire for these sensual objects departs when one starves them by restraining the senses from indulging in them. But although the action is restrained the craving remains subtly within the mind. Rasa is taste and raga is attachment. So the craving attachment for taste of sense objects remains present. However when the eternal nature of the soul is realised in all its glorious splendour and it is seen that it is infinitely more attractive than the most delightful sense object. At that time all desire for sense objects completely vanishes along with the residue of craving.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
It is seen that in sickness even the ignorant who are not developed are able to control their senses from sensual objects. So how can not impelling the senses towards sense objects be considered to be indicative to one situated in transcendent meditation. Lord Krishna replies with the word visayah objects of the senses. The enjoyments of sound, sight, touch, etc. cease completely for the one who is ill having no desire to enjoy with the senses anything due to weakness in the overall power of the sense organs. Although this is true the taste for these sensual objects persists remaining dormant within the mind. The lust for these things does not vanishe from the mind to the contray while recovering from illness one in anticipation is thinking of all the pleasures to be enjoyed again once the sickness is finished. But all this is terminated and disappears for one who is sthita-prajna situated in transcendent meditation when such a one realises the unprecedented bliss of supreme soul within. One who realises the supreme soul within is no longer attracted to the trivial, mundane objects of the material world no matter how fantastic it may appear. Worldly pleasures is no longer appealing. The word param in this verse denotes Paramatma the supreme soul in every living entity, the source of eternal bliss, devoid of all material attributes and thus is the exclusive goal of everyones meditation. This is confirmed in the Vedic scriptures with the passage: All beings exist by but an infintisemal portion of His bliss. All beings manifestations depend completely upon the grace of the Supreme Lord. The nature of the Supreme Lord is complete knowledge and complete supremacy.
.

Sloka 2.60 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः |
इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ||२- ६०||

yatato hyapi kaunteya puruShasya vipashchitaH |
indriyANi pramAthIni haranti prasabhaM manaH || 2-60 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.60

Anvaya: yatatah–while endeavoring; hi–certainly; api–in spite of; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; purusasya–of the man; vipascitah–full of discriminating knowledge; indriyani–the senses; pramathini–stimulated; haranti–throws forcefully; prasabham–by force; manah–the mind.

Translation: The senses are so strong and impetuous, O Arjuna, that they forcibly carry away the mind even of a man of discrimination who is endeavoring to control them.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Since it is not possible without controlling the senses to be one in steady wisdom; it is strongly recommended that in the practice of ones spiritual austerities one apply themselves diligently in this regard. The senses are so turbulent that they can forcibly take the mind of even a person of discrimination, for the senses are very agitating.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Even men of wisdom who lack spiritual experience and resort to using the mind as their only medium of understanding are soon overpowered by the senses. What then is the impediment to those who take pride in the bodily conception? Lord Krishna use of the word pramathini meaning turbulent indicates one who is assailed by agitation.
.
Ramanuja’s Commentary

Until and unless self-realisation is attained by direct soul cognition the cravings and attachments for sensual experiences will never entirely cease to exist subtly or physically. The concerted exertions of even the persevering yogi can all be to no avail against the restless and powerful senses of which any one of them can forcibly decoy the mind astray. Thus the conquest of the senses is ultimately dependent upon realisation of the eternal soul and the perception of the soul is dependent upon control of the senses. Thus Lord Krishna alludes to the difficulty there is in striving for soul cognition following jnana-nishta by knowledge only.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Thus the control over the senses is root cause of stabilising the mind. Now Lord Krishna reveals the flaws in not possessing a stable mind. One situated in spiritual intelligence with discrimination and powers of observation trying their level best to keep the mind from gravitating towards the senses and withdrawing their mind repeatedly away from objects of the senses and directing it internally within is a form of meditation. But the senses are so strong that they forcibly invade the mind, disrupt this meditation and forcibly overpower the mind and indulge it in contemplating sense gratification and bodily attachment. How is it possible that the senses can carry away ones mind while they are intently striving? It is because the senses are so restless and turbulent that they totally disregarding all ones efforts in discrimination, besieging the mind they direct it towards sensual objects that will gratify these self-same senses by engaging the mind in sense contemplation.
.

Sloka 2.61 audio recital in Sanskrit     

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः |
वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२- ६१||

tAni sarvANi sa.nyamya yukta AsIta matparaH |
vashe hi yasyendriyANi tasya praGYA pratiShThitA || 2-61 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.61

Anvaya: tani–those senses; sarvani–all; samyamya–keeping under control; yuktah–being engaged; asita–being so situated; mat-parah–in relationship with Me; vase–in full subjugation; hi–certainly; yasya–one whose; indriyani–senses; tasya–his; prajna–consciousness; pratisthita–fixed.

Translation: One who restrains his senses and fixes his consciousness upon Me, is known as a man of steady intelligence.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Since it has been prescribed to be in control of the senses, one who is self-controlled should sit in a yoga position and meditate on the Supreme Lord. If it were to be asked how does one sit? The right answer is that with the senses under control the mind should be free from any mental activity.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
In the previous verses Lord Krishna has stated that the senses are too powerful to subdue by our own efforts. Yet effort should be made repeatedly regardless. Now here he suggests that we subdue our senses by devotion to Him. The word yuktah denotes devotion to Lord Krishna, one whose mind is attuned to Him. Otherwise it is not possible to overcome the senses in any way and maintain it. Mat-parah means one devoted to Lord Krishna. The benefits of one surrendered, attuned and devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna will be well documented later.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Whosoever would wish to succeed in overcoming the dichotomous difficulty by the mutual inter-relating dependence of sense control and soul cognition as delineated previously, must certainly master the senses. Which due to their constant craving for pleasure are extremely troublesome to govern. Lord Krishna as the Supreme Lord is instructing to make Him the sole object of ones meditation and thus become established in undisturbed serenity in the ultimate reality. When our minds have been evolved to realising Lord Krishna as the supreme absolute reality all impurities are eradicated and the mind is purified and clear, free from all desires. Now at this stage for the first time the mind is free from all desires. The mind along with the senses completely under control is then capable of achieving cognition of the eternal soul. In the Vishnu Purana XI.VII.LXXIV beginning yatha adniruddhata-sikhah it is written that as a blazing fire fanned by blowing wind burns up dry wood; in the same way Lord Krishna enthroned in the heart burns up all sins of those who link their individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness in soul cognition. Spiritual intelligence is confirmed in those whose senses are under control. But it must be noted that unless devotion has developed for the Supreme Lord Krishna, whosoever attempts to master the senses by their own might and self effort are all destined to failure.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Because the uncontrolled senses are the cause of all disturbance, one with spiritual intelligence seeking transcendence should make their first priority to control ones senses. Then having duly controlled the senses which are troublesome one should be seated or situated in the meditation of maintaining this control. Here the word asita or seated does not refer to literally being seated but rather to being established or situated. This verse concludes on how such a one is seated. If one were to question how is it possible to control the restless senses which are turbulent by nature. Lord Krishna reveals that by devotion of mind and heart unto the Supreme Lord one will surely be able to control the senses. Lord Krishna is present within the heart of all living entities. As Hrisikesa the lord of the senses he is the ultimate object of all meditation. Without meditating on Lord Krishna it is not possible to master the senses. This is absolutely sure and thus the aspirant who follows these instructions has success and none other. So in conclusion one cannot be in transcendent meditation without controlling the senses. And that controlling the senses is not possible without devotion to Lord Krishna. Thus devotion to Lord Krishna can be seen as the essential ingredient assuring all success.
.

Sloka 2.62 audio recital in Sanskrit     

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते |
सङ्गात्सञ्जायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ||२- ६२||

dhyAyato viShayAnpu.nsaH saN^gasteShUpajAyate |
saN^gAtsa~njAyate kAmaH kAmAtkrodho.abhijAyate || 2-62 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.62

Anvaya: dhyayatah–while contemplating; visayan–sense objects; pumsah–of the person; sangah–attachment; tesu–in the sense objects; upajayate–develops; sangat–attachment; sanjayate–develops; kamah–desire; kamat–from desire; krodhah–anger; abhijayate–becomes manifest.

Translation: While contemplating the objects of the senses, a person develops attachment for them, and from such attachment lust develops, and from lust anger arises.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Having pointed out the defect of not having the external physical senses under control, the defect in not having the mind under control is now being given in these two verses. For one who is given to dreaming about sensual pursuits considering them worthy of indulgence a strong attachment develops for them. From this strong attachment arises addicting desires for them, from these addicting desires flares up anger when these addicting desires are not satisfied.

.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna states that one who contemplates sensual objects like form and touch develops in the mind attachment for them in the form of lust deluded into believing such objects to be the root cause of apparent happiness. From this attachment springs desire which is but a modification of attachment. Sometimes one is able to gratify ones senses by enjoying these sense objects. At that time a particular state of mind arises where one becomes enslaved and controlled by the desire of the very same object one is seeking so desperately to exploit. Other times ones desires are thwarted and obstructed and unfulfilled in satisfying ones desire to experience sense objects leads to frustration which is also a modification of the mind. At this time anger is directed in fury towards whatever it was that became the obstacle that blocked ones gratification.
.

Sloka 2.63 audio recital in Sanskrit     

क्रोधाद्भवति सम्मोहः सम्मोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः |
स्मृतिभ्रंशाद् बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ||२- ६३||

krodhAdbhavati sammohaH sammohAtsmR^itivibhramaH |
smR^itibhra.nshAd.h buddhinAsho buddhinAshAtpraNashyati || 2-63 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.63

Anvaya: krodhat–from anger; bhavati–takes place; sammohah–perfect illusion; sammohat–from illusion; smrti–of memory; vibhramah–bewilderment; smrti-bhramsat–after bewilderment of memory; buddhi-nasah–loss of intelligence; buddhi-nasat–and from loss of intelligence; pranasyati–falls down.

Translation: From anger, delusion arises, and from delusion bewilderment of memory. When memory is bewildered, intelligence is lost, and when intelligence is lost, one falls down again into the material pool.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:
Continuing Lord Krishna explains that from anger the result is delusion and loss of discrimination. From delusion results confusion and lapse of memory. From loss of discrimination results bewilderment regarding the injunctions of the scriptures and the instructions of the spiritual master. The end result of these is the complete stupefaction of ones intelligence like unto a tree. From the destruction of one’s intelligence one spiritually perishes becoming dead while alive as it were.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:
Lord Krishna has given the origin and causes for the defects mentioned in this verse and the previous one. Sammoha meaning delusion indicates the desire to engage in inappropriate actions. The same meaning is given for moha which also indicates unrighteousness desires and the tendency to inappropriate activities. Bewilderment of memory causes destruction in the intellect. Destruction of the intellect is the non-awareness of ones eternal connection to the omnipresent soul. Pranasyati meaning one falls completely down indicates that one goes to the degraded hellish planets. Due to having unrighteous desires one cannot remember the eternal truths of the Vedic scriptures. Then due to defective perceptions one makes erroneous summations in what actions to perform and what actions not to perform. By these sinful activities one is degraded to the lower worlds.

Now begins the summation.

Sammoha denotes an illusionary perception of knowledge. This means even if the knowledge is right one will be deluded and remember it incorrectly. Thus due to perceiving the essence of the knowledge erroneously ones judgement will be compromised and ones actions will follow a distorted summation.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna is explaining that one whose cravings for sensual objects linger, the effort to overcome the senses without focusing the mind on the Supreme Lord is futile. This is due to the fact that without the Supreme Lords grace the residue of past sensual activities and the pleasure or frustration derived therefrom will delude the mind to pursue sense objects. This debilitating effect creates a magnetic attraction where the desire for sense objects becomes more and more extreme. From this extreme desire springs kama lust. Lust is the next stage of desire. Lust is that which one feels when they thinks that they cannot exist without their desire being gratified. From lust springs krodha anger. Krodha is that frustrated outraged one feels against that which stands in the way of obtaining the gratification of ones senses. From krodha arises sammoha bewilderment and delusion which is the mental condition where one is no longer cognisant of what action should be performed and what action should not be performed. One will foolishly do anything in this condition. Thereafter comes dementia causing loss in memory of the process one began in order to constrain the senses and control the mind. From dementia comes loss of will power, one no longer has the drive and incentive to cultivate themselves towards obtaining spiritual realisation of the eternal soul. When this happens then one perishes their spiritual opportunity being drowned again and again in samsara the endless cycle of birth and death in the material existence.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna further explains here that from anger arises delusion which is the lack of discrimination about knowing what actions to perform and what actions not to perform. From delusion comes confusion which is the bewilderment of intelligence and forgetfulness of the truths written in the Vedic scriptures instructed by the spiritual master. From confusion comes illusion the misinterpretation of intellect in determining the true nature of reality. From illusion one becomes completely ruined. One loses focus on the goal of material existence and the purpose of human life and lives in the darkness of nescience. Thus it must be understood that controlling ones mind is essential.
.

Sloka 2.64 audio recital in Sanskrit     

रागद्वेषविमुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् |
आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ||२- ६४||

rAgadveShavimuktaistu viShayAnindriyaishcharan.h |
AtmavashyairvidheyAtmA prasAdamadhigachchhati || 2-64 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.64

Anvaya: raga–attachment; dvesa–detachment; vimuktaih–by one who has been free from such things; tu–but; visayan–sense objects; indriyaih–by the senses; caran–acting; atma-vasyaih–one who has control over; vidheya-atma–one who follows regulated freedom; prasadam–the mercy of the Lord; adhigacchati–attains.

Translation: One who can control his senses by practicing the regulated principles of freedom can obtain the complete mercy of the Lord and thus become free from all attachment and aversion.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

It may be further submitted that since it is impossible to control the senses who by their very nature tend to be drawn towards senses objects, it would be extremely difficult to overcome these defects; so where is the possibility of attaining steady wisdom. Apprehending such doubts Lord Krishna states in this verse and the next where he clarifies that one who is free from both attachment and aversion although amidst sense objects attains the mercy of the Supreme Lord. Here Arjunas fourth question is being answered concerning how one of steady wisdom experiences sense objects. The answer given in this verse is that one experiences sense objects with ones sense under control.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is revealing how one is able to triumph over the senses in the latter part of the verse. He states that even while experiencing the senses if one has their mind under firm control the senses are also under firm control and one becomes successful. This is verified by the word prasade which devotes success achieved by the mercy of the Supreme Lord.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Previously in verse 61 Lord Krishna has declared that who ever meditates exclusively on Him as the Lord of all, being the soul within all hearts, then by this all impurities are eradicated and the mind becomes clear, expunging all desires. Here he says that the senses become destitute and barren of all cravings and aversions when they are mastered by the mind in this manner. Rejecting all desires for sensual objects with a mind firmly under control, one achieves lucidity of mind along with inner purity and blissfulness.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Here Lord Krishna is explaining that there is no difficulty in the absence of control of the senses if the mind is firmly under control. This answers the last question of, How does such a one walk or act? The particle tu meaning but denotes a difference from what was stated earlier. The self- controlled aspirant who has their firmly inder control while experiencing various sense objects through their disciplined senses which are free from aversion and attraction, achieves placidity and tranquillity of mind. This means that the mind has becomes purified.
.

Sloka 2.65 audio recital in Sanskrit     

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते |
प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ||२- ६५||

prasAde sarvaduHkhAnA.n hAnirasyopajAyate |
prasannachetaso hyAshu buddhiH paryavatiShThate || 2-65 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.65

Anvaya: prasade–on achievement of the causeless mercy of the Lord; sarva–of all; duhkhanam–material miseries; hanih–destruction; asya–his; upajayate–takes place; prasanna-cetasah–of the happy-minded; hi–certainly; asu–very soon; buddhih–intelligence; pari–sufficiently; avatisthate–established.

Translation: For one who is so situated in the Divine consciousness, the threefold miseries of material existence exist no longer; in such a happy state, one’s intelligence soon becomes steady.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

What happens when the mercy of the Supreme Lord is attained is being stated by Lord Krishna in this verse: that the direct result is the destruction of all miseries and quickly this happy minded person is fully established in spiritual intelligence.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

One may wonder how are all sorrows destroyed on attaining the state of satisfaction? Lord Krishna explains that by achieving tranquillity of mind the intellect becomes established in connecting to the ultimate reality. Prasade indicates that by the mercy of the Supreme Lord one neutralises the tendency to gravitate towards experiencing objects of the senses.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.Lord Krishna now explains that when the mind is placid and pure it has enacted for itself the cessation of all miseries arising from conjunction with prakriti materialism. Prasanna-chetah refers to that delightful one whose mind is expunged of all impediments that hinders it from realising the eternal soul while bestowing the spiritual intelligence needed for illumination. Thus when the mind has been purified all sorrow is terminated.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

By achieving a state of mental placidity all ones physical as well as other sorrows of the aspirant come to an end. The fruition of sorrow and pain is inevitable for one attached to sensual objects. But in the case of one who has purified their mind the sorrows and pains are easily neutralised by one of pure mind. Not only are all sorrows and pains neutralised but one also achieves great benefit. By the word hi certainly Lord Krishna is emphasising that such a person of pure and tranquil mind very soon becomes firmly established in transcendent consciousness.
.

Sloka 2.66 audio recital in Sanskrit     

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना |
न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ||२- ६६||

nAsti buddhirayuktasya na chAyuktasya bhAvanA |
na chAbhAvayataH shAntirashAntasya kutaH sukham.h || 2-66 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.66

Anvaya: na asti–there cannot be; buddhih–transcendental intelligence; ayuktasya–of one who is not connected (with Krsna consciousness); na–neither; ca–and; ayuktasya–of one devoid of Krsna consciousness; bhavana–mind fixed in happiness; na–neither; ca–and; abhavayatah–one who is not fixed; santih–peace; asantasya–of the unpeaceful; kutah–where is; sukham–happiness.

Translation: One who is not in transcendental consciousness can have neither a controlled mind nor steady intelligence, without which there is no possibility of peace. And how can there be any happiness without peace?

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna now reveals the controlling of the senses as a means of attaining spiritual intelligence in a converse way. The Lord states that one with an uncontrolled mind can never possess spiritual intelligence even if well versed in the Vedic scriptures and the teachings of the bona-fide preceptor in the line of Vedic disciplic succession in one of the four authorised Vaisnava sampradaya’s. Why is this true? Because with an uncontrolled mind it is not possible to have spiritual intelligence, without spiritual intelligence one cannot meditate and without meditation it is not possible to realise the Ultimate Truth. So one who has an uncontrolled mind is bereft of this, for one who cannot meditate, who is unable to enlighten themselves within there is no peace and where there is no peace how can there be happiness.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is explaining the defects due to the absence of happiness as referred to in this verse. Without being happy there is no possibility of concentration of the mind. Without concentration of the mind there can be no meditation and without meditation it is not possible to have inner awakening or soul-cognition. Therefore it has been declared that these things are not possible for one without concentration. Santih or peace refers also to liberation. Santi, moksa or liberation and nirvana all have a similar meaning denoting termination of the samsara or worldly existence.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

One who is unable to concentrate and focus their mind in meditation on Lord Krishna is known as ayukta devoid of spiritual intelligence. One who attempts to control their senses by their own efforts without securing the grace of the Supreme Lord merited by devotion. To these living entities no clear, definitive illumination in consciousness can develop; ergo , because one will not be able to internally realise the ultimate reality of the Supreme Lord through the medium of the eternal soul as having name, form, qualities, pastimes, abode and sweetness. Thus without being able to comprehend and contemplate on the nature of the eternal soul there can be no tranquillity. Nor is it possible to dispel the compulsive urge and inclination to experience sensual objects. To those who are not tranquil, who are addicted to sensual objects and who are submerged in sense gratification; how can they ever possibly attain eternal blessedness and transcendental bliss. Again as stated previously are the disastrous consequences that result in the inability to govern the tempestuous senses.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In order to strengthen the previous verse Lord Krishna points out all the contrary results incurred by one with an uncontrolled mind. One who has not subdued their senses by controlling their mind is bereft of determinative resolve. The intellect of one with spiritual intelligence determines the truth ascertained in the Vedic scriptures. It is not possible for an undisciplined living entity to have belief of the calibre necessary to contemplate matters relating to the ultimate truth. Without having understanding of God there is no peace and also no end to attachment for sensual objects. How can there possibly be permanent happiness which is inexhaustible and unaffected not in the least by sorrow if one is lacking peace of mind. Although material happiness is surely derived by experiencing worldly objects, the deceptive results of this perilous interaction is very succinctly summed up subsequently in verse 38 of the final chapter of Bhagavad-Gita.
.

Sloka 2.67 audio recital in Sanskrit     

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनुविधीयते |
तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ||२- ६७||

indriyANAM hi charatAM yanmano.anuvidhIyate |
tadasya harati praGYAM vAyurnAvamivAmbhasi || 2-67 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.67

Anvaya: indriyanam–of the senses; hi–certainly; caratam–while herding over; yat–that; manah–mind; anuvidhiyate–becomes constantly engaged; tat–that; asya–his; harati–takes away; prajnam–intelligence; vayuh–wind; navam–a boat; iva–like; ambhasi–on the water.

Translation: As a boat on the water is swept away by a strong wind, even one of the senses on which the mind focuses can carry away a man’s intelligence.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The reason why one who is uncontrolled is devoid of knowledge is now being stated in this verse. Whichever one of the wandering senses the uncontrolled mind follows, that sense by itself enslaves the mind and carries away all discrimination making one restless for the object of desire. As the wind effortlessly snatches away a boat on the ocean whose helmsman is not in control; similarly the senses of one who is uncontrolled snatches away even their mundane intelligence.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

In this verse Lord Krishna gives an analogy on the condition of those who meditate on their senses. One may ask the question, Do not the senses perform the activities energised by the Supreme Lord? This is only partly true because wisdom is an essential ingredient of meditation and when one is pursuing the senses then wisdom is lost and one is out of control like a ship in a storm causing the senses to lose their essential purpose.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

When the senses are rambling about in pursuit of their delights and one allows their mind to follow in hot pursuit after them, then the mind will be deprived of its inherent intelligence and will completely forget all the things that lead to ones highest good. Instead of inducing a strong will to pursue spiritual development one will develop a strong will for sensual enjoyment. Thus Lord Krishna gives this fitting analogy of a ship in the ocean being tossed about violently hither and thither by tempestuous winds. The conclusion of this rational is explained in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna declares that one who is unable to control their mind and senses cannot be in possession of determinate reason. This is because any one of the rambling senses which the mind attaches itself to in pursuit of sense objects has the power to deviate one, taking away even their common sense and compelling them to be oblivious to their highest good which is realisation of the soul. The example given of an unfavourable wind forcibly propelling astray a boat in the water, completely deviating it from its destination is quite apropos.
.

Sloka 2.68 audio recital in Sanskrit     

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः |
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ||२- ६८||

tasmAdyasya mahAbAho nigR^ihItAni sarvashaH |
indriyANIndriyArthebhyastasya praGYA pratiShThitA || 2-68 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.68

Anvaya: tasmat–therefore; yasya–of one’s; maha-baho–O mighty-armed one; nigrhitani–so curbed down; sarvasah–all around; indriyani–the senses; indriya-arthebhyah–for the sake of sense objects; tasya–his; prajna–intelligence; pratisthita–fixed.

Translation: Therefore, O mighty-armed, one whose senses are restrained from their objects is certainly of steady intelligence.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The control of the senses which has been prescribed as the means of acquiring perfect knowledge and spiritual intelligence is being concluded. By addressing Arjuna as O mighty armed one, Lord Krishna is indicating that just as Arjuna exercises control of the enemy in battle; he must likewise exercise control of the senses as well.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is declaring that only by control of the senses in all respects can wisdom be achieved.

.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Therefore in the way that it has been definitively expounded by Lord Krishna, whosoever achieves communion with Him the most exalted reality for meditation will surely in every way have their senses abstracted and completely oblivious to the objects of the senses. Thus so qualified to them will come installation of wisdom and so established they will become fit to attain the eternal soul. The achievement of one who has subjugated their senses and whose mind is situated in sublime serenity is discussed in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

By previously establishing the depreciating effects of the senses in affecting the mind and degrading the intellect, Lord Krishna now concludes this topic by explaining that the problem to be addressed is the senses and that one who has the potency to restrain their senses from their sense objects is one who is situated in transcendent meditation.
.

Sloka 2.69 audio recital in Sanskrit     

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी |
यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ||२- ६९||

yA nishA sarvabhUtAnAM tasyA.n jAgarti sa.nyamI |
yasyA.n jAgrati bhUtAni sA nishA pashyato muneH || 2-69 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.69

Anvaya: ya–what; nisa–is night; sarva–all; bhutanam–of living entities; tasyam–in that; jagarti–wakeful; samyami–the self-controlled; yasyam–in which; jagrati–awake; bhutani–all beings; sa–that is; nisa–night; pasyatah–for the introspective; muneh–sage.

Translation: What is night for all beings is the time of awakening for the self-controlled; and the time of awakening for all beings is night for the introspective sage.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

It could be put forth that who is there in this world so perfectly controlled that they are like in a deep sleep free from all activities of the senses. Therefore explanation given in the previous verses is altogether inapplicable. Anticipating such doubts Lord Krishna states: what is night for all creatures meaning those of uncontrolled senses whose minds are covered by ignorance like the night exist in the darkness of the self. But those of self-controlled senses abiding in the light of the self are wide awake. The condition of beings engrossed in sensual pursuits in which all living beings appear awake is as night to the introspective yogi who is absorbed only in the bliss of the self. This is the meaning here. Just as an owl which is blind by day but sees quite clearly at night, one who has realised the Ultimate Truth through the eye of knowledge factually sees everything as the one, undivided Ultimate Truth within everything and not the objects perceived by the senses. Therefore with this understanding it can be seen that the explanation given here is indeed factually applicable.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is giving the indications of transcendent meditation in this verse. That which is confidential and difficult of realising is the eternal soul which is verily the form of the Supreme Lord which to one who is asleep is vague and unclear. But those who have their senses under control are aware and awake and experience everything through the perception of the realised soul. This is the meaning Lord Krishna is conveying. To those beings whose enthusiasm for the senses is awake for them as a sleeping person recognises nothing around them, cognition of the soul is unknown. Like one who is crazy can be seen by the way they are walking. So it is understood that the body is verily not ours. One who meditates is known as a muni and the word pasyatah indicates one who perceives.

Now begins the summation.

All with spiritual intelligence cannot perceive the ultimate truth with clarity. One may perceive the ultimate truth during the night while others may not perceive the ultimate truth. The latter are the ones bewildered by the material energy. They see nothing except what they can experience with their senses. This is due to being captivated by their senses and unable to concentrate their mind in meditation. But like the sun shining is perceived by everyone internally all is perceived as well but the external consciousness is oblivious to it focused on the enjoyment of sense objects. Yet and still some advanced living entities are able to fathom it. This has been mentioned in the Brahma Taraka.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna is explaining that realisation of the soul is like the darkness of night to all conditioned living entities. Being that the wisdom of soul cognition does not shine forth unto them who pursue sensual objects being likened to the darkness of night. But that understanding of the soul for the realised being who have subjugated their senses is lucidly awake in this night and sublimely aware remaining focused on the bliss of the eternal soul. Whereas those of mundane understanding who occupy their existence awake to the pursuits of sensuous delights in this darkness of night are asleep to the reality of soul cognition. Sensual pursuits are not appealing to one situated in soul cognition.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

One situated in transcendent meditation has no connections to their senses whatsoever; but such a being cannot be perceived. As the functions of the senses such as seeing, hearing, and tasting of an ordinary person are the exact same to one situated in transcendent meditation, How is it possible to properly understand what this means? Here Lord Krishna indicates that the operation of the senses to one situated in transcendent mediation are completely different from an ordinary being. This is because those whose minds are inclined towards sense objects are unqualified to realise the soul their intellect being likened unto the darkness of night. Whereas the self restrained living entities with their sense organs fully controlled remains awake and realises the essence of the eternal soul and God realisation by the eternal truths of the Vedic scriptures. The tendency of all living entities whose external senses along with the mind are not under control in the darkness of nescience indulge in sensual delights in this night. Contrarily the self controlled one sees the objects of the senses as unfit and reflects on the eternal soul within. Thus these are the indications of one situated in transcendent meditation.
.

Sloka 2.70 audio recital in Sanskrit     

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठं
समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् |
तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे
स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ||२- ७०||

ApUryamANamachalapratiShTha.n
samudramApaH pravishanti yadvat.h |
tadvatkAmA yaM pravishanti sarve
sa shAntimApnoti na kAmakAmI || 2-70 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.70

Anvaya: apuryamanam–always filled; acala-pratistham–steadily situated; samudram–the ocean; apah–water; pravisanti–enter; yadvat–as; tadvat–so; kamah–desires; yam–unto one; pravisanti–enter; sarve–all; sah–that person; santim–peace; apnoti–achieves; na–not; kama-kami–one who desires to fulfill desires.

Translation: A person who is not disturbed by the incessant flow of desires–that enter like rivers into the ocean which is ever being filled but is always still–can alone achieve peace, and not the man who strives to satisfy such desires.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

It could be further postulated that since such a being has no interest in sensual pursuits how then are the objects of the sense experienced like seeing sights, hearing sounds, smelling scents etc. in the course of ones daily routine. Here Lord Krishna states that just as the ocean is unaffected is unaffected by the waters of innumerable rivers flowing into it; similarly the introspective yogi is unaffected by the experiences of sense objects which are manifesting due to the influence of both positive and negative reactions to actions which were performed in the previous lifetime and which in the present lifetime come of their own accord. One who is thus self controlled has achieved peace of mind and is thereby unaffected by association of these sense objects; but this is not the case for one who is desirous of sensual enjoyment.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The way in which those situated in transcendent meditation experience the objects of the senses is explained in this verse by Lord Krishna. Whoever remains unaffected by sense objects even when they approach incessantly, who is not overwhelmed by them, who does not endeavour for them, who is not at a loss due to their absence, who is unchanged like the ocean which does not increase no matter how many bodies of water enter it and which does not decrease if no other bodies of water enter it endeavouring for neither. Such a one as this can attain peace. This is the meaning.

Now begins the summation.

Even while experiencing interaction with the senses, one who does not transgress the boundaries of desire, like the ocean which remains steadfast within its boundaries destined by creation, then such a one is not bound by theses desires. One is then liberated from these desires. Ka means to become selfish. Hence one whose desires are self-centered is known to be the selfish one. All desires are not contrary to liberation nor are all desires opposed to liberation. In the absence of desires it is not possible to live a normal life. Since attaining peace from endless desires is liberation itself, subsequently develops eternal faith in the Supreme Lord. Verily this is truth.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

The ocean is full unto itself and always maintains the same form even though countless rivers enter into it. Whether the rivers enter or do not enter, the ocean is unaffected and undergoes no difference. Similarly when the senses of one in transcendent meditation come in contact with sense objects such as sound and it enters into the sense vector of hearing and is apprehended by the ears such a one still remains peaceful and maintains an equipoise state of consciousness. In other words the sublime satisfaction derived from direct soul cognition precludes any disturbance from the senses or agitation towards sense delights. Whether sense objects are experienced by the senses or not experienced by them one in transcendent meditation will not be affected and will not be subject to any disturbance. But Lord Krishna is saying that this state can never be attained by one who is kamakana full of lascivious desires or is controlled by the same, for such a being can never achieve peace.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Thus one situated in yoga attaining the state of transcendent meditation ceases from pursuing sensual objects because they have mastered the senses and have them under controls. But the question may arise that if in one developed by yoga sense objects naturally come to and are experienced then one may be deviated and cease to remain in the transcendent state. Lord Krishna refutes this doubt by this verse. As water entering the ocean does not affect or change the ocean; likewise the yogi immersed in transcendent meditation is unaffected and unchanged by those things interacting with the senses which are destined to come due to previous karma or by fate. Although they may be experienced they in themselves are not powerful enough to generate any change or deviation internally. Thus such a one has attained peace in the form of liberation from extreme joy as well as misery because the desires causing actions which are the cause of all types of misery are terminated but ones devotedness to the yoga does not deviate and does not terminate. Contrarily one who is inclined to ruminates over and hankers after sensual enjoyments can never find peace and incessantly revolves in the material existence buffeted hither and thither by the negative and positive reactions of their own desires.
.

Sloka 2.71 audio recital in Sanskrit     

विहाय कामान्यः सर्वान्पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः |
निर्ममो निरहङ्कारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ||२- ७१||

vihAya kAmAnyaH sarvAnpumA.nshcharati niHspR^ihaH |
nirmamo nirahaN^kAraH sa shAntimadhigachchhati || 2-71 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.71

Anvaya: vihaya–after giving up; kaman–all material desires for sense gratification; yah–the person; sarvan–all; puman–a person; carati–lives; nihsprhah–desireless; nirmamah–without a sense of proprietorship; nirahankarah–without false ego; sah–all; santim–perfect peace; adhigacchati–attains.

Translation: A person who has given up all desires for sense gratification, who lives free from desires, who has given up all sense of proprietorship and is devoid of false ego–he alone can attain real peace.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Here it is clearly stated that one who has internally renounced the desire for sense objects equipoise by the association of those coming on their own accord and not hankering for those that are not appearing on their own accord, free from false ego of thinking doership and devoid of any conception of proprietorship of anything, accepts whatever comes as a result of past actions, attains peace of mind.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna clarifies this theme in this verse. One who experiences objects of the senses without one being attached to them or having the conceptions of this is mine or I am this body, such a one verily situated in a state of perfect peace and they alone attain liberation. This is the meaning.

Now begins the summation.

With the determination of renouncing all inappropriate objects, one abandons all sense objects. To assume that which is not under ones control is under ones control is deluded egotism. Rejecting egotism in all its forms is understood to be under the control of the Supreme Lord Krishna. This is the goal to fully strive for.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

The word kamas means desires or those things which one wishes to enjoy such as taste or touch. Lord Krishna is instructing that whoever can relinquish these desires is free from craving, free from my-ness the conception that these things are mine and free from I-ness, my-ness and the conception that I am this body. Such a one not bewildered does misidentify the physical body as being the soul, rather such a one perceives the soul and attains peace.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In answer to the question, Who is qualified for this yoga which bestows such a great reward? Lord Krishna states the word yah vihaya whomsoever giving up. The use of the pronoun yah meaning who whosoever denotes that there are no restrictions regarding class, caste, education or qualification for engaging in this process of self-realisation preceded by abandoning attachment to all sense objects. Abandoning fully all desires for things to obtain, desires present and desires approaching, experiencing those things only which come on their own accord. Free from attachment and hence free from egoism, devoid of feeling my-ness such as this is mine, when acquiring food, clothing, etc. and free from even the thirst of enjoyment. Being free as well from the feeling of I-ness towards the body and senses thinking that I am the physical body syndrome. Due to the firm knowledge about the eternal soul being distinctly different from all of these material designations, wherever and whatever such a one engages themselves they are always situated in a state of perfect peace.
.

Sloka 2.72 audio recital in Sanskrit     

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति |
स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ||२- ७२||

eShA brAhmI sthitiH pArtha nainAM prApya vimuhyati |
sthitvAsyAmantakAle.api brahmanirvANamR^ichchhati || 2-72 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 2.72

Anvaya: esa–this; brahmi–spiritual; sthitih–situation; partha–O son of Prtha; na–never; enam–this; prapya–achieving; vimuhyati–bewilders; sthitva–being so situated; asyam–being so; anta-kale–at the end of life; api–also; brahma-nirvanam–spiritual (kingdom of God); rcchati–attains.

Translation: That is the way of the spiritual and godly life, after attaining which a man is not bewildered. Being so situated, even at the hour of death, one can enter into the kingdom of God.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Extolling the path of Vedic knowledge that has been described is now being concluded. This path is realisation of the Ultimate Truth which on attaining one is never again deluded becoming pure minded, no more subject to transmigration of the soul from womb to womb in various and diverse physical bodies throughout the material manifestation. Situated in this state for a moment even at the time of death achieves liberation from the material existence and attains the Ultimate Consciousness. It is clear that one who has wisely situated themselves in this state of consciousness early in life most assuredly attains this liberation as well.

The Supreme Lord Krishna who raised His surrendered devotee Arjuna, who had fallen into the mire of despondency, by instructing him in the yoga of wisdom, is my sole refuge.

.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna thus concludes His instructions in this verse. The state of brahmi is that which is experienced attaining the ultimate truth. Achieving this state one verily is liberated and enters the eternal spiritual worlds otherwise one is compelled to revolve incessantly in the cycle of birth and death. This subject is also expounded upon ahead in chapter 8, verse 6. Even those of spiritual intelligence may be compelled to be reborn if there exists an effect from previous actions. Only by undergoing this process explained previously may all residue of effects be totally dissolved. It is revealed in the Brahma Sutras that karma or effects from actions are dissolved after countless lifetimes. Even for the spiritually intelligent it takes seven births to become a brahmin and for a brahmin realisation comes after many lifetimes. Therefore it has been said in the Garuda Purana that when one becomes established in elevated awareness similar to Rudra or Sesa one becomes delivered by the grace of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Deliverance from material bondage is manifest in ones subsequent by activities in the present life. In the Narada Purana it states that spiritual intelligence assures definite results. These results are the illumination of self-realisation. The reactions from karma is the only cause of bondage. For one who by spiritual intelligence releases themselves from karma they are verily liberated.

For one of spiritual intelligence there is no expectation of being subjected to birth and death again and again. The accumulated effects of all their actions are burned up even as cotton is burned up in fire. The actions have no effect as water cannot wet a lotus leaf for the wisdom of spiritual knowledge evaporates the effect of all actions. Due to such statements some postulate that those of spiritual intelligence need many lifetimes to eradicate all the accumulated effects, still this offers no contradiction. However there is no evidence for such statements and no scriptural authority verifying such.

Those who accept the speculative conjectures of Aksapada, Kanada, Pashupatas which are opposed to the Vedic scriptures are those lacking in spiritual intelligence. Thus these conjectures are to be completely rejected. The invocation to Shiva by his devotees should be understood to be as good as an invocation to the Supreme Lord. This is not an untruth as Shiva is a empowered incarnation as well; but only the Vedic scriptures being authorised may be accepted as evidence. Therefore it is stated in the Varaha Purana that Shiva was ordered by Vishnu to arrange an illusion by inventing doctrines that would create delusion by propagating principles which do not actually exist in fact due to their not being founded upon eternal truth. Shiva was so ordered to execute this task extensively and comprehensively with great imagination and to cleverly conceal the reality of Lord Krishna as the supreme, absolute truth.

Deceptive, confusing and delusory doctrines were promulgated by Shiva throughout the material worlds as enjoined by Vishnu. Influenced by these teachings Dadhici created sciences, Gautama’s nyaya, Kanada’s vaisesikam, Kapila Muni’s sankhya and others such as Sankara’s impersonal mayavadi hypothisis created athiestic philosophies over the course of time to emulate these doctrines and the religions of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and the Jews all being impersonal without a form or qualities or even a conception of what God they are actually worshipping more or less stem from Sankara. But the following doctrines should be understood not to under Shivas influence. The Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, Atharva Veda, Brahma Sutra, Pancharatra, Srimad Bhagavatam, Ramayana and Mahabharata which includes the illustrious Bhagavad-Gita are all known to be Vaisnava scriptures and they eulogise the Supreme Lord. Therefore all the Shiva Puranas should be interpreted and verified according to the understanding of the Vaisnava scriptures without the slightest contradiction and this is confirmed in the Narada Purana.

Thus for one situated in spiritual intelligence liberation is surely forthcoming without fail. For those of spiritual intelligence such as Bhishma and Drona at the time of death they were appropriately in a state of complete equipoise. One should at the moment of death in a state of equanimity depart from the body focused in meditation on the exquisite form, sublime qualities and phenomenal pastimes of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Thus it has been revealed in the Garuda Purana that at the time of death those of spiritual intelligence showing equanimity in all actions meditate on Lord Krishna and being under His protection are guided to salvation. But for those bereft of spiritual intelligence the remembrance of the Supreme Lord at the moment of death never manifests. In the Brahma Vaivarta Purana it is stated that after innumerable lifetimes when wisdom regarding Lord Krishna has matured and devotion has been attained one naturally meditates exclusively on Him at the termination of ones physical existence.

Nirvana denotes existence beyond the purview of the physical body. Nirvana is also used to indicate not possessing any material senses organs. Otherwise how could the Puranas possibly describe the transcendental form of the resplendent Supreme Lord Krishna. The resplendent Supreme Lord Krishna is known as the effulgent Brahman, as Paramatma the supersoul in all living entities and as Bhagavan the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This is well confirmed in the Bhagavat Purana.

The effulgent Brahman is the reflection of the Supreme Lord Krishna who is also the source of Paramatma the supersoul. Isvara the supreme controller is the supreme Lord transcendent to all that is mutable and supreme to even that which is immutable. Far, far beyond anything that is accessible by any of the senses. There is nothing comparable to Lord Krishna neither in the past nor in the future. Thus there being nothing comparable to Lord Krishna it is not possible for anything to be superior to Lord Krishna.

The effulgent Brahman should not be conceived as one without a form. Although not possessing a physical form He does possess a spiritual form. It is clearly described in Vedic scriptures that He possesses a blissful form surrounded by a golden glow and that He should be meditated upon in this form internally within the heart. If He did not possess a form He would have been simply described as Bliss and how can there be a golden glow surrounding His body if it was formless? How can Lord Krishna be meditated on within the heart if He has no form? Possessing a purely spiritual form He is known and referred to as having a form. The Purusa having thousands of heads, having hands and feet in all directions, omnipotent, omnipresent and omniscient. Due to such statements from the Vedic scriptures and due to descriptions of the universal form later in chapter 11 he is known to have form.

The Supreme Lord Krishna the resplendent maintainer of all is 100% complete within Himself in all respects and thus is known as Bhagavan the possessor of the six opulences being full in 100% knowledge, 100% strength, 100% beauty, 100% wealth, 100% fame and 100% renunciation. In the Supreme Lord Krishna reside all the various and diverse energies. This is natural and totally in accordance with reality as He is the source of all theses energies. He is the also the source of the ever blissful Brahman. By only a minute fragment of His potency all creation exists and is sustained. Eternal, immortal, without beginning and without end, of everlasting energy, transcending the brilliance of thousands of suns, more effulgent then thousands of moons, having unlimited attributes and unlimited facets in each one of those unlimited attributes, possessing unlimited forms, unlimited knowledge of immeasurable energy, omnipotent omnipresent and omniscient. Those situated in spiritual knowledge know the Supreme Lord Krishna as Brahman, Paramatma and Bhagavan. Who else but the Supreme Lord Krishna and His incarnations and expansions may ever be known as Bhagavan. He is glorious and eternally worshipable by all living entities in all situations for all times.

Yet all these attributes are not exclusively independent from each another. Brahman is wisdom and bliss for indeed bliss is and attribute of brahman. Truth, wisdom and eternality are also brahman. Without a gross material body of flesh and blood and corpulence and bones subject to old age, disease and death. Possessing an immortal spiritual body of eternity, knowledge and bliss. These qualities are immutable all their pervading nature are not derived due to yoga or but rather due to Lord Krishna being the Supreme ultimate truth. His spiritual body is fragrant due to the illuminating purity of His wisdom and bliss. Thus it is revealed in the appendix of the Paingi Sutra.

The spiritual body of the Supreme Lord Krishna is not of material nature and is ever blissful being complete in all respects as well as all pervading. This is confirmed in the Brahma Vaivarta Purana. Therefore by impulse or projection all these inherent forms are self-manifested by the Supreme Lord Krishnas internal potency. Lord Krishna was neither born from the womb of Devaki nor was He the son of Vasudeva. Similarly avatars of Lord Krishna such as Rama was not the son of Dasaratha and Lord Krishnas satyavesha avatar Parasurama was not the son of Jamadagni. Even though Lord Krishna is the supreme ultimate non-dual absolute, ever blissful and immutable, He revels in this manner by His own sweet will. Thus is it stated in the Padma Purana. The Supreme Lord, who is the supreme being of all beings never is subject to misery.

The creator of all creation, indestructible, the omnipotent Rama, omnipresent and the embodiment of complete omniscience displayed ignorance for the sake of humanity and the world and wandered about in apparent lamentation searching for his beloved wife Sita. This Sri Rama whose feet are adored by Brahma, mourns in lamentation for his wife just like an ordinary mortal exhibiting extreme attachment. Even though Rama was perfect and complete in all respects being an avatar, in order to not minimise the words of Shiva he behaved as though he was distraught even though Rama was not actually distraught. Ever victorious Parasurama aware of Lord Krishnas devotee Bhishma did not slay him even when they engaged in mortal combat because he refused to marry Amba. What can be more compassionate than this? This is stated in the Skanda Purana.

Therefore it should be understood that miseries of material existence are not applicable in regard to the Supreme Lord and should not be designated as such as this conception is illusory. Some texts mention superiority and inferiority in regard to the Supreme Lord Krishna’s avatar descents not understanding the fact that they are different manifestations of the same supreme non-dual absolute. Therefore it is spoken thus in the Garuda Purana that the Supreme Lord Krishna is complete with all attributes, in all forms and similar in all manifestations being transcendental to material nature. This applies even though according to the perceptions of the spiritually intelligent as well as the perceptions of the ignorant Supreme and mundane qualities are attributed respectively to these manifestations. This even though is not a contradiction or incongruity due to His inconceivable power and and the phenomenal varieagatedness of His appearances.

The form of the Supreme Lord Krishna is always complete as well as Ramas. There is not even the slightest variation in their supreme non-dual position. We are still being continuously deluded by all of them. As it is stated in the Narada Purana. Therefore it is established that only the spiritually intelligent who by the mercy of Sri Guru has attained devotion has the possibility to experience the Supreme Lord Krishna and His incarnations being ever immeasurable in all their forms with all comprehensive attributes, eternal and transcendental beyond all defects.

Now begins the summation.

The word brahmi means related to Brahma. Even the intelligent who experience diversity of thought at the moment of death there will be rebirth in the material existence due to the accumulated effects of their karma having not been dissolved. But for those of one-pointed spiritual intelligence who have dissolved the accumulated effects of all their karma, at the moment of death there arises the vision of the Supreme Lord without fail. Then immediately one achieves liberation and is delivered from the cycle of birth and death in the material existence specifically entering into the exact liberated sphere that one had knowledge of and perceived during ones span of life.

At the end of this verse the word vana within the compound word brahma- nirvana refers to the body. Brahman is referring to the potency of the supreme. As Lord Krishna body is completely spiritual the word nirvana is revealing that it is by our spiritual body which is designated as the immortal soul is how we enter into eternal communion with the Supreme Lord and attain the kingdom of God.
.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

Lord Krishna concludes chapter two by revealing the state of consciousness achieved by one who performs all actions unattached and equipoised based on knowledge of the eternal nature of the immortal soul. This process has for its goal the attainment of transcendent meditation. It is brahmi or that which leads to brahma the ultimate truth. Knowing the philosophy of actions are like this, one will no longer be subject to bewilderment and delusion. The results of this are one will no longer be compelled to enter samsara the endless cycle of birth and death in the mirage of material existence. If one begins this process with determination even in old age one will have the opportunity to attain cognition of the eternal soul within and brahma-nirvana final liberation from the material existence.

Thus in this second chapter one who is not knowledgeable about the exact nature of the soul, or how by performing ones prescribed duties unattached can lead to liberation, or how by the misconception of identifying oneself as the physical body one will not be properly situated and how by the process of sankhya in jnana-yoga teaching the knowledge of the eternal nature of the soul as well as in karma-yoga performing all activities with unattachment leads one to the consciousness state of transcendent meditation.

The following doctrine is what is summarised in chapter two: 1) That the immortal soul is eternal. 2) All activities should be performed as a matter of duty devoid of desire for reward. 3) One who is spiritually intelligent of illuminated consciousness understands that through either jnana-yoga or karma-yoga the goal of transcendent meditation can be attained.

These three spiritual truths have been revealed in the second chapter of the Bhagavad-Gita for curing ignorance and dispelling delusion.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna extolling the virtues of the process of spiritual knowledge concludes chapter two with this verse enunciating the performance of actions by being unattached to their rewards. This state of consciousness leads to self-realisation and brahmi the ultimate truth. Having achieved this one never again deluded by the material energy. Nor does one experience the feeling of I or mine in relationship with the physical body. Even if one becomes established in this state at the last moment when death has come still one will achieve the eternal spiritual attainment. Liberation from the material existence in the form of ecstatic bliss which is completely devoid of all unhappiness because it is derived as a result of the cessation of all desires for reward for ones actions. In essence this means that having relinquished both the physical body and the subtle body one becomes qualified to realise their spiritual body and experience the sublime bliss of uninterrupted devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna. What more to say to one who began this process and experienced bliss in the early stages of their life, they will attain the eternal spiritual realm at their lifes end. So the following eternal truths must be stated.

1) The root cause of attaining God realisation is certainly pure devotion unto God, whereas self-realisation or soul-cognition although extremely exalted is secondary, devotion to GOD is primary being the means as well as the goal to be attained.

2) Through the process of devotion one becomes relieved from all unhappiness due to being free from attachment and possessing spiritual intelligence is completely equipoised in transcendent meditation attaining the bliss of supreme peace.

3) This commentary of Srimad Bhagavad-Gita: chapter two has been delineated to accomplish the highest good for the devotees and the benefit of the spiritually intelligent by the mercy and grace of Lord Krishna.

Thus ends the Kumara Vaisnava Sampradaya commentary entitled Tattva- Prakasika to Srimad Bhagavad-Gita: chapter 2 by Keshava Kashmiri.
.

No comments yet.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.