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Śrīmad bhagavad gītā | Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga yoga ~ Sarga 16 of 18


Sarga (or) Chapter 16 of 18 : Daivasura–Sampad–Vibhaga yoga

śloka (verses): 24

Abstract : Krishna identifies the human traits of the divine and the demonic natures. He counsels that to attain the supreme destination one must give up lust, anger, greed, and discern between right and wrong action by discernment through Buddhi and evidence from the scriptures.

Audio Recitals:

in Sanskrit by Sri Vidyabhushana     
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in Telugu by Ghantasala     
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in English Unknown     
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Gitopadesh (Sanskrit: गीतोपदेश)


In chapter sixteen Lord Krishna describes explicitly, explaining seperately and in detail the divine properties, conduct and actions which are righteous in nature and conducive to divinity. Also he delineates the evil propensities and ill conduct which are unrighteous in nature and which determine the unrighteous and which are antagonistic to divinity. Thus this chapter is entitled: The Divine and the Demoniac Natures Defined.

Sloka 16.1 to 16.3 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रीभगवानुवाच |

अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः |
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ||१६- १||

अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम् |
दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ||१६- २||

तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता |
भवन्ति सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ||१६- ३||

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha |

abhayaM sattvasa.nshuddhirGYAnayogavyavasthitiH |
dAnaM damashcha yaGYashcha svAdhyAyastapa Arjavam.h || 16-1 ||

ahi.nsA satyamakrodhastyAgaH shAntirapaishunam.h |
dayA bhUteShvaloluptvaM mArdavaM hrIrachApalam.h || 16-2 ||

tejaH kShamA dhR^itiH shauchamadroho nAtimAnitA |
bhavanti sampadaM daivImabhijAtasya bhArata || 16-3 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.1 to 16.3

Anvaya: sri-bhagavan uvaca–the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; abhayam–fearlessness; sattva-samsuddhih–purification of one’s existence; jnana–knowledge; yoga–of linking up; vyavasthitih–the situation; danam–charity; damah ca–and controlling the mind; yajnah ca–and performance of sacrifice; svadhyayah–study of Vedic literature; tapah–austerity; arjavam–simplicity; ahimsa–nonviolence; satyam–truthfulness; akrodhah–freedom from anger; tyagah–renunciation; santih–tranquility; apaisunam–aversion to fault-finding; daya–mercy; bhutesu–towards all living entities; aloluptvam–freedom from greed; mardavam–gentleness; hrih–modesty; acapalam–determination; tejah–vigor; ksama–forgiveness; dhrtih–fortitude; saucam–cleanliness; adrohah–freedom from envy; na–not; ati-manita–expectation of honor; bhavanti–become; sampadam–qualities; daivim–transcendental; abhijatasya–of one who is born of; bharata–O son of Bharata.

Translation: The Blessed Lord said: Fearlessness, purification of one’s existence, cultivation of spiritual knowledge, charity, self-control, performance of sacrifice, study of the Vedas, austerity and simplicity; nonviolence, truthfulness, freedom from anger; renunciation, tranquility, aversion to faultfinding, compassion and freedom from covetousness; gentleness, modesty and steady determination; vigor, forgiveness, fortitude, cleanliness, freedom from envy and the passion for honor–these transcendental qualities, O son of Bharata, belong to godly men endowed with divine nature.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

In order to discern the reality that jivas or embodied beings who fully renounce demoniac activities and exclusively engage in divine activities are awarded moksa or liberation from material existence and to grant the ability to clearly distinguish between the two; the Supreme Lord Krishna describes first the divine qualities and then the demoniac.

At the conclusion of chapter 15 Lord Krishna explained that one realising the eternal spiritual truths stated their is situated in actual wisdom and accomplished in all duties both eternal and occasional. Now in this chapter Lord Krishna is clarifying by qualities exactly who is a recipient of this knowledge and established in wisdom and who is not. He first describes the qualities of those jivas or embodied beings situated within the divine nature possessing divine qualities and then He describes those jivas situated within the demoniac nature possessing demoniac qualities. It is only after the goal of an accomplishment has been ascertained that an assessment of the requirements and who is qualified for it can be determined. As the old adage from sage Kumarila Bhatta has foretold: Only after a load has been weighed can it be determined who is fit to carry it.

So as the goal being the recipient of knowledge has been determined; the divine qualities that characterise an aspirant who is qualified are now being enumerated in these three verses beginning with abhayam meaning fearlessness, for in knowing one is eternal there is nothing to ever be afraid of. Other qualities are purity of heart, complete serenity of mind, steady absorption in knowledge of yoga or the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Charity is sharing with others what is valuable to oneself. Self control of the mind, the senses and the organs of action. Performing and taking part in ritualistic activities which propitiate and glorify the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His incarnations or expansions which are authorised in Vedic scriptures. Receiving instructions from the spiritual master and studying of the Vedic scriptures, singing Vedic hymns, chanting repetitively Vedic mantras or sacred incantations. Austerity and temperance in the habits and activities the physical body engages in. Enacting all activities without duplicity or deception. The word ahimsa means abstaining from injuring others by thought, word or deed. The one exception to this rule is when one’s life and dependents are in danger.

Truthfulness is relating the facts as they are and not as one wants them to be perceived. Absence of anger is calmness within the mind without agitation even when rebuked, attacked or in the process of defending oneself. Tyagah is renunciation of possessions and thus natural generosity. Tranquillity is complete control of the mind. Freedom from slander is absence of envy and retaliation. Compassion is kindness to all living beings especially when they are in distress. Non-covetousness is self satisfaction with what one has been allotted in life. Gentleness is absence of cruelty or harshness. Modesty is shyness in decorum and hesitancy in even the thought of wrong doing. Absence of fickleness is the avoidance of frivolous activities. Boldness is courage in asserting what is truth and defending righteousness. Forgiveness is not becoming upset by humiliation. Fortitude is steadying the mind when under great duress. Purity is external and internal cleanliness. The lack of conceit is absence of thinking of oneself egotistically. These 26 qualities related by Lord Krishna are characterised by one who is situated in the divine nature and thus qualified to attain association with the Supreme Lord and His devotees.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Hari OM! The Supreme Lord Krishna elaborately describes the qualities of the divine nature and then describes the demoniac nature to clearly distinguish between the two. The meritorious qualities of the divine nature which follows the nature of Brahma who as the secondary creator manifested all creatures is self evident. The emphasis is on the word tapasya meaning austerity. Adherence to brahminical qualities and attributes is itself an austerity. Ahimsa is non-violence to any being. Animosity is the intent to cause injury to others, it is the defect pointed out in rulers and military commanders. The Amarakosa dictionary mentions this as well. Kings and emperors ruling without fear by the strength of their might proudly regard all others as inferior. This is said to be arrogance. Tyagah is renunciation of possessiveness such as obsession with position, family, wealth, etc. The word ksama meaning tolerance is the state of mind which forgives and refrains from harming those who have caused harm.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

In the previous three chapters the topics explained by the Supreme Lord Krishna were: 1) The essential nature of physical matter and spirit as the atma or immortal soul. 2) The fact that when the atma and physical matter are conjoined it is a result due to attachment to the gunas or three modes of material nature and when the atma is independent of matter it is a result due to being unattached to the gunas. 3) That both the atma and physical matter in whatever condition constitute two distinct aspects of the Supreme Lord’s potencies. 4) That the Supreme Lord as the source of all that exists yet is factually distinct and separate from all aspects of His creation both achit or matter and chit or spirit which are contained within Him. This includes every jiva or embodied being in all creation; both baddha-jivas who are bound and mukta-jivas who are liberated. The Supreme Lord possesses all transcendental and divine powers such as: immortality, sovereignty, omnipotence, omniscience, omni-presence, etc.

Lord Krishna will substantiate the reality of what has previously been declared in accordance to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures which are the absolute authority. This is done by initiating a comparison between the divine nature and the demoniac nature as it is verified throughout creation. The divine nature expresses complete allegiance to righteousness and adherence to the authority of the Vedic scriptures. The demoniac nature does not follow righteousness, neither does it accept the absolute authority of the Vedic scriptures; contrarily adopting inauspicious activities befitting impure concoctions and unrighteous conceptions.

Lord Krishna begins by describing the 26 divine qualities: 1) abhayam is fearlessness due to the absence of anxiety which arises from the dread of harm to the physical body or the prospect of losing what is precious. 2) sattva-samsuddhih is purification of one’s existence and denotes purity of heart consisting of pure goodness undefiled with the taint of passion and ignorance. 3) jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih means situated in the knowledge of devotion resulting from discriminating the atma or immortal soul from physical matter as the individual consciousness attains communion with the ultimate consciousness. 4) danam is the charity given to worthy recipients from what one legitimately owns. 5) damah is self restraint, controlling the mind to be uninfluenced by sense objects. 6) yagna is Vedically authorised ritualistic ceremonies in propitiation and devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna exclusively for His satisfaction without any self interests. This also applies to His authorised incarnations and expansions. 7) svadhyayah is devoted study of Vedic scriptures, knowing that they alone teach the glories of the Supreme Lord and are the quintessence of all that is spiritual. 8) tapas is austerity and penance. Performing expiatory activities is a duty for all human beings such as Ekadasi which is mandatory fasting from all grains on the 11th day of the waxing and waning moons. As well there are occasional expiatory activities such as candrayana which are fasts synchronised with the cycles of the moon and also kricchra which is extreme ascetic penance performed under very hot or very cold conditions and prajapatya and santapana. Such activities purifies an aspirant and prepares and qualifies them for devotion to the Supreme Lord. 9) arjavam is simplicity, straight forwardness to others in thought, word and deeds. 10) ahimsa is non-violence to all living entities by thought, word and deed. 11) satyam is truthfulness verily speaking what is true that is beneficial to all beings. 12) akrodah is freedom from anger due to absence of resentment for others. 13) tyagah is renunciation of whatever is opposed to atma-tattva or soul realisation. o 14) santih is tranquillity, keeping the senses peaceful and impervious to agitation. 15) apaisunam is aversion to fault finding and slandering others even if warranted. 16) daya is mercy, sympathy for life, empathy for the distress and misery of others. 17) aloluptvam is absence of greed for sense gratification. 18) mardavam is gentleness and humility which is appropriate for saintly association. 19) hrih is modesty, the feeling of shame at the thought of anything inappropriate. 20) acapalam is determination to remain firm against temptations presented to one. 21) tejas is radiance, luster. The illustrious proof of the efficacy of spiritual practice. 22) ksama is forgiveness. The absence of vengeful feelings against those harmed by. 23) dhritih is fortitude. The capacity for righteousness while enduring great duress. 24) saucam is cleanliness both internally and externally to be spiritually worthy. 25) adrohah is absence of envy, non-interference in the interests of others. 26) natimanita absence of false ego, lack of desire for honour and prestige.

The divine qualities and nature are for those aspiring to activate their divinity following the time tested eternal, divine ordinances and injunctions as revealed in the Vedic scriptures by the Supreme Lord Krishna. Their virtues of these 26 qualities are revealed by following them and living them in this manner. The word abhijatasya refers to those who were born with the divine nature destined to follow the divine path and who are naturally in harmony with divinity.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In the thirteenth chapter it was revealed that bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna is the topmost way to inevitably achieve moksa or liberation from material existence by the guaranteed attainment of the Supreme Lord. Also it was disclosed that knowledge of the atma or immortal soul is true knowledge of the ksetrajna or knower of the field of activity and that the contact of the gunas or the three modes of material nature which are goodness, passion and ignorance keep one enslaved in the transmigratory disease of samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death.

In chapter 14 was explained the characteristics of the three gunas along with their attributes and the types of bondage associated with each as well as the conclusion that by transcending them one achieves the supreme state of consciousness.

In chapter 15 was described the destruction of the tree of material bondage with the weapon of wisdom sharpened by detachment. The knowledge that all jivas or embodied beings whether in bondage or liberated are both aspects of the Supreme Lord. The sun and fire, etc. are the Supreme Lords divine opulence. The Supreme Lord is beyond both the perishable and the imperishable and one who realises His transcendence and His supreme, paramount position surrenders joyfully as His exclusive devotee understanding all that needs to be known and becomes completely satisfied.

Now in order to establish the criteria for determining which jivas or embodied beings are appropriate to receive the confidential and esoteric teachings presented in chapter 15, the Supreme Lord Krishna elaborates first on the qualities of the divine nature and then on the qualities of the demoniac nature in order to enable a clear ability to distinguish between them both. Previously in chapter nine He has alluded to those of demoniac nature in verse 11: The ignorant blaspheme the Supreme Lord considering Him to be only human and in verse 12: Ignorant fools so deluded become atheists and adopt the fiendish mentality of the demoniac. Also in chapter nine Lord Krishna referred to those of divine nature in verse 13: The great souls devote themselves exclusively unto the Supreme Lord knowing He is the eternal origin of all, belong to the divine nature and in verse 14: Endeavouring with great determination the great souls perpetually worship the Supreme Lord with exclusive loving devotion.

As such the conclusion is apparent and clear that demoniac influences are to be rejected and divine endowments are to be cultivated. The demoniac mentality is the root cause of perpetual hellish conditions in material existence and should be completely abandoned and avoided. Whereas the divine qualities are the root cause of moksa or liberation from material existence and should be wholeheartedly embraced.

Now Lord Krishna describes the divine qualities which are prerequisite to qualify for bhakti or exclusive loving devotion to the Supreme Lord beginning with absolute fearlessness meaning completely unworried by the apprehension of present or future miseries. Total purity of heart means free from passion and hatred. Constant absorption of the mind in meditation means established is self-realisation. Danam or charity is donating to a worthy recipient what has been gained honestly by one’s own efforts. Damah is control of the senses, withdrawing the mind from the outward flow towards sense objects. Yagna is propitiation and ritualistic worship of the Supreme Lord in the form of chanting mantras, learning the Vedas or performing fire ceremonies as given in chapter three, verses13 and 14. Svadahyah is study of the Vedas by receiving confidential instructions from the spiritual master concerning the glories of the names, divine pastimes, attributes, and associates of the Supreme Lord and His eternal abode. Tapah is penance and is the practice of pure austerities such as fasting and meditation. Arjavam is the simplicity of not being complicated in mind and dealings. Ahimsa is non-violence to any living entity by thought, word or action. An exception to this is in the protection of one’s own life and the lives of others. Satyam is truthfulness and means not distorting the facts while speaking plainly what is beneficial for others. Akrodah means the absence of anger which is a result of frustrated greed and lust. Tyagah is renunciation or absence of attachment to the senses and sense objects. Santih is complete tranquillity and control of the mind and senses. Apaisanunam is abstaining from malicious gossip and fault finding. Daya is mercy and compassion to all living entities. Aloluptvam means freedom from avarice and greed. The addition of the p to this word is in accordance with the Vedic rules of grammar by Panini. Hrih is modesty or respectful decorum for righteousness, a sense of indecency in performing frivolous activities and a feeling of shame at the thought of prohibited activities. Acapalam is determination unshakable fortitude even in adversity. Tejah means strength or the power to aid those needing protection. Saucam means cleanliness internal and external. Ksama is forgiveness amd means the absence of anger towards one’s offenders. Natimanita is lack of all desire for honor and prestige. So these qualities can be recognised as naturally endowed with divine virtues and attributes. Those who embrace and follow the instructions and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures are naturally endowed with these qualities as they are adhering to the Supreme Lord’s decrees and thus every action they perform is in propitiation to the Lord Krishna.

The conclusive understanding is that those possessing divine qualities will undoubtedly achieve the Supreme state because they are born endowed with these qualities.

Sloka 16.4 audio recital in Sanskrit     

दम्भो दर्पोऽभिमानश्च क्रोधः पारुष्यमेव च |
अज्ञानं चाभिजातस्य पार्थ सम्पदमासुरीम् ||१६- ४||

dambho darpo.abhimAnashcha krodhaH pAruShyameva cha |
aGYAna.n chAbhijAtasya pArtha sampadamAsurIm.h || 16-4 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.4

Anvaya: dambhah–pride; darpah–arrogance; abhimanah–conceit; ca–and; krodhah–anger; parusyam–harshness; eva–certainly; ca–and; ajnanam–ignorance; ca–and; abhijatasya–one who is born of; partha–O son of Prtha; sampadam–nature; asurim–demoniac.

Translation: Arrogance, pride, anger, conceit, harshness and ignorance–these qualities belong to those of demoniac nature, O son of Prtha.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Now the six properties of the demoniac nature are concisely given here by Lord Krishna. Dambha is ostentation which arises from belief in the sanctimony of perverting religion. Darpha is pride due to erroneous conceptions of what is privileged birth. Abhimanah is arrogance which is conceit and vanity due to material delusions of education, position and wealth. Parusyam is harshness and cruelty devoid of mercy. Krodha is anger exemplified by total lack of control of the mind due to frustrated greed and lust. Ajnanam is ignorance and the absence of knowledge in discriminating what is eternal and what is temporary, what is righteous and what is unrighteous. All the demoniac properties are accompanied by fiendishness which is also a component of the demoniac and exists in those born in the demoniac nature.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna gives the six demerits that are part of the demoniac nature and are formidable obstacles obstructing all progress in spiritual advancement. The word damah or ostentatious denotes hypocrisy, mendacity and lack of religiosity. Darpah is pride erroneously exuding from intoxication of position, wealth and power. The word krodah means anger resulting from frustration causing animosity and the impetus to injure and harm others by parusyam or cruelty and harshness without any mercy. This is a defect especially found in sovereigns and rulers due to abhimanh or extreme egotism in the illusion that they are the most powerful and worshipable instead of the Supreme Lord. Thus their mentality being deluded is ajnanam or ignorance, void of actual knowledge and destitute in discrimination of what is eternal and what is temporary.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna discloses the six properties predominating the demoniac nature.
dambah is ostentation or a charade of pretentious actions perverting religion.
darpa is pride or the unnatural proclivity for excess experiencing sense objects.
abhimanah is arrogance or egotism concerning ones self interest and importance krodah is anger which arises when greed and lust is impeded and frustrated.
parusyam is belligerence or spurious indignation towards what is righteous.
ajananam is ignorance and lack of discrimination of the eternal and the temporal.
Those born in the demoniac nature act contrary to all that is righteous and fiendishly oppose the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures beneficial for all creation.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Having revealed the divine qualities the Supreme Lord Krishna discloses the six demoniac properties which are to be rejected and abandoned in all situations. Dambah is ostentation or hypocrisy by pretentiously parodying righteousness. Darpah is pride caused by exaggerated egotism due to one’s birth. Abhinamah is arrogance due to education, position and wealth. Krodah is anger resulting from frustration of greed and lust and causes one to give the burning pain one feels to others. Parusyam is harshness, lack of kindness and merciless opposition to that which is righteous. Ajnanam is ignorance in determining what is eternal and what is temporal and subsequently the inability to discriminate between what is righteous and beneficial and what is unrighteous and harmful to one’s own existence. The copulative ca meaning and, includes the vices such as fiendishness, perversion, lust, greed, etc.

Thus the demoniac oppose even the injunctions and prohibitions of the eternal Vedic scriptures while concocting, hypothecating and engaging in heinous activities that erode the eternal values of righteousness for all living beings in their fiendish attempt to degrade and degenerate all creation.

Sloka 16.5 audio recital in Sanskrit     

दैवी सम्पद्विमोक्षाय निबन्धायासुरी मता |
मा शुचः सम्पदं दैवीमभिजातोऽसि पाण्डव ||१६- ५||

daivI sampadvimokShAya nibandhAyAsurI matA |
mA shuchaH sampadaM daivImabhijAto.asi pANDava || 16-5 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.5

Anvaya: daivi–transcendental; sampat–nature; vimoksaya–meant for liberation; nibandhaya–for bondage; asuri–demoniac qualities; mata–it is considered; ma–do not; sucah–worry; sampadam–nature; daivim–transcendental; abhijatah–born; asi–you are; pandava–O son of Pandu.

Translation: The transcendental qualities are conducive to liberation, whereas the demoniac qualities make for bondage. Do not worry, O son of Pandu, for you are born with the divine qualities.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna now discloses the results of first the divine nature which qualifies for higher spiritual knowledge leading to moksa or liberation from material existence and secondly He discloses the demoniac nature which disqualifies one from moksa and insures enslavement in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Lord Krishna perceiving that His devotee was distraught by the idea that he may not be a fit aspirant for moksa and hence subject to samsara, the Supreme Lord consoles him with the words ma sucah meaning not to worry, assuring him that he is definitely of the divine nature.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna encourages His devotee to grieve not or be despondent at the thought that he may not be qualified enough, for without a doubt he is born of the divine nature.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna explains the opposing results of the divine nature and the demoniac nature. The divine nature which follows the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures has been regarded from time immemorial by self-realised sages and rishis as conducive to moksa or liberation from material existence due to spiritual knowledge and attaining communion with the Supreme Lord. The demoniac nature leads one to act contrarily to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and hence are conducive to enslavement in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death and bondage in material existence taking birth each time in lower and more degraded life forms. Seeing despondency on His devotees face, Lord Krishna assures him not to worry for he is without a doubt born of the divine nature.

Sloka 16.6 audio recital in Sanskrit     

द्वौ भूतसर्गौ लोकेऽस्मिन्दैव आसुर एव च |
दैवो विस्तरशः प्रोक्त आसुरं पार्थ मे शृणु ||१६- ६||

dvau bhUtasargau loke.asmindaiva Asura eva cha |
daivo vistarashaH prokta AsuraM pArtha me shR^iNu || 16-6 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.6

Anvaya: dvau–two; bhuta-sargau–created living beings; loke–in the world; asmin–this; daivah–godly; asurah–demoniac; eva–certainly; ca–and; daivah–divine; vistarasah–at great length; proktah–said; asuram–demoniac; partha–O son of Prtha; me–from Me; srnu–just hear.

Translation: O son of Prtha, in this world there are two kinds of created beings. One is called the divine and the other demoniac. I have already explained to you at length the divine qualities. Now hear from Me of the demoniac.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

In order to emphatically emphasise that the demoniac nature should always be avoided and rejected Lord Krishna reiterates that there are two only types of created beings: Those that are of the divine nature and those that are of the demoniac nature. The demoniac possess fiendishly, diabolical, perverted mentalities and inanely and futilely attempt to usurp the power of the Supreme Lord for their own degraded designations. Such demoniac nature will be described and delineated in detail in the next 12 verses.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The material world is the place where actions are performed and subsequent karma or reactions to actions are created. Created beings who are of the divine nature engage in activities that are of a divine nature and created beings that are of the demoniac nature engage in activities of a demoniac nature. From their very birth it has been predetermined from the merits and demerits accumulated in unlimited past life activities whether or not a jiva or embodied being is of the divine nature following the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna or is of the demoniac nature, belligerent and antagonistic to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures which compassionately guide all of creation and opposed to Lord Krishna. Those of the divine nature have been described at length and are the aspirants who strive and endeavour to follow the path of the Supreme Lord engaging in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by karma or selfless actions, jnana or knowledge of self-realisation and bhakti or exclusive loving devotion unto the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures. Next the demoniac will also be described in length, illustrating what they were born for and how they behave.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

If one were to argue why devilish properties are included within the demoniac nature then the conclusion would have to be that it is so because devilish properties can never be considered as part of the divine nature. The Brihadaranyaka Upanisad V.I.I beginning trayah prajapatyah prajapatau pitari states: Brahma created the divine beings, demoniac beings and humans. Since humans are mentioned separately in which category are they situated in? To clarify this point clearly Lord Krishna explains that in the worlds of mortals there are only two types of beings. The divine and the demoniac. The qualities and attributes of the divine have been described in detail in chapters seven, nine and twelve. The thirteenth chapter examined the 24 virtues beginning with amanitvam or humility which are all part of the divine nature. The fourteenth chapter disclosed the characteristics of a person who has transcended the effects of the gunas or three modes of material nature. The fifteenth continued the instructions with freedom from pride and infatuation in verse 5 and in verse one of this chapter Lord Krishna concludes the theme with 26 virtues beginning with the word abhayam meaning fearlessness due to knowing the atma or immortal soul is eternal and can never be destroyed. Thus the divine nature has been extensively elaborated and elucidated.

Now Lord Krishna discloses the characteristics and behaivior of those who follow the demoniac nature. The particle eva meaning only is inserted to dissect the fact that devils are included among the demoniac. In each day of Brahma creation commences which exists for 4 billion 320 million years and accounts for the 43,200,000 births every human has based on a 100 year life cycle. At the beginning of every creation humans are born of two types: the divine and the demoniac. They are precisely sorted out and tabulated according to their previous righteous actions which gives merit and their previous unrighteous actions which gives demerit; that a jiva or embodied being performed accumulatively in the previous creation along with the merits and demerits tabulated according to what food they consumed because reactions are incurred in this as well. This is known as karma or reactions to the actions that one physically engaged themselves in their previous lifespan and this karma precisely determines the nature of their next birth. Humans born of the divine nature performed meritorious activities of righteousness in the previous creation attuning themselves to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and worship of the Supreme Lord. Such a human is inherently graced by the Supreme Lord with a tendency towards righteousness and godliness possessing such virtues as humility, compassion, self-restraint, etc. Contrarily humans born of the demoniac nature performed degraded and degenerated activities in the previous creation availing themselves to diabolically opposing the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and fiendishly blaspheming righteousness and the factual reality of the Supreme Lord. Such a human is invariably drawn to the unbridled lust of passion and the deepest darkness of ignorance possessing such characteristics as violence, perversion, cruelty and evil. Hence such humans are known as demons.

As is stated in the Mukta Parva section of the Mahabharata. Only by the grace of the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations as authorised in Vedic scriptures does a jiva or embodied become endowed with sattva guna the mode of goodness gain association with a spiritual preceptor and develop devotion to the Supreme Lord. If a jiva worshipping Brahma receives the grace of Brahma then they become endowed with raja guna the mode of passion. If a jiva worshipping Shiva is graced by Shiva then they become endowed with tama guna the mode of ignorance.

Sloka 16.7 audio recital in Sanskrit     

प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च जना न विदुरासुराः |
न शौचं नापि चाचारो न सत्यं तेषु विद्यते ||१६- ७||

pravR^itti.n cha nivR^itti.n cha janA na vidurAsurAH |
na shauchaM nApi chAchAro na satya.n teShu vidyate || 16-7 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.7

Anvaya: pravrttim–proper action; ca–also; nivrttim–improper action; ca–and; janah–persons; na–never; viduh–know; asurah–demoniac qualities; na–never; saucam–cleanliness; na–nor; api–also; ca–and; acarah–behavior; na–never; satyam–truth; tesu–in them; vidyate–there is.

Translation: Those who are demoniac do not know what is to be done and what is not to be done. Neither cleanliness nor proper behavior nor truth is found in them.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Those of demoniac nature do not know how to perform righteous actions neither do they know how to refrain from unrighteous activities. Therefore Lord Krishna discloses that they are completely void of any purity, righteous behaviour and truthfulness.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The word pravritti is the performance of proper actions which means engaging in Vedically authorised activities as dharma or righteousness which leads to realms of spiritual beatitude and moksa or liberation from material existence. Nivrriti is refraining from engaging in activities which lead to bondage. The demons known also as asuras meaning those without spiritual illumination and lack of spiritual insight have no scope for fathoming spiritual principles. Saucam means cleanliness both internally and externally. The demons are always polluted by their depraved thoughts and contaminated by their degraded actions and hence never clean.

Acharya means exemplary behaviour and excellent conduct such as performing japa or repetitively chanting Lord Krishna’s holy names or sankirtan congregationally chanting Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare Also always observing ekadasi which is fasting from all grains and beans on the 11th day of the waxing and waning moons and the daily performance of sandhya vandana which is gayatri mantras given by the spiritual master that are chanted silently at the three junctures of the day: dawn, noon and dusk. The Daksa-smritti beginning sandhya hinot suci nityam states: One who omits the performance of sandhya is always impure, unholy and unfit for any spiritual duties. The word satyam means truth and denotes that which is spoken or written in total conformity with factual reality. Such qualities as these have never been heard of or seen to be present in those of demoniac nature.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Those of demoniac nature includes devils and demons. What is privritti or right actions such jivas or embodied beings cannot comprehend. Hence out of the four goals of life they are only able to achieve two: kama which is lust for sense gratification and artha which is greed for wealth and positions of great power. But they are unable to achieve dharma which is righteous propriety and without dharma it is impossible to attain moksa or liberation from material existence. This is because the demoniac are unable to understand nivritti which is the cessation of material activities for the benefit of spiritual activities and such renunciation is the path leading to moksa. As the demoniac do not possess purity internally or externally they are never qualified to perform spiritual activities and so the demoniac resort to diabolically, degraded activities with discarnate ghosts, spirits and demons involving blood sacrifices, torture and death which do not depend upon inner and outer purity to receive their decadent results. Contrarily those of the divine nature have no desire to enjoy the results of worship because it is offered for the sublime satisfaction of the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations as revealed in Vedic scriptures and is a pure offering of devotion to Him. But the demoniac conduct their depraved, diabolical rituals explicitly for physical, personal and material gain for themselves and the resultant karma or the corresponding reactions to previous actions sinks them deeper and deeper into lower and lower degraded forms of material existence birth after birth.

The demoniac are completely oblivious to the knowledge which would frees them from the enslavement of samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death due to ignorance of spiritual knowledge that lead to moksa. The demoniac are vile, impure, perverse, cruel, diabolical, untruthful, untrustworthy, bereft of all righteousness and evil. Those jivas possessing such qualities are to be known irrefutably as demons.

Sloka 16.8 audio recital in Sanskrit     

असत्यमप्रतिष्ठं ते जगदाहुरनीश्वरम् |
अपरस्परसम्भूतं किमन्यत्कामहैतुकम् ||१६- ८||

asatyamapratiShTha.n te jagadAhuranIshvaram.h |
aparasparasambhUtaM kimanyatkAmahaitukam.h || 16-8 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.8

Anvaya: asatyam–unreal; apratistham–without foundation; te–they; jagat–the cosmic manifestation; ahuh–is said; anisvaram–with no controller; aparaspara–by mutual lust; sambhutam–cause; kim anyat–there is no other cause; kama-haitukam–it is due to lust only.

Translation: They say that this world is unreal, that there is no foundation and that there is no God in control. It is produced of sex desire, and has no cause other than lust.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

It may be wondered how is it tat the demoniac are not able to perform righteous activities prescribed in the Vedic scriptures and unable to refrain from executing unrighteous actions that are prohibited as vile and degrading? How can there be any logical explanation as to the cause of happiness and misery without the evaluation of righteous and unrighteous conduct? It may be further postulated why do the demoniac determinedly transgress the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures in spiteful disrespect to truth, purity and dignity? Unless one accepts the reality of the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His incarnations and expansions as revealed in Vedic scriptures there is no other valid and proven explanation for the origin of creation and all its variegated unlimited beings. All these queries will be summarily answered and resolved in these 12 verses beginning now.

The demoniac mentality is very dark and limited in scope. The demoniac believe creation to be false, without any basis or purpose. The demoniac refuse to acknowledge or accept the absolute authority of the Vedic scriptures which have manifested for the benefit of all creation. The demoniac say that the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures are nebulous and imaginary having no moral implications or applications to concepts of right or wrong. They regard the unlimited myriads of variegated jivas or embodied beings as merely arising spontaneously on their own accord like bubbles arising in water; without the auspices of a Supreme Lord or almighty god, without even a singular consciousness manifesting as a creator. The demoniac hypothecate that creation originated by the mutual union of a supra human male and female in sexual intercourse and cite as their evidence the visible proof that all species cohabit in this way and that is how creation expanded and evolved. The demoniac hence belligerently believe that the origins of creation is from lust alone without superior agency. All these blatantly erroneous concepts they adamantly cling to as rust stubbornly clings to metal.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The material existence is real. This world is not an illusion. The incarnation Vedavyasa has written in Vedanta Sutra III.II.III beginning mayamatram tu kartsyena meaning: This world appears illusory because its nature is not manifest in its entirety. The Upanisads proclaim that the brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence has a twofold nature of manifest and unmanifest and this is the established form of the ultimate truth. All the worlds have been established by the Supreme Lord Krishna who has energised them and sustains them providing them the means to flourish and evolve. The Supreme Lord as isvaram parama the supreme controller who alone creates, maintains and destroys all existence yet the demoniac contrarily, adamantly oppose Him.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The demoniac declare that creation is asatyam or unreal and that creation is not an effect of anything. The demoniac state that creation exists without any aparaspara or cause. The demoniac propund that creation is without apratistham or any support, maintenance or foundation. The demoniac postulate that creation is anisvaram without any controller and is godless. But the fact exists that after manifesting creation the Supreme Lord places it on the hood of Sesa Naga as confirmed in the Visnu Purana II.V.XXVII beginning ten eyam naga varenya sirasa vidhirita mahi stating: Creation rests on the hood of Sesa Naga, which in turn supports the chain of spheres in the material worlds which is the abode of demigods, humans, beasts and demons.

The demoniac have also concocted theories which they strictly adhere and propagate. They hypothecate that creation is not under the auspices of or created by the Supreme Lord Krishna, who is eternal, infallible, omnipotent, omniscient, omni-present and who is the Supreme controller of everything. Their only evidence is that everywhere they look they see male and females of such and such species cohabitating to continue the preservation of that species and hence they have concluded that sexual passion alone is the cause that propels mutual union between male and female and evolves creation.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The demoniac falsely state that creation is godless and completely unreal, without any foundation or creator. They have no knowledge of the Vedic scriptures which ascertains all variables perceived and unperceived and gives as evidence countless examples which we will validate now. The Vedanta Sutra II.I.XVI beginning sattva ca varasya states: Even prior to the manifestation of the effect its existence is inherent in the cause. The Chandogya Upanisad VI.II.I beginning sadeva samye damagra states: In the beginning was only the Supreme Lord alone for before creation there was non- existence of any reality and from this non-existence everything became manifest. It is to be understood that non-existence is mahattattva the most subtle and infinitesimal sub-atomic essence where name and form have no scope to manifest. This is confirmed again in Vedanta Sutra II.I.XVIII beginning yukteli savdanara ca which states: Through studying verses in Vedic scriptures with unbiased erudition it can be ascertained that asat or non-existence refers to the subtlest state of existence known as mahattattva. So from these examples it can be determined that creation is absolutely real and the erroneous conceptions of the demoniac to the contrary are based on the supposition that the effect must be non-existent because the cause is non-existent and this has now been proven to be false. The Taittiriya Upanisad II.VII.I beginning asadva idamagre asit states: Creation was ever existent before its manifestation in its mahattattva form and when the Supreme Lord wills it to manifest it appears. The meaning of the word asatyam is unreal but that is substantiated by the understanding that everything material is the effect of a cause which is not perceived. This is confirmed in Vedanta Sutra III.II.III beginning mayamatram tu kartsyena which states: Creation is only illusory because its nature is not manifest in its entirety. The complete cosmic manifestation and total material creation comprised of demigods, humans, demons, animals, birds, fish, plants, etc. is created, maintained and sustained under the absolute control of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Creation is His by product, pervaded, supported and energised by Him alone. Yet adamantly the demoniac bray and howl that there is no Supreme Lord, no supreme god or supreme creator involved in the process and formation of creation. If they think like this, then how do the demoniac say that creation came into existence? The demoniac analysing existence from only a limited materialistic viewpoint conclude that creation is evolving in all species of life solely through the mutual copulation of male and female by sexual intercourse. Seeing no other external source they opine that lust alone must be the sole cause of creation and determinedly continue degrading themselves in their demoniac activities.

Sloka 16.9 audio recital in Sanskrit     

एतां दृष्टिमवष्टभ्य नष्टात्मानोऽल्पबुद्धयः |
प्रभवन्त्युग्रकर्माणः क्षयाय जगतोऽहिताः ||१६- ९||

etA.n dR^iShTimavaShTabhya naShTAtmAno.alpabuddhayaH |
prabhavantyugrakarmANaH kShayAya jagato.ahitAH || 16-9 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.9

Anvaya: etam–thus; drstim–vision; avastabhya–accepting; nasta–lost; atmanah–self; alpa-buddhayah–less intelligent; prabhavanti–flourish; ugra-karmanah–in painful activities; ksayaya–for destruction; jagatah–of the world; ahitah–unbeneficial.

Translation: Following such conclusions, the demoniac, who are lost to themselves and who have no intelligence, engage in unbeneficial, horrible works meant to destroy the world.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna explains that the perceptions of the demoniac stem from exceedingly impure minds and deranged intellects that are extremely limited and so materialistically orientated that they are only able to accept and believe what they can directly perceive by their mind and senses. They incorrigibly perform heinous and horrible deeds that lead to the degradation and destruction of all creation.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Continuing further Lord Krishna gives some precise insights to the demoniac mentality. 1) Avastabhya means indiscriminately adopting erroneously as in the verse before. 2) Nasta-atmanah means devoid of any contact with their immortal soul. 3) Alpa-buddhaya means limited intellect due to being incognizant of the cognizant. 4) Ugra-karmanah means vile, heinous, horrendous activities destructive to all.

Such creatures are demoniac and are a parasitic, virulent virus destabilising all creation.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna confirms that the demoniac embracing the doctrine of atheism negate their own atma or immortal soul because of illusion and their inability to accept anything other than the direct perception of what they experience with their mind and senses. Hence life after life they are oblivious to the eternal spiritual position inherent within them and they become deluded lost souls. The conceptions they adhere to are fallacious and their activities are despicable because they lack discriminative knowledge of the difference between the atma and the physical body. What is eternal and what is not eternal. What should be accepted and what should be rejected. Thus they are evilly disposed, enemies of all, full of violence, devoted to diabolical actions and the root of chaos and destruction throughout creation.

Sloka 16.10 audio recital in Sanskrit     

काममाश्रित्य दुष्पूरं दम्भमानमदान्विताः |
मोहाद्गृहीत्वासद्ग्राहान्प्रवर्तन्तेऽशुचिव्रताः ||१६- १०||

kAmamAshritya duShpUraM dambhamAnamadAnvitAH |
mohAd.hgR^ihItvAsad.hgrAhAnpravartante.ashuchivratAH || 16-10 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.10

Anvaya: kamam–lust; asritya–taking shelter of; duspuram–insatiable; dambha–pride; mana–false prestige; mada-anvitah–absorbed in conceit; mohat–by illusion; grhitva–taking; asat–nonpermanent; grahan–things; pravartante–flourish; asuci–unclean; vratah–avowed.

Translation: The demoniac, taking shelter of insatiable lust, pride and false prestige, and being thus illusioned, are always sworn to unclean work, attracted by the impermanent.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Continuing further Lord Krishna describes that the demoniac pursue desires impossible to accomplish. Possessed of hypocrisy and mendacity the demoniac resort to the worship of discarnate demons, ghastly ghosts and satanic spirits in their attempts to increase their power and longevity. The demoniac by executing such depraved and degraded actions are completely ensnared by delusion and obstinately execute degenerative activities of diabolical dimensions with impure minds, in an impure state with impure ingredients such as blood and fat from the killing of animals as well as humans at inauspicious times such at midnight on inauspicious days and astrological alignments such as lunar eclipses and amavasya or new moon in their diabolical obsession and lust for power.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is reiterating that normal desires are very difficult to satisfy while emphasizing that degraded and degenerative desires are even more difficult to fulfill. Such vast undertakings and prodigious schemes which are so difficult to accomplish create great distress and frustration in the attempt.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna explains that the demoniac are propelled by lust and greed that is insatiable and constantly seeking to be fulfilled in the hope of being gratified. The demoniac endeavour to procure such fulfilment is mohad or deluded illusion and through gross improprieties they forcefully misappropriate and enjoy things which are not lawfully theirs. The compound word asuci-vratah means the demoniac fiendishly execute devilish rituals such as blood sacrifices and the killing of animals and even humans in following their diabolical rites. Specifically engaging in forbidden acts prohibited by the Vedic scriptures which oppose all sense of righteousness, morality and decency. By resorting to duplicity, hypocrisy, sorcery, evil magic, and surreptitious deception the demoniac nature is able to prevail and flourish.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna further clarifies that the demoniac harbouring insatiable lusts and desires invent false doctrines to corroborate their heinous activities fostered by vile and diabolical vows of deranged depravity. At inauspicious times such as midnight and during thunderstorms, on inauspicious days such as new moon and eclipses and at inauspicious places such as crematoriums and cemeteries; the demoniac exuding evil and full of impurity, hypocrisy, deviousness, belligerence, arrogance and pretentiousness offer blood of animals and even humans in their diabolical worship of disincarnate ghosts, spirits, hobgoblins and demons.

Sloka 16.11 and 16.12 audio recital in Sanskrit     

चिन्तामपरिमेयां च प्रलयान्तामुपाश्रिताः |
कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः ||१६- ११||

आशापाशशतैर्बद्धाः कामक्रोधपरायणाः |
ईहन्ते कामभोगार्थमन्यायेनार्थसञ्चयान् ||१६- १२||

chintAmaparimeyA.n cha pralayAntAmupAshritAH |
kAmopabhogaparamA etAvaditi nishchitAH || 16-11 ||

AshApAshashatairbaddhAH kAmakrodhaparAyaNAH |
Ihante kAmabhogArthamanyAyenArthasa~nchayAn.h || 16-12 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.11, 16.12

Anvaya: cintam–fears and anxieties; aparimeyam–unmeasurable; ca–and; pralaya-antam–unto the point of death; upasritah–having taken shelter of them; kama-upabhoga–sense gratification; paramah–the highest goal of life; etavat–thus; iti–in this way; niscitah–ascertained; asa-pasa–entanglements in the network of hope; sataih–by hundreds; baddhah–being bound; kama–lust; krodha–anger; parayanah–always situated in that mentality; ihante–desire; kama–lust; bhoga–sense enjoyment; artham–for that purpose; anyayena–illegally; artha–wealth; sancayan–accumulate.

Translation: They believe that to gratify the senses unto the end of life is the prime necessity of human civilization. Thus there is no end to their anxiety. Being bound by hundreds and thousands of desires, by lust and anger, they secure money by illegal means for sense gratification.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The demoniac who are excessively greedy take on gargantuan undertakings in pursuing and increasing their avarice and power. Yet they are always full of anxiety and under pressure to maintain what they have gained and are filled with immense anxiety and constant worry which they carry with them to their very graves at the time of death. Lord Krishna explains that infatuated by illusion the demoniac incessantly pursue the objects of the senses foolishly thinking that this is the main goal of existence and that there is nothing else of more value. So to have the ability to fully exploit all forms of sense gratification the demoniac manipulate themselves surreptitiously into all areas of power and contrive to the utmost to control by deceptive, dishonest and despicable means as much wealth as possible. Such devious depravity is the demoniacs own undoing and they themselves are deceived and cheated by maya the illusory energy which makes them think what is false is real. Hence the demoniac shackle and bind themselves by their innumerable desires which enslaves them by their own expectations propelled by lust and greed. As the aphorism from sage Brihaspati states: Sensual enjoyment is detriment of men who consider the physical body the self, oblivious of the fact that the physical body is endowed with the atma or immortal soul.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Although death is waiting patiently for their demise at any moment; to carry them off to hellish worlds of great suffering; Lord Krishna explains that the demoniac are so involved in the deception of their material manipulations for planetary power and control of planetary wealth which they amass to the maximum that they become oblivious to the existence of a higher reality. The demoniac are deceived in the vastness of their own schemes and undertakings which consumes all of their time as they are constantly endeavouring to keep their power intact. Simultaneously the demoniac are pursuing their lusts for sense gratification with full power imagining that it constitutes the apex of success as the highest ambition of all existence. The demoniac are so completely deluded that they believe that enjoying the objects of the senses is the final goal of all hopes and dreams with no conception more advanced than this. In this way they deceive and fully shackle themselves in bondage by the illusion of their own hopes and expectations which keeps them bound inexorably in perdition.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The demoniac constantly besiege themselves with insatiable desires that are very difficult to accomplish and then maintain. They are always harassed by expectations of success and worried about the threat of failure without discerningly considering the uncertainty of life and calculating the reality that death may come at any moment. The constant pursuit of power and wealth in order to enjoy unrestricted sense gratification is for them the only goal in material existence. They are absolutely convinced that there is nothing superior then the joy of sensual pleasure even if enjoyed over and over and over again without cessation. Hence the demoniac mentality itself holds the demoniac tightly in bondage by the innumerable expectations they harbour from the innumerable desires they are always hankering for as a result of extreme lust and greed. So Lord Krishna has clearly defined the characteristics of the demoniac who by deceptive, dishonest and despicable means surreptitiously manipulate themselves into positions of power and control and deliberately contrive by vile and unrighteous means to usurp the divine order and destroy creation.

Sloka 16.13 to 16.15 audio recital in Sanskrit     

इदमद्य मया लब्धमिमं प्राप्स्ये मनोरथम् |
इदमस्तीदमपि मे भविष्यति पुनर्धनम् ||१६- १३||

असौ मया हतः शत्रुर्हनिष्ये चापरानपि |
ईश्वरोऽहमहं भोगी सिद्धोऽहं बलवान्सुखी ||१६- १४||

आढ्योऽभिजनवानस्मि कोऽन्योऽस्ति सदृशो मया |
यक्ष्ये दास्यामि मोदिष्य इत्यज्ञानविमोहिताः ||१६- १५||

idamadya mayA labdhamimaM prApsye manoratham.h |
idamastIdamapi me bhaviShyati punardhanam.h || 16-13 ||

asau mayA hataH shatrurhaniShye chAparAnapi |
Ishvaro.ahamahaM bhogI siddho.ahaM balavAnsukhI || 16-14 ||

ADhyo.abhijanavAnasmi ko.anyo.asti sadR^isho mayA |
yakShye dAsyAmi modiShya ityaGYAnavimohitAH || 16-15 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.13 to 16.15

Anvaya: idam–this; adya–today; maya–by me; labdham–gained; imam–this; prapsye–I shall gain; manah-ratham–according to my desires; idam–this; asti–there is; idam–this; api–also; me–mine; bhavisyati–will increase in the future; punah–again; dhanam–wealth; asau–that; maya–by me; hatah–has been killed; satruh–enemy; hanisye–I shall kill; ca–also; aparan–others; api–certainly; isvarah–the lord; aham–I am; aham–I am; bhogi–the enjoyer; siddhah–perfect; aham–I am; bala-van–powerful; sukhi–happy; adhyah–wealthy; abhijana-van–surrounded by aristocratic relatives; asmi–I am; kah–who else; anyah–other; asti–there is; sadrsah–like; maya–me; yaksye–I shall sacrifice; dasyami–I shall give charity; modisye–I shall rejoice; iti–thus; ajnana–by ignorance; vimohitah–deluded by.

Translation: The demoniac person thinks: “So much wealth do I have today, and I will gain more according to my schemes. So much is mine now, and it will increase in the future, more and more. He is my enemy, and I have killed him; and my other enemy will also be killed. I am the lord of everything. I am the enjoyer. I am perfect, powerful and happy. I am the richest man, surrounded by aristocratic relatives. There is none so powerful and happy as I am. I shall perform sacrifices, I shall give some charity, and thus I shall rejoice.” In this way, such persons are deluded by ignorance.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

By describing the parameters by which the demoniac mentality functions, Lord Krishna illustrates the hellish and degraded path they traverse. Ignoring all morality the demoniac think that whatever they find pleasurable is for their enjoyment without restriction and they will scheme to obtain it by any means. The demoniac only respect power and might. Their conception is that might is right and hence they will destroy whatever is an obstacle to fulfilling their ambitions and desires, not hesitating to injure or even kill others. The demoniac think that their ideology is superior and they resort to deception, hypocrisy, intimidation and force to coerce others to believe and accept such a fallacy. The demoniac are captivated by lust, greed and false ego. They make concerted efforts to orchestrate events to try to influence others to acknowledge them as superior and in the process immerse themselves deeper and deeper in illusion. Hence although the demoniac exercise considerable power and various areas of control because they are so completely deluded as defined by their own degraded mentalities they keep themselves enslaved in bondage by incessantly pursuing materialistic desires and mundane goals due to following false ideologies and belief in erroneous concepts.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna uses the word idam meaning this. The idam He is talking about refers to possessions such as wealth, property, family, etc. The demoniac mentality is that all my possessions have been acquired by me alone, by my own efforts and exertions. They believe there is no other power or subtle unseen cause involved. The word manoratham means desirable object and whatever is desirable the demoniac feel it is their right to enjoy regardless of morality. The wealth that they gain by any means lawful or unlawful, or by cheating and stealing they see as moral and rightful as it was gained by their own brain and brawn over others brain and brawn. The demoniac follow the idea that might is right and do not believe in any subjective force or higher power. They forcefully take whatever they desire and are totally unconcerned of any consequences, oblivious to even the possibility that a god or supreme force sanctioning their endeavours could exist. The demoniac feel that they are so powerful that they themselves are gods because they can destroy their enemies as a whim and consider everyone except themselves to be of unimportance.

The demoniac think like the following examples illustrate. I am the most powerful. I was born into a dynasty of aristocracy and wealth. Who else in this world is equal to me? Who else by dint of their exertions have acquired every pleasure there is to enjoy and secured so much happiness and stability? I will eat, drink and be merry, enjoying sense gratification to the maximum without restraint. There is no need for me to believe in any god or supreme power; but anyway I will perform some pseudo rituals and imitate some pious activities by ostentatious donations for charity to gain renown so others will think that I am also a great religious personality as well. This is how the demoniac think.

The demoniac see themselves as the enjoyers, the manipulators and the controllers, The demoniac believe that they are all powerful, independent, masters of their own destines and independent of any supreme and unseen power; but so deluded are they that they completely ignore the reality that death will come and indiscriminately abduct them from all their possessions. This is mysteriously completely imperceptible to them.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna explicitly emphasises that the demoniac are consumed by incessantly hankering for the fulfilment of their insatiable desires. The demoniac are always thinking about what they have gained and enjoyed today, what they will gain and enjoy tomorrow and what they will gain and enjoy in the future. The demoniac do not believe in destiny and fate but only in the capabilities of their own efforts, intelligence and power. Destroying anything that obstructs their desires and gets in the way of their ambitions, the demoniac think today I have destroyed a formidable enemy by my power and might, tomorrow I shall destroy more enemies because I am all powerful. I am master of my own destiny, invincible and independent. All is for my enjoyment. Everyone is inferior to me. I am wealthy, highborn and thus superior. I am the enjoyer. None is my equal.

Observing that those endowed with the divine nature sometimes achieve phenomenal fame and extraordinary acclaim by performing ritualistic activities of righteous nature for the benefit of all creation; the demoniac spitefully concoct their own ritualistic activities based upon evil and clandestinely engage in fiendish activities such as offering blood sacrifices and vampirism to disincarnate spirits, ghosts and demons channelling in ghastly and horrendous non-human energies to whom they sacrifice infants and humans in exchange for material power. This is how they covertly operate in secret.

The demoniac also diabolically and deceptively imitate those of the divine nature by pretending to be compassionate philanthropists and establish institutions bearing their name that give ostentatious donations for hospitals and charitable organisations for feeding the poor as well as contributing to religious societies where they can showcase themselves as appearing pious. This is how they openly operate in public.

Sloka 16.16 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अनेकचित्तविभ्रान्ता मोहजालसमावृताः |
प्रसक्ताः कामभोगेषु पतन्ति नरकेऽशुचौ ||१६- १६||

anekachittavibhrAntA mohajAlasamAvR^itAH |
prasaktAH kAmabhogeShu patanti narake.ashuchau || 16-16 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.16

Anvaya: aneka–numerous; citta vibhrantah–perplexed by anxieties; moha–of illusions; jala–by a network; samavrtah–surrounded; prasaktah–attached; kama–lust; bhogesu–sense gratification; patanti–glides down; narake–into hell; asucau–unclean.

Translation: Thus perplexed by various anxieties and bound by a network of illusions, one becomes too strongly attached to sense enjoyment and falls down into hell.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Continuing Lord Krishna explains that perplexed and deluded by the innumerable desires waiting to be fulfilled in their minds which they are determined to realize; the demoniac become ensnared and entangled caught in the net of illusion even as fish are ensnared and caught by a fisherman’s net in water. Inescapably caught in the net of illusion the demoniac pursue their nefarious activities in the never ending attempt to satisfy their addiction to sense gratification and when their span of life has come to an end they are forced to enter the lowest regions of hell to suffer immeasurably.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The demoniac completely controlled by maya the imperceptible bewilderment of illusion delude themselves by thinking that they are capable of accomplishing anything merely by their own brains and might. The demoniac think they are independent and not dependent upon any Supreme Being even if it does at all exist. In this way they are full of anxiety which tempestuously buffets them about by foolish, greedy thoughts such as this is mine, that to will soon be mine, I want this, I want that, this I shall do and that I will also do, etc., etc. In this way by their very own minds they are caught in the web of illusion and pursuing their lust for sense gratification they are totally bereft of sound judgement, discrimination and moral conduct. Lord Krishna confirms that beyond material nature, unseen and unperceived, death is waiting very patiently for the allotted time to snatch them away from all they covet and force them to suffer their karma or reactions to their unrighteous sinful actions in the darkest of hells.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The demoniac infatuated by illusion and bewildered by ignorance foolishly base all their hopes and dreams upon the material existence which is transitory, temporary and impermanent. Consequently they are deluded by their incessant desires, grand ambitions and grandiose schemes of what they shall do, what they shall accomplish, what they shall acquire and what they shall enjoy all propelled by the desire of power and wealth which they think will give them longevity. But in reality devoid of the grace of the Supreme Lord Krishna who is the ultimate controller of all; the demoniac no matter how powerful they may be or how much they appear to be controlling are completely enmeshed in the web of illusion like fish trapped in a net which although appearing to be swimming freely are factually caught when the net is tightened. The demoniac incorrigibly addicted to lust, greed and insatiable propensities for sense gratification. The demoniac possess diabolical dispositions and depraved degraded habits and activities that doom them to descend and suffer proportionately for their sinful activities in one of the 28 hellish planets which are vile and detestable such as Rauvara confirmed in the Bhagavat Purana known as Srimad Bhagavatam: Canto 5, chapter 26, verse 11: They are forced in their subtle bodies after death to be tormented and attacked incessantly by rurus which are creatures more cruel and vicious than a snake. Also confirmed in Srimad Bhagavatam: Canto 5, chapter 26, verse 22 is another hellish planet where the demoniac are forced to enter in their subtle body is a hellish world known as Vaitarani that is a river full of mucus, puss, faeces, urine and phlegm surrounding the entire planet and is full of predatory fish of horrible visage who bite and attack ferociously.

In all there are 28 principle categories of hellish planetary systems in which some lanets are more then 800,000 miles in circumference and there are hundreds and thousands of such planets. Srimad Bhagavatam: Canto 5, chapter 26, verse 37 confirms: There are hundreds and thousands of hellish planets. These hellish planets are all operating continuously without cessation under the administration of Yamaraj the demigod in charge of death in order to chastise and punish the demoniac and impious without compunction in accordance to the precise degree of their sinfulness.

Sloka 16.17 audio recital in Sanskrit     

आत्मसम्भाविताः स्तब्धा धनमानमदान्विताः |
यजन्ते नामयज्ञैस्ते दम्भेनाविधिपूर्वकम् ||१६- १७||

AtmasambhAvitAH stabdhA dhanamAnamadAnvitAH |
yajante nAmayaGYaiste dambhenAvidhipUrvakam.h || 16-17 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.17

Anvaya: atma-sambhavitah–self-complacent; stabdhah–impudent; dhana-mana–wealth and false prestige; mada anvitah–absorbed in pride; yajante–perform sacrifices; nama–in name only; yajnaih–with such a sacrifice; te–they; dambhena–out of pride; avidhi-purvakam–without following any rules and regulations.

Translation: Self-complacent and always impudent, deluded by wealth and false prestige, they sometimes perform sacrifices in name only without following any rules or regulations.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

As Lord Krishna has explained previously the demoniac also deceptively imitate the righteous by performing ostentatious rituals so as to look pious in the eyes of society. The demoniac are never motivated by pure intentions in sattva guna the mode of goodness. They are praised only by those of duplicitous mentalities like themselves but they are never acknowledged by devotees of the Supreme Lord no matter how opulent or pompous their sacrifices may be conducted. The demoniac are belligerent, haughty, vain, impertinent, pompous and arrogant all due to their possessing great wealth and exercising the power and control that great wealth can manipulate. The perverted rituals the demoniac execute are always performed in opposition to all that is righteous totally disregarding the ordinances and injunctions prescribed Vedic procedures and devoid of any recognition to the Supreme Lord. The ostentatious rituals that the demoniac orchestrate for public consumption are only pretentious displays of piety and pompous exhibitions to show off how much wealth they can possess.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna describes telltale signs and characteristics of the demoniac.
Sambhavitah means conceited, self aggrandizing. The demoniac flatter themselves.
Stabdah means impertinent, pompous. Thinking they are the better than all others.
Dhana-mana-mada-anvizah means inebriated and puffed up by wealth, bloodlines, etc.
Avidhi-purvakam means the demoniac do pseudo rituals condemned by the Vedas.

The pseudo-rituals enacted by the demoniac are nothing more then pretentious exhibitions of ostentatious decadence regardless of the opulence they are always void of devotion to the Supreme Lord and are performed contrary to the injunctions and ordinances of the Vedic scriptures.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna reveals that whatever ritualistic ceremonies the demoniac execute is nothing more than a pretentious display of self-conceit. They make a big show so the public will think that they are pious. Their active engagement looks on the outside as if it is correct but it is never attuned to devotion unto the Supreme Lord neither does it adhere to the ordinances of the Vedic scriptures. This is inferred and made clear by the descriptive adjectives such as sambhavitah or conceited and stabdhah or pompous. The demoniac possessing arrogance and impertinence due to intoxication of wealth make superficial rituals without faith and void of righteousness only for deceiving the public into regarding them as pious and not due to any spiritual pusuits.

Sloka 16.18 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः |
मामात्मपरदेहेषु प्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः ||१६- १८||

aha.nkAraM balaM darpa.n kAmaM krodha.n cha sa.nshritAH |
mAmAtmaparadeheShu pradviShanto.abhyasUyakAH || 16-18 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.18

Anvaya: ahankaram–false ego; balam–strength; darpam–pride; kamam–lust; krodham–anger; ca–also; samsritah–having taken shelter of; mam–Me; atma–one’s own; para dehesu–in other bodies; pradvisantah–blasphemes; abhyasuyakah–envious.

Translation: Bewildered by false ego, strength, pride, lust and anger, the demon becomes envious of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is situated in his own body and in the bodies of others, and blasphemes against the real religion.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Here Lord Krishna describes the gross disregard the demoniac have for prescribed Vedic procedures which have been established for the benefit of all creation. The demoniac full of self-conceit, intoxicated by power and addicted to lust and greed totally disregard, disrespect and even despise the Supreme Lord who is situated within their hearts as paramatma the omnipresent supreme soul and the hearts of all living entities everywhere in creation. These demoniac, scheming, cavilling, evil beings always try their utmost to degrade the fundamentals of family and religion and destroy the moral fabric of society as they seek to destroy and usurp the very foundations of humanity. The imitative rituals performed by the demoniac are pretentious and without sincerity. They are a degradation for everyone and give no benefit to anyone. Such empty ritualistic procedures which are devoid of adherence to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures, contrarily causes contamination and deterioration to the collective consciousness of the planet wherein such activities are enacted. Because the demoniac ritualistic procedures results in injury to the innate consciousness of all beings and since paramatma is all pervading in all sentient beings Lord Krishna uses the word pradvisantah meaning they despise Him who exists within themselves due to their unmitigated assault on all living entities as well as their futile attempts to usurp creation.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna speaks the words mam atma-para-dehesu pradvisanto meaning the demoniac despise the Supreme Lord abiding within the eteric heart of their own bodies as well as the bodies of others as paramatma the Supreme Soul. The evil and abominable actions executed by the free will of those possessing a demoniac nature is never directed, motivated or influenced by the Supreme Lord. According to the absolute authority of the Vedic scriptures, the Sama Veda states it would be the height of ignorance and foolishness to consider all actions to be under the auspices of the Supreme Lord when He has expressly bequeathed freewill to humans and other higher developed beings to give then the choice to surrender to Him with devotion. The Supreme Lord would never decree it any other way to force a living entity to be devoted to Him. Every action that one commits certainly has a returning reaction of retribution; but the recipient of that reaction is only the one who physically or in special cases mentally causes a physical effect to manifest.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Here Lord Krishna describes more telltale signs and characteristics of the demoniac. The word ahankara means egotistic thinking they are independent of the Supreme Lord The word darpam means insolence, thinking that they as demons are all important. Pradvishantah means despise, the envious demoniac openly despise the Supreme Lord.

Even though the Supreme Lord is atma-para-devesu or situated within them and all living entities as the immortal supreme soul, the demoniac endeavour in earnest most spitefully to cause great evil to all creatures. The demoniac exhibit overt malice and aggressiveness against anything righteous and determinedly oppose the Supreme Lord at every opportunity in every way they can. They take great pains to degrade moral values, encourage depraved activities and destroy the family unit. They propagate that god does not exist, that creation came from a random mixture of chemicals and that there is nothing existing after this life so it is better to eat, drink and be merry without cessation. They concoct many doctrines, conduct many seminars and establish many schools of thought to negate the idea of the existence of a singular consciousness, a Supreme being or Supreme Lord that is the creator and supreme controller of all creation. This is the demoniacs gross folly and unredeemable sin is that they despise the Supreme Lord Krishna who is the origin of their very existence and the creator of the complete cosmic and material manifestations.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The demoniac form of worship is completely contrary to the injunctions and ordinances of the Vedic scriptures. This is because as previously described the demoniac mentality and degraded activities are only based upon their bodily conception and false ego. The demoniac think that they are their physical body possessed of five senses and cannot imagine that there is a difference. The demoniac are vile, malicious, cruel, belligerent and insolent. They enjoy finding faults in everything righteous and in subverting the virtues and attributes of the pious. Although the demoniac possess no righteous qualities themselves they still consider themselves superior and cannot tolerate insults. The demoniac are full of anger and will not hesitate to use brutal force to maim and kill others. They are inextricably addicted to lust, greed and sense gratification and when opposed by obstacles the demoniac become enraged causing intense agony to others as well as to their own selves and by this disregard, disrespect and displease the Supreme Lord Krishna who abides within their etheric heart and the etheric heart of all sentient beings as the innermost witness of all their thoughts and actions. The demoniac spitefully transgress the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and insidiously attempt to destroy the fundamental principles of creation established for the benefit of all living entities and do everything in their power to drag humanity down to their immoral, depraved and degraded level of existence directedly straight to hell.

Sloka 16.19 audio recital in Sanskrit     

तानहं द्विषतः क्रुरान्संसारेषु नराधमान् |
क्षिपाम्यजस्रमशुभानासुरीष्वेव योनिषु ||१६- १९||

tAnahaM dviShataH krurAnsa.nsAreShu narAdhamAn.h |
kShipAmyajasramashubhAnAsurIShveva yoniShu || 16-19 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.19

Anvaya: tan–those; aham–I; dvisatah–envious; kruran–mischievous; samsaresu–into the ocean of material existence; nara-adhaman–the lowest of mankind; ksipami–put; ajasram–innumerable; asubhan–inauspicious; asurisu–demoniac; eva–certainly; yonisu–in the wombs.

Translation: Those who are envious and mischievous, who are the lowest among men, are cast by Me into the ocean of material existence, into various demoniac species of life.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The demoniac never deviate from their diabolical evil nature. These despisers of righteousness, the Supreme Lord Krishna keeps incessantly revolving in samsara the perpetual cycle of birth and death. Because the demoniac are a perpetual offence to all creation the Supreme Lord sees that they are hurled into ever more and more degraded species with each successive birth until they take birth as ferocious beasts and cruel reptiles such as vicious tigers and envious snakes. This is the factual result of the sinful activities of the demoniac.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Wherever the demoniac may chance to take birth, these vile, evil, degraded living entities who blaspheme and spite the Supreme Lord are kept revolving in samsara or the perpetual cycle of birth and death and flung into lower and more degraded forms of life. Since the demoniac adamantly desire to be irreversibly opposed to the Supreme Lords Krishna’s divine will, He permits them to pursue their wishes and they are hurled into demoniac wombs birth after birth in order that their aversion to Him will be increased. Impelled by the Supreme Lord’s sanction their desires are satisfied and they receive the opportunity in a suitable demoniac environment to exercise their free will and voraciously vent their vile, evil and degraded nature.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

After describing the activities and characteristics of those possessing a demoniac nature; Lord Krishna explains in this verse and the next the consequence of such. The demoniac are the vilest among created beings. They are evil, diabolical, devilish, cruel, sinful and spiteful; executing abominable activities that are always opposed to Lord Krishna and sanatan dharma the path of eternal righteousness. The Supreme Lord who is fully cognizant of every aspect of His creation, continuously awards the demoniac the opportunity to oppose Him by assuring that the demoniac are hurled into demoniac wombs birth after birth after birth in order that their venomous nature can increase against Him which is their innate compulsive obsession.

Sloka 16.20 audio recital in Sanskrit     

आसुरीं योनिमापन्ना मूढा जन्मनि जन्मनि |
मामप्राप्यैव कौन्तेय ततो यान्त्यधमां गतिम् ||१६- २०||

AsurI.n yonimApannA mUDhA janmani janmani |
mAmaprApyaiva kaunteya tato yAntyadhamA.n gatim.h || 16-20 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.20

Anvaya: asurim–demoniac; yonim–species; apannah–gaining; mudhah–the foolish; janmani janmani–in birth after birth; mam–unto Me; aprapya–without achieving; eva–certainly; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; tatah–thereafter; yanti–goes; adhamam–condemned; gatim–destination.

Translation: Attaining repeated birth amongst the species of demoniac life, such persons can never approach Me. Gradually they sink down to the most abominable type of existence.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Those who take birth possessing the demoniac nature are obstructed by their own mentalities from ever approaching the path of righteousness that leads to association of the devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna and thus it is impossible for them to ever attain the mercy of the Supreme Lord or any of His authorised incarnations and expansions except when they are occasionally eradicated. Otherwise the demoniac continue their descent into lower and more degraded life forms such as worms and maggots as a just reward for their abominable and sinful activities.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The words asurim yonim means demoniac wombs and refers to birth of those jivas or embodied beings and even subtle existences that are diametrically opposed to the divine will of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Those of a demoniac nature never have an affinity or even tolerance for the path of righteousness and so they spawn and are hurled into wombs of lower and lower degraded demoniac forms as their reward to increase their venomous delusion. As such the words aprapya eva means that the demoniac can never attain the Supreme Lord and denotes that they are never imbued with the intelligence to have the consciousness to seek the association of the Vaisnavas or exclusive devotees of Lord Krishna and learn the ultimate truth submissively from them. Where after by receiving the mercy of the Vaisnavas devotees they would gradually become sanctified and after many births eventually achieve the qualifications necessary to be accepted as a disciple of a Vaisnava devotee who guides them on the path to the Supreme Lord. Otherwise without this eternal process it is impossible for the demoniac to ever receive the opportunity to attain Lord Krishna and thus they slip deeper and deeper into the darkness of ignorance birth after birth after birth after birth.

The root cause by which those of a demoniac nature lose their paramount position as human beings imbued with free will and self-determination and instead sink into the instinctive consciousness of animal and reptiles, descending further into insects, worms and maggots is revealed next.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The demoniac are hurled into lower and lower degraded wombs that are receptacles for vile, despicable, diabolical activities and abominable conduct. The demoniac are also overtly antagonistic to the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures which constitute the absolute truth and are the directives of the Supreme Lord Krishna for the benefit of all creation. The born of the demoniac nature are devoid of any spiritual discrimination whatsoever. Locked in ignorance and nescience they are continuously unable to have the slightest spiritual impulse to even approach the devotees of Lord Krishna and learn from them submissively. Hence without the devotees mercy it is not possible to approach the Supreme Lord and thus the demoniac are forever barred from attaining the Supreme Lord who is the ultimate bestower of all results. Without the mercy of Lord Krishna’s devotees it is not possible to get the spiritual understanding necessary to enable one to approach the Supreme Lord. Thus the demoniac descend deeper and deeper into lower and lower species of degraded life such as reptiles, insects, worms and maggots.

Sloka 16.21 audio recital in Sanskrit     

त्रिविधं नरकस्येदं द्वारं नाशनमात्मनः |
कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभस्तस्मादेतत्त्रयं त्यजेत् ||१६- २१||

trividhaM narakasyedaM dvAraM nAshanamAtmanaH |
kAmaH krodhastathA lobhastasmAdetattrayaM tyajet.h || 16-21 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.21

Anvaya: tri-vidham–three kinds of; narakasya–hellish; idam–this; dvaram–gate; nasanam–destructive; atmanah–of the self; kamah–lust; krodhah–anger; tatha–as well as; lobhah–greed; tasmat–therefore; etat–these; trayam–three; tyajet–must give up.

Translation: There are three gates leading to this hell–lust, anger and greed. Every sane man should give these up, for they lead to the degradation of the soul.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna concisely enunciates that lust, greed and anger are the three gates leading straight to hell. All the demoniac vices and characteristics iterated previously are the symptoms of lust, greed and anger which are the root cause and basis of all the others. These three are very destructive and degenerative for a human being completely obscuring discrimination and the consciousness of the atma or immortal soul and hence to be shunned and avoided by all means, for their influence propels one directly into lower, debased life forms and reincarnations in hellish existences. So lust, greed and anger must be renounced, abandoned and rejected if one wants to avoid residing in hell.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna confirms that the demoniac nature is in itself a hellish condition of life perpetuating more and more degraded hellish existences. The three portals to hellish existence are lust, greed and anger which completely destroy and ruin all opportunities for advancing in spiritual consciousness. Lust, greed and anger are the foundations for all the other vices and sinfulness described previously which run rampant among the demoniac. The word dvaram means portal and gate inferring the cause. The words nasanam atmanah means destructive or even suicidal denoting how utterly negative lust, greed and anger are in evolving the consciousness to commune with the immortal soul. Therefore Lord Krishna emphasizes that lust, greed and anger must be permanently abandoned, fully relinquished and completely neutralised since these three voracious vices comprise the cause that leads a jiva or embodied being directly to dreaded naraka or the hellish planets.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna has now ended descriptions of the basic details of the nature and characteristics of the demoniac. Now He strongly advises by any means to avoid the triple threat of lust, greed and anger which is the underlying root cause of all demoniac vices and evils. As soon as lust, greed and anger are abandoned all other vices and evils dissolve and dissapate. Birth in hellish existences has three doors in the form of the door of lust, the door of greed and the door of anger. As soon as anyone enters into any one of these three doors they become void of discrimination and their mind becomes apprehended and controlled by the senses. This causes complete chaos and utter ruin to any human being, blocking access to their higher nature and totally obscuring the consciousness of the atma or immortal soul which leads to moksa or liberation from material existence. The three doorways of lust, greed and anger causes one to perform such sinful and abominable activities that damnation is the only result and leads a human being directly to hell to suffer immensely for their sinful inequities. Hence one should be extremely vigilant to avoid these three doors and keep them far away at a safe distance.

Sloka 16.22 audio recital in Sanskrit     

एतैर्विमुक्तः कौन्तेय तमोद्वारैस्त्रिभिर्नरः |
आचरत्यात्मनः श्रेयस्ततो याति परां गतिम् ||१६- २२||

etairvimuktaH kaunteya tamodvAraistribhirnaraH |
AcharatyAtmanaH shreyastato yAti parAM gatim.h || 16-22 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.22

Anvaya: etaih–by these; vimuktah–being liberated; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; tamah-dvaraih–the gates of ignorance; tribhih–three kinds of; narah–a person; acarati–performs; atmanah–self; sreyah–benediction; tatah–thereafter; yati–goes; param–supreme; gatim–destination.

Translation: The man who has escaped these three gates of hell, O son of Kunti, performs acts conducive to self-realization and thus gradually attains the supreme destination.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The special result of renouncing lust, greed and anger is being stated by Lord Krishna in that such a person is able to acquire the mental understanding that develops the consciousness to the point where spiritual pursuits become attractive and desirable such as vegetarianism, the practice of yoga, meditation and engagement in austerities like fasting and celibacy. Thereby one begins the process of purifying oneself enough to gain the association of the Vaisnavas who are Lord Krishna’s exclusive devotees and who will guide one to embark upon the path of devotion for their ultimate benefit.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lust, greed and anger are all situated deep in tama-guna the mode of ignorance and as such causes the demoniac to be deluded by immense illusion regarding the factual reality of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Although difficult to rectify the jiva or embodied being who is able to avert them can escape their control and employ themselves in a manner that is conducive to the development of spiritual consciousness and atma tattva or realisation of the soul. Any jiva who achieves actual, factual knowledge of Lord Krishna as the creator of all and His absolute paramount position as the Supreme Lord of all existence will naturally develop reverence for Him. This results in a harmonious spirit attuned with the divine nature, cooperation with His devotees and the utmost respect for all life and creation. From this point of consciousness one will attain association with Lord Krishna’s devotees and by their mercy proceed to attaining the sublime, ultimate goal under their guidance. That disregard and disrespect for the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures is the main reason why a jiva will be forced to go and suffer in hell is explained next.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna praises the avoidance of lust, greed and anger for by doing so the highest good and well being of a human being is assured. Freedom from these voracious evils allows one to engage in spiritual activities beneficial for oneself and all creation by the acquisition of spiritual knowledge concerning devotion to the Supreme Lord along with atma tattva realisation of the soul and moksa or liberation from material existence. This insures one will never have to enter a hellish condition of life and eventually will attain the Supreme Lord.

Sloka 16.23 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यः शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य वर्तते कामकारतः |
न स सिद्धिमवाप्नोति न सुखं न परां गतिम् ||१६- २३||

yaH shAstravidhimutsR^ijya vartate kAmakArataH |
na sa siddhimavApnoti na sukhaM na parAM gatim.h || 16-23 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.23

Anvaya: yah–anyone; sastra-vidhim–the regulations of the scriptures; utsrjya–giving up; vartate–remains; kama-karatah–acting whimsically in lust; na–never; sah–he; siddhim–perfection; avapnoti–achieves; na–never; sukham–happiness; na–never; param–the supreme; gatim–perfectional stage.

Translation: But he who discards scriptural injunctions and acts according to his own whims attains neither perfection, nor happiness, nor the supreme destination.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

It is not possible to renounce lust without performing authorised spiritual activities. Lord Krishna declares that that those who whimsically ignore or spitefully disregard the ordinances and injunctions prescribed in the Vedic scriptures expressly for the benefit of all beings and contrarily act frivolously impelled by the impulses of desire will achieve neither knowledge of truth, perfection nor moksa or liberation from material existence. Such offenders who ignorantly or purposely transgresses the eternal prohibitions of the Vedic scriptures will never be able to maintain any permanent happiness and tranquillity.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The word sastra refers exclusively to the Vedic scriptures. Vidhi means the injunctions and ordinances within them. The Vedic scriptures are the Supreme Lord Krishna’s mandates. Whosoever foolishly abandons these instructions and utsrjya or transgresses the injunctions and ordinances to drift whimsically wherever their desires aimlessly take them will never achieve siddhi or perfection beyond mundane conceptions, never achieve sukham or happiness of any longevity or param gatim the supreme goal of human existence.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In order to conclusively establish the evidence and justification for abandoning all demoniac vices and evils by permanently avoiding lust, greed and anger which so forcefully takes one directly to hell; Lord Krishna irrevocably reveals the reason. Any jiva or embodied being in a physical body or subtle body, who whimsically ignores the ordinances of the Vedic scriptures or who foolishly disregards the injunctions of the Vedic scriptures and instead transgresses the prohibitions prescribed therein that are for the welfare and benefit of all creation; can never achieve any good for themselves or any good for others. Such foolish miscreants obstruct all possibilities for their own best interests and ostracize all their opportunities for spiritual advancement. Those who transgress the Vedic scriptures and are slaves to their senses, controlled by the base urges of the physical body, and who indiscriminately follow every desire of the mind; will never achieve perfection, happiness or the ultimate goal of existence even if one strives for that for millions of lifetimes. The use of the relative pronoun yah meaning he who symbolises the jivas in general who are qualifed enough for this to apply to. The word sastra applies exclusively to the Vedic scriptures and is explained etymologically as eternal and universal instructions for the benefit of all creation. This includes the four Vedas, Vedanta Sutra, Srimad Bhagavatam, the Puranas, the Upanisads, the Itithasas along with their auxiliaries and Mahabharata, Ramayana, Sri Caitanya Caritamrita, etc. which are all under the pantheon of the Vedic scriptures

The injunctions of the Vedic scriptures are in the form of: One should perform this. The prohibitions of the Vedic scriptures is in the form of: One should not perform that. An example of an injunction is that: One should perform ahimsa which is not causing harm to any living being by thought, word or action. An example of a prohibition is that: One should not eat grains on Ekadasi the 11th day of the waxing and waning moon. An example of an injunction and a prohibition is that: Cows are inviolable and should never be killed. The inference of the word should is derived from the usage of the verb in the potential mood.

Sloka 16.24 audio recital in Sanskrit     

तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्याकार्यव्यवस्थितौ |
ज्ञात्वा शास्त्रविधानोक्तं कर्म कर्तुमिहार्हसि ||१६- २४||

tasmAchchhAstraM pramANaM te kAryAkAryavyavasthitau |
GYAtvA shAstravidhAnokta.n karma kartumihArhasi || 16-24 ||

Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 16.24

Anvaya: tasmat–therefore; sastram–scriptures; pramanam–evidence; te–your; karya–duty; akarya–forbidden activities; vyavasthitau–in determining; jnatva–knowing; sastra–of scripture; vidhana–regulations; uktam–as declared; karma–work; kartum–to do; iha arhasi–you should do it.

Translation: One should understand what is duty and what is not duty by the regulations of the scriptures. Knowing such rules and regulations, one should act so that he may gradually be elevated.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas

Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The irrevocable conclusion given by the Supreme Lord Krishna is that the Vedic scriptures are the sole, absolute authority in ascertaining the applicability of all activities. What is prescribed in the Vedic scriptures is the determining agent for what is righteous and what is unrighteous, what is to be done and what is not to be done, what is right and what is wrong. The whole pantheon of the Vedic scriptures including the Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva Vedas, the Puranas including Srimad Bhagavatam, the Upanisads, Vedanta Sutra, Mahabharata, Ramayana and all their auxiliaries such as Manu Samhita, Narada Pancaratna, Sri Caitanya Caritamrita, Tattva Sandarbhas, Hari Bhakti Vilas etc. and such scriptures authorised by bonafide disciplic succession in one of the four authorised sampradayas which are Brahma, Sri, Rudra and Kumara are also to be considered as part of the Vedic scriptures. The Vedic line is living and eternal.

Thus having understood the eternal directives prescribed in the Vedic scriptures one should engage in them to the best of one’s ability in full faith without duplicity for the achievement of one’s best interests according to one’s inherent nature and qualification. Purification of the mind, perfection in spiritual knowledge and moksa or liberation from material existence all manifest by securing that. By comparing and differentiating between the divine nature and the demoniac nature, sufficient evidence has proven conclusively that the demoniac nature is only qualified for damnation in lower and lower species in hellish existences and that only the divine nature is qualified and eligible for higher consciousness, the ultimate truth and eternal communion with the Supreme Lord.

Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Hari Om! The distinctive differences between the divine nature and the demoniac nature have been delineated in detail. Those deluded fools who imagine themselves as exercising the power of the Supreme Lord; who foolishly consider that creation manifested without a supreme consciousness, who deviously speculate and hypothecate that creation manifested on its own and so there is no Supreme Lord, who despite knowledge of the actual reality of the Supreme Lord’s omnipotence, omniscience and omnipresence; still spitefully oppose Him and vindictively seek to undermine and destroy His creation. All these degraded jivas or embodied beings, verily are born of the demoniac nature and will descend into hellish existences in worlds of darkness. These unrepentant demoniac jivas in wharever form they appear in, thinking of themselves as superior never surrender to the Supreme Lord or offer reverence to Him. Instead they blaspheme the Supreme Lord, ridicule His absolute instructions in the form of the Vedic scriptures and deride His devotees. Those who propagate that the Supreme Lord does not exist and is just an illusion are of the demoniac nature. Those who challenge the divine instructions of the Supreme Lord Krishna, those who contradict the eternal truths of the Vedic scriptures and those who dispute the eternal knowledge taught by the devotees of Lord Krishna are all also irrefutably possessed of the demoniac nature.

The birth of a jiva as a demigod, a demon or a human being is due to an inherent resonance towards beings such based upon previous activities in past lives. Because by possessing the attributes of any of them there is a natural affinity leading back towards them from from whence they came and hence there never can be any artificial change in disposition. Although it is possible for one to be born in the family of a demoniac line due to a curse like Prince Prahlad taking birth as the son of the demon king Hiranyakasipu; but this is not true demoniac nature manifesting and Prahlad heard the glories of the Supreme Lord from Narada Muni while in his mothers womb and right from early childhood exhibited his divine nature to the great chagrin and disappointment of his father. Like a crystal which appears dark when seen in the darkness those of the divine nature may appear to be demoniac because of circumstances. But it is only temporary and not even permanently present in a single life because such situations cannot alter the inherent divine attributes.

Therefore those of the divine nature quickly revive it within that selfsame life even if

born in inauspicious situations. Thus wherever and under whatever conditions those of the divine nature take birth there inherent divine attributes quickly fructify and activate them to quickly become eligible for association with a Vaisnava spiritual master who bestows devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna and become qualified for communion with Him. That eligibility comes quickly is evidenced that Prahlad’s inherent divine attributes were so potent that He did not even have to wait until he was born but received instructions while in the womb. There are many blissful levels of communion with the Supreme Lord that those of the divine nature may partake of as there are various gradations within moksa or liberation from material existence. Thus devotees of the Supreme Lord Krishna are incapable of not being grateful and joyous.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Sastra meaning the Vedic scriptures is the sole absolute supreme authority deciding all matters of existence guiding all creation as to what is to be done and what is not to be done. What the ordinances and injunctions of the Vedic scriptures enjoin along with their auxiliaries such as the Puranas, Upanisads, Itihasas, etc reveals that the highest truth is the Supreme Lord Krishna, that all activities should be engaged in as devotion and propitiation to Him and that this in itself constitutes the means of attaining Him. Realising these ultimate truths to be absolute reality, nothing more is required and one should sagaciously act with full faith in accordance therewith.

Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

So now the Supreme Lord Krishna gives the final conclusion for this chapter. Because absolutely no benefit is ordained for those who do not adhere to and follow the injunctions and ordinances of the Vedic scriptures it has been unequivocally determined that only by the Vedic scriptures exclusively and their corroborative adjuncts such as Puranas, Upanisad etc. which are endowed with knowledge of the Supreme Ultimate truth, cognition of the Ultimate reality and realisation of the Supreme Ultimate Being are the only authority to be used in understanding what is proper to be performed and what is improper and not to be performed. Knowing this one should perform activities in material existence which correspond and are in harmony with the axioms and instructions of the Vedic scriptures according to time, circumstances and qualification.

Thus in the sixteenth chapter the Supreme Lord Krishna after first avidly describing the qualities and attributes of those endowed with the divine nature; He emphatically instructed complete avoidance of all aspects of the demoniac nature, explaining its root causes as lust, greed and anger. He also described numerous characteristics and examples that indicate one of a demoniac nature possess. His conclusion is that one should only perform actions authorised by the Vedic scriptures and never act contrary.

I take full refuge in the Supreme Lord Krishna, He who is the most worthy of knowing and the goal of the Vedas, who in Srimad Bhagavad-Gita became the spiritual master and taught the conclusions of the Vedic scriptures.

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