Abstract: The origins and childhood of Srirama, his birth and destined to fight demons. Sita’s swayamvara and subsequent wedding to Srirama.
Sarga (chapter): 2 of 77 || śloka (verses): 43
Sage Valmiki goes to River Tamasa for a bath and sees a couple of birds, of which a hunter kills one. Valmiki unintentionally utters a poem, which is rich in grammar and new in metre, of which he is very much confused as to why such a poem has come from his tongue. Brahma, the presiding deity of letters appears and ordains Valmiki to author Ramayana, excellent epic of Rama, for which purpose alone he gave such divine meter and grammar to him.
नारदस्य तु तद्वाक्यम् श्रुत्वा वाक्य विशारदः |
पूजयामास धर्मात्मा सह शिष्यो महामुनिः || १-२-१
puujayaamaasa dharmaatmaa saha shishhyo mahaamuniH || 1-2-1
On hearing that sentence of that eminent sentence-maker Sage Narada, [that contains , or Ramayana in a nutshell, narrated in the previous chapter,] that great sage of virtuous mind, namely Valmiki, revered the Divine Sage Narada, along with his disciples. [1-2-1].
यथावत् पूजितः तेन देवर्षिः नारदः तथा |
आपृच्छैव अभ्यनुज्ञातः स जगाम विहायसम् || १-२-२
aapR^icChaiva abhyanujJNaataH sa jagaama vihaayasam || 1-2-2
That divine sage Narada is worshipped that way by Valmiki in a befitting way, and on seeking permission of Valmiki to leave, and having been permitted by Valmiki went away heavenward. [1-2-2].
स मुहूर्तं गते तस्मिन् देवलोकम् मुनिः तदा |
जगाम तमसा तीरम् जाह्नव्यात् अविदूरतः || १-२-३
jagaama tamasaa tiiram jaahnavyaat aviduurataH || 1-2-3
A while after the departure of Narada to heavens, Valmiki proceed to the riverbanks of Tamasa, which are not far-off form River Jahnavai [i.e., River Ganga.] [1-2-3].
स तु तीरम् समासाद्य तमसाया मुनिः तदा |
शिष्यम् आह स्थितम् पार्श्वे दृष्ट्वा तीर्थम् अकर्दमम् || १-२-४
shishhyam aaha sthitam paarshve dR^ishhTvaa tiirtham akardamam || 1-2-4
That eminent sage Valmiki, having reached the bank of Tamasa and seen a descent into the river with pellucid waters, spoke to the disciple saying…[1-2-4].
अकर्दमम् इदम् तीर्थम् भरद्वाज निशामय |
रमणीयम् प्रसन्न अम्बु सन् मनुष्य मनो यथा || १-२-५
ramaNiiyam prasanna ambu san manushhya mano yathaa || 1-2-5
“O! Bharadwaja, behold the beautiful and pleasant waters of this river. This holy spot is as clear and pure as the mind of a virtuous man “.[1-2-5].
न्यस्यताम् कलशः तात दीयताम् वल्कलम् मम |
इदम् एव अवगाहिष्ये तमसा तीर्थम् उत्तमम् || १-२-६
idam eva avagaahishhye tamasaa tiirtham uttamam || 1-2-6
O! Dear one! Place the water-pitcher on the ground. Give my bark garment. I shall bathe in the river at this best of holy spots. [1-2-6]
एवम् उक्तो भरद्वाजो वाल्मीकेन महात्मना |
प्रयच्छत मुनेः तस्य वल्कलम् नियतः गुरोः || १-२-७
prayachchhata muneH tasya valkalam niyataH guroH || 1-2-7
When Bharadwaaja is said that way by great-souled Valmiki, himself being a humble one before his mentor gave that jute-cloth to that saint, that humbly. [1-2-7].
स शिष्य हस्तात् आदाय वल्कलम् नियतेन्द्रियः |
विचचार ह पश्यन् तत् सर्वतो विपुलम् वनम् || १-२-८
vichachaara ha pashyan tat sarvato vipulam vanam || 1-2-8
That self-controlled Sage Valmiki on taking loincloth from his disciple’s hands, indeed ambled towards the river, looking everywhere at the wide of forest. [1-2-8].
तस्य अभ्याशे तु मिथुनम् चरन्तम् अनपायिनम् |
ददर्श भगवान् तत्र क्रौङ्चयोः चारु निस्वनम् || १-२-९
dadarsha bhagavaan tatra krau~NchayoH chaaru nisvanam || 1-2-9
The sage Valmiki espied a pair of melodious-voiced krauncha birds. They were so much in love that they never separated from each other even for a moment. They were ranging through the forest in the vicinity of that holy spot. [1-2-9].
तस्मात् तु मिथुनात् एकम् पुमांसम् पाप निश्चयः |
जघान वैरनिलयो निषादः तस्य पश्यतः || १-२-१०
jaghaana vairanilayo nishhaadaH tasya pashyataH || 1-2-10
A tribal hunter with all his evil intent killed the male bird, while Valmiki is looking on. [1-2-10]
तम् शोणित परीताङ्गम् चेष्टमानम् महीतले |
भार्या तु निहतम् दृष्ट्वा रुराव करुणाम् गिरम् || १-२-११
वियुक्ता पतिना तेन द्विजेन सहचारिणा |
ताम्र शीर्षेण मत्तेन पत्रिणा सहितेन वै | १-२-१२
bhaaryaa tu nihatam dR^iShTvaa ruraava karuNaam giram || 1-2-11
viyuktaa patinaa tena dvijena sahachaariNaa |
taamra shiirshheNa mattena patriNaa sahitena vai | 1-2-12
She who is ever together with her husband, a lusty male bird with flighty wings and with a prideful red crest, and one who always had a heart for her, but she is now separated from him, and gone is that togetherness; and she, on seeing her slain husband whose body is blood-soaked, and who is reeling on the ground in the anguish of pain, bewailed with piteous utterances. [1-2-11, 12]
In this verse the gist of Ramayana through the bewailing queen of Ravana, namely Mandodari, is indicated. bharyaa tu wife [of Ravana,] Mandodari, but; taamra shiirSeNa from the one who is with red crest crown, which crown is decorated with red jewels etc – i.e., Ravana; patriNaa from the one who has winged vehicles, like Pushpaka aircraft etc – i.e., Ravana; mattena from the one who is intoxicated with Brahma’s boons; sahitena one who is surrounded by Indrajit, Vibhishana, Kumbhakarna et al. tena dvijena = from such a Braahman, namely Ravana; viyuktaa = separated from; and one who is presently; nihitam = slain – i.e., Ravana by Rama; mahii tale = on ground, surface; ceSTamaanam = reeling; shoNita pariita angam = blood, covered, limbs; at such a Ravana; dR^iSTva = [Mandodari] having seen; she; karuNaam giram = with piteous, utterances; ru raava = highly, lamented. Govindaraja..
तथा विधिम् द्विजम् दृष्ट्वा निषादेन निपातितम् |
ऋशेः धर्मात्मानः तस्य कारुण्यम् समपद्यत || १-२-१३
R^isheH dharmaatmaanaH tasya kaaruNyam samapadyata || 1-2-13
Then, having seen the bird struck down by the fowler, righteous-minded sage Valmiki was filled with compassion.
ततः करुण वेदित्वात् अधर्मो अयम् इति द्विजः |
निशांय रुदतीम् क्रौन्चीम् इदम् वचनम् अब्रैइत् || १-२-१४
nishaaMya rudatiim kraunchiim idam vacanam abraiit || 1-2-14
Then on seeing the wailing female krounchi bird, compassion haunting him and apperceiving the killing of male bird as unjust, the sage uttered this sentence… [1-2-14].
मा निषाद प्रतिष्ठाम्त्व | मगमः शाश्वतीः समाः |
यत् क्रौङ्च मिथुनात् एक | मवधीः काम मोहितम् || १-२-१५
yat krau~Ncha mithunaat eka | mavadhiiH kaama mohitam || 1-2-15
“Oh! Ill-fated Hunter, by which reason you have killed one male bird of the couple, when it is in its lustful passion, thereby you will get an ever-lasting reputation for ages to come…” [1-2-15]
‘No fame be thine for endless time, /Because, base outcast, of thy crime, Whose cruel hand was fain to slay / One of this gentle pair at play!’ Griffith.
‘For endless years to come, O Hunter, never shall thy soul find peace /’ Romesh C. Dutt.
All of these are just dictionary meanings. Whether a tribal hunter gets infamy or ignominy, it does not matter much, unlike a nobleman getting some disrepute or discredit. Then the word in the verse niSaada should have other meanings than just a tribal hunter.
This is a celebrated stanza of Sanskrit literature, and controversial too, in deciphering its meaning. We are told that this is the first verse of human origin with metrical rules and grammar. Earlier to this, only Vedic stanzas were available with their complicated compositional rules. This is the verse where this epic, Ramayana is said to have triggered off.
In one way the separation of compound tvamagama is like this tu, ama, gamaH. Then the parsing is:
ama niSaada= oh, ill fated, hunter; tvam= you; yat= by which reason; krau~Ncha mithunaat = of krouncha, couple; ekam= one; kaama mohitam= lust, indulged in; a-vadhiiH= you killed; [tat= by that reason]; shaashvatiiH= ever lasting; samaaH= ages to come; pratiSThaam tu= reputation, but; maa gamaH= don’t, get.
This verse has many comports of which a few are given hereunder:
This verse is taken as ma~NgalaacaraNa to Ramayana, for any epic has to have ma~Ngala aadiini; ma~Ngala madhyaani; ma~Ngala antaani A good pious beginning, pious middle and pious ending.
Because this verse has the letter maa at its start and maa is lakShmii vaacaka in Sanskrit. It is aadi varNaH The first letter loka maataa maa ramaa ma~Ngala devataa thus amara kosha says for Goddess Lakshmi.
maa= Goddess Lakshmi; niShaada= Oh! Vishnu [ for Goddess Lakshmi resides in the heart of Vishnu – niShadiiti asmin iti niShaada ]; yat = by which act; krounca midhunaat = the couple of demons, namely Ravana and Mandodari; kaama mohitam= that impassioned one and stole Seetha; ekam= that one, Ravana; avadhii= you killed; by that act of yours; shashvatiisamaa= everlasting for ages; pratiShTaam= divine sanctity; tvam agama= you, get.
“Oh, the abode of Goddess Lakshmi, namely oh, Vishnu, by which act of your killing one male demon named Ravana, who in his passion abducted Seetha, and thus you eradicated the vice from the earth, for that you get an everlasting divine sanctity, as Rama, for ages to come.”
2] Next niSaada is attributable to Ravana, because he is the one who tortures others for his benefit. itaraam saadayati piiDayati iti niSaada thus: Oh! Ravana; krounch midhunaat= from the couple, say Rama and Seetha, who are flying from forest to forest like nest-less birds; ekam= one is, Seetha is; avadhii =you almost killed her by your torture of abducting her; pratiSTaam= your glory in Lanka, at its zenith, as per the kindness of Brahma; ma agama= never get, hereafter. But this declination is not held right, for it is like a curse, shaapa, and no epic starts with a curse.
3] Next, this verse is said holding Rama in the perspective. Sage Narada gave the details of the legend to Sage Valmiki because Brahma ordered that the legend of Rama is to be recorded. But Ramayana is full of pathos, karuNa shoka rasa prathaana. If it is to be penned the writer too shall have heart that can outpour that mood. So when Valmiki is at the river banks, Rama, say Vishnu, came in the guise of a tribal, as with other mythological episodes like kiraataarjuniiya etc., to test the capability of Valmiki in narrating pathos, and killed one bird. Valmiki reacted immediately and Vishnu’s test is complete. But in exciting the mood of such holy sage, Vishnu / Rama gets a curse like separation from wife, as below.
nishaada= oh, tribal: Rama to Valmiki / Vishnu to mythology; for your killing one bird of the couple, to the misery of the female one; shaashvatii = as long as you live on this earth; samaaH pratiSTaam= togetherness, with your wife; ma agama= do not get.
Oh! Rama, as long as you are on earth, you do not get the love of being together with your wife, because you killed one from the bird couple… and you have to live with your wife departed [to Lanka,] come again, and then departed [to forests.]
But this is differed statement, since Vishnu does not require any personal testing of the capabilities of the writer of Ramayana. Brahma will look after such literary things.
4] The generally accepted meaning of this verse is this. Any epic’s gist is to be said at the start or, at its commencement — kaavya artha suucanam kascin aadyaam eva niruupyate— Thus, the above verse included the meaning of whole of the epic, Ramayana.
i] maa niSaada= Goddess Lakshmi and Vishnu. Their marriage in their incarnations as Rama and Seetha, and Ramayana depicts this in Bala Kanda.
ii] pratiSTaam tvam agama= renown, you get, by following your father’s orders you have repaired to forests, without any political upheaval, thus get an everlasting renown as an obliging son Ayodhya Kanda.
iii] shashavatii samaa= by dwelling in forest and eradicating demons and helping the saints and sages thus, you achieve an everlasting praise Aranaya Kanda.
iv] krounchayoH= from the [atrocious] couple; k– krunca gati kauTilyaa alpii bhaavayoH; the atrocious Vali, and Tara couple; ekam kaama mohitam = one, passion, filled, i.e., Vali; avadhii= you killed, you killed Vali Kishkindha Kanda.
v] krouncha mithunaat= from the couple of lovely passionate birds here Rama and Seetha; niSaada that ruffian Ravana, kaama mohitam lustfully, ekam one [i.e., Seetha]; avadhii = almost killed, i.e., her residing in Lanka is as good as death Sundara Kanda.
vi] krouncha mithunaat = from the atrocious, couple Ravana and Mandodari; ekam avadhii one Ravana, you killed Yuddha Kanda.
vii] kaama mohitam= by desire, fascinated [ kama also means a longing, desire, let alone lusting]; Seetha is fascinated by her desire to see sage’s wives in uttara Ramayana and thus she is sent to forests through Lakshmana. Hence seventh canto, uttara Ramayana is also suggested..
तस्य एवम् ब्रुवतः चिन्ता बभूव हृदि वीक्षतः |
शोकार्तेन अस्य शकुनेः किम् इदम् व्याहृतम् मया || १-२-१६
shokaartena asya shakuneH kim idam vyaahR^itam mayaa || 1-2-16
On saying thus, and pondering for a while in his heart, ‘annoyed by the anguish for that bird, what is it uttered by me…’ thus he became cogitative of those lines uttered. [1-2-16].
चिन्तयन् स महाप्राज्ञः चकार मतिमान् मतिम् |
शिश्यम् च एव अब्रवीत् वाक्यम् इदम् स मुनिपुङ्गवः || १-२-१७
shishyam cha eva abraviit vaakyam idam sa munipuN^gavaH || 1-2-17
On thinking, he that eminently astute and intellectual sage made up his mind, and he that erudite scholar also spoke this sentence to his disciples, thus as… [1-2-17].
पाद बद्धः अक्षर समः तन्त्री लय समन्वितः |
शोकार्तस्य प्रवृत्तो मे श्लोको भवतु न अन्यथा || १-२-१८
shokaartasya pravR^itto me shloko bhavatu na anyathaa || 1-2-18
“This utterance of mine has emerged out of anguished annoyance, and it is well- arranged with letters metrically posited, tuneful and rhythmical to be sung with string instrument, and hence, this shall be a verse, not otherwise…” [1-2-18]
This verse he uttered is in four quarters, each quarter with equally posited eight syllables. This is called anuSTubh metre in Sanskrit poetry. The eight syllables are, — maa ni Shaa da pra ti ShTaa~N tva | ma ga ma shaa shva tiiH sa maa — Each quarter is paada in Sanskrit, pede in Latin; with two quarters in first stanza, and two stanzas one verse. This apart there are other rules like caesura yati ; alliteration praasa ; and other compositional rules. It has come out of shoka sorrow, so the format is named as sloka. And, shloka also means yashas, kiirti renown.
शिष्यः तु तस्य ब्रुवतो मुनेर् वाक्यम् अनुत्तमम् |
प्रति जग्राह संतुष्टः तस्य तुष्टोअः अभवत् मुनिः || १-२-१९
prati jagraaha saMtushhTaH tasya tuShToaH abhavat muniH || 1-2-19
Even the disciple happily received what that is articulated by the saint, a unique articulation, by which the saint too, became happy. [1-2-19].
सोऽभिषेकम् ततः कृत्वा तीर्थे तस्मिन् यथाविधि |
तम् एव चिन्तयन् अर्थम् उपावर्तत वै मुनिः || १-२-२०
tam eva chintayan artham upaavartata vai muniH || 1-2-20
Then that saint on performing his bathing in that ford according to custom, and still thinking on the purport of his utterance, he returned towards his hermitage. [1-2-20]
This is mid day bath for these hermits. tato madhyaahna snaanaartham mR^idam aaharet | – – prekShya sa omkaaram aadityam triH nimajje jalaashaye – – vyaasa smR^iti The word abhisheka refers to ceremonial showering of waters on deities or on kings in his coronation. At the beginning Valmiki arrives at the river for a daily bath, which he would do by usual dipping in river waters. But here it appears that waters are showered on him, abhishekam kR^itva meaning that waters showered on him are on the analogy of poetic verses of Ramayana..
भरद्वाजः ततः शिष्यो विनीतः श्रुतवान् गुरोः |
कलशम् पूर्णमादाय पृष्ठतः अनुजगाम ह || १-२-२१
kalasham puurNamaadaaya pR^ishhThataH anujagaama ha || 1-2-21
Then Bharadwaja, the obedient disciple and an erudite scholar, for he heard and learnt many scriptures by listening, on taking handy-vessel full with water followed at the behind of his mentor. [1-2-21].
स प्रविश्य आश्रम पदम् शिष्येण सह धर्मवित् |
उपविष्टः कथाः च अन्याः चकार ध्यानमास्थितः || १-२-२२
upavishhTaH kathaaH cha anyaaH chakaara dhyaanamaasthitaH || 1-2-22
He that knower of dharma, Valmiki, having entered the threshold of hermitage along with disciples, and having seated spoke about the day-to-day teachings and also other things, but he himself is preoccupied in cogitation on the verse. [1-2-22]
आजगाम ततः ब्रह्मो लोककर्ता स्वयम् प्रभुः |
चतुर् मुखो महातेजा द्रष्टुम् तम् मुनिपुङ्गवम् || १-२-२३
chatur mukho mahaatejaa draShTum tam munipuN^gavam || 1-2-23
Then, the great resplendent Four-faced creator of fourteen worlds, almighty Brahma, arrived there on his own, to see that eminent saint Valmiki. [1-2-23]
Comment; The deities do not usually arrive on their own, but reveal themselves after a great penance, or on raising hue and cry as is done by demon devotees. Here Brahma, one among the Trinity of Hindu mythology, arrives on his own, to execute a divine deed through Valmiki, i.e. authoring the epic, Ramayana..
वाल्मीकिः अथ तम् दृष्ट्वा सहसा उत्थाय वाग्यतः |
प्रान्जलिः प्रयतो भूत्वा तस्थौ परम विस्मितः || १-२-२४
praanjaliH prayato bhuutvaa tasthau parama vismitaH || 1-2-24
Then that pious saint Valmiki is highly surprised on seeing Brahma, and on quickly getting up from his seat with his palms adjoined humbly, he stood aside, as he is spellbind. [1-2-24].
पूजयामास तम् देवम् पाद्य अर्घ्य आसन वन्दनैः |
प्रणंय विधिवत् च एनम् पृष्ट्वा च एव निरामयम् || १-२-२५
praNaMya vidhivat ca enam pR^ishhTvaa ca eva niraamayam || 1-2-25
Valmiki venerated Brahma, on inquiring into his well-being, washed his feet, drenched his thirst, seated him to rest, and adored at best with customarily obeisance. [1-2-25]
Comment: Brahma is one in the Trinity of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma is pictured to have four faces, each representing one Veda, where Vedas are four in number. He is the creator of worlds, while Vishnu maintains them, and Shiva dissolute them. The concert of Brahma is Saraswati, the presiding deity of speech, who was earlier requested by Brahma to be on the tongue of Valmiki to utter the poem, [as at 1-2-15] as an intuition to Valmiki. Thus Brahma now arrives to ordain Valmiki to author Ramayana.
अथ उपविश्य भगवान् आसने परम अर्चिते |
वाल्मीकये च ऋषये सन्दिदेश आसनम् ततः || १-२-२६
vaalmiikaye ca R^iShaye sandidesha aasanam tataH || 1-2-26
Then god Brahma, who is seated on a high seat, very highly worshipped by Valmiki, also beckoned at Valmiki to take a seat. [1-2-26].
ब्रह्मणा समनुज्ञातः सोऽपि उपाविशत् आसने |
उपविष्टे तदा तस्मिन् साक्षात् लोक पितामहे | १-२-२७
तत् गतेन एव मनसा वाल्मीकिः ध्यानम् आस्थितः ||
upaviShTe tadaa tasmin saakshaat loka pitaamahe | 1-2-27
tat gatena eva manasaa vaalmiikiH dhyaanam aasthitaH ||
Even though Valmiki sat on his seat when duly permitted by Brahma, and though the Grandparent of the worlds is manifestly sitting before him, but the same broodings on those happenings occurred on that day have recurred on his mind. [1-2-27-28a].
पापात्मना कृतम् कष्टम् वैर ग्रहण बुद्धिना | १-२-२८
यत् तादृशम् चारुरवम् क्रौन्चम् हन्यात् अकारणात् ||
yat taadR^isham chaaruravam krauncham hanyaat akaaraNaat ||
“He that tribal hunter, who killed a cutely calling krounch bird for no good reason than intending to capture the kill, is an evil souled one that caused hardship…” [1-2-28b-29a].
शोचन् एव पुनः क्रौन्चीम् उप श्लोकम् इमम् जगौ | १-२-२९
पुनर् अन्तर्गत मना भूत्वा शोक परायणः ||
punar antargata manaa bhuutvaa shoka paraayaNaH ||
Remaining in melancholic mood Valmiki turned his mind to the depth of thinking, and again thinking only on the krouncha bird he sung the same verse, involuntarily. [1-2-29b-30a]
The word jaguH is singing; gai= shabde; liT; prathama bahu; jagau – jagatuH – jaguH; variant of gaay; c.f. Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa, verse 20, in fourth sarga; aakumaarakathoddhaata.m shaaligopyo jaguryashaH.
तम् उवाच ततो ब्रह्मा प्रहसन् मुनिपुंगवम् | १-२-३०
श्लोक एवास्त्वयाम् बद्धो न अत्र कार्या विचारणा ||
shloka evaastvayaam baddho na atra kaaryaa vichaaraNaa ||
Then, Brahma smilingly spoke to that eminent saint Valmiki, “But, what that is composed is a verse only… and there is no need to think through… [1-2-30b-31a].
मत् च्छन्दात् एव ते ब्रह्मन् प्रवृत्ते अयम् सरस्वती | १-२-३१
रामस्य चरितम् कृत्स्नम् कुरु त्वम् ऋषिसत्तम |
raamasya charitam kR^itsnam kuru tvam R^ishhisattama |
“Oh, Brahman, that speech of yours sprang forth at my wish alone, hence oh, eminent sage, you shall render the legend of Rama, in its entirety… [1-2-31b-32a].
धर्मात्मनो भगवतो लोके रामस्य धीमतः || १-२-३२
वृत्तम् कथय धीरस्य यथा ते नारदात् श्रुतम् |
vR^ittam kathaya dhiirasya yathaa te naaradaat shrutam |
“You shall narrate the legend of Rama, the virtuous, intellectual and an intrepid one, and a godlike person in this world as well, as you have heard it from sage Narada. [1-2-32b-33a].
रहस्यम् च प्रकाशम् च यद् वृत्तम् तस्य धीमतः || १-२-३३
रामस्य सह सौमित्रे राक्षसानाम् च सर्वशः |
वैदेह्याः च एव यद् वृत्तम् प्रकाशम् यदि वा रहः || १-२-३४
तत् च अपि अविदितम् सर्वम् विदितम् ते भविष्यति |
raamasya saha saumitre raakshasaanaam cha sarvashaH |
vaidehyaaH cha eva yad vR^ittam prakaasham yadi vaa rahaH || 1-2-34
tat ca api aviditam sarvam viditam te bhaviShyati |
“The adventures of valorous Rama along with Lakshmana, and the misadventures of demons, known or unknown in every detail, and even the plight of Vaidehi which is either revealed or un-revealed so far, and whatever legend that has happened, all that will also be known to you, even if it were to be unknown, as yet… [1-2-33b-34-35a].
न ते वाक् अनृता काव्ये काचित् अत्र भविष्यति || १-२-३५
कुरु राम कथाम् पुण्याम् श्लोक बद्धाम् मनोरमाम् |
kuru raama kathaam puNyaam shloka baddhaam manoramaam |
“You shall versify the heart pleasing and merit-yielding legend of Rama, and not a single word of yours will be unfounded in this epic… [1-2-35b-36a].
यावत् स्थास्यन्ति गिरयः सरितः च महीतले || १-२-३६
तावत् रामायण कथा लोकेषु प्रचरिष्यति |
taavat raamaayaNa kathaa lokeShu prachariShyati |
“As long as the mountains and even rivers flourish on the surface of the earth, so long the legend of Ramayana will flourish in this world… [1-2-36b-37a].
यावत् रामस्य च कथा त्वत् कृता प्रचरिष्यति | १-२-३७
तावत् ऊर्ध्वम् अधः च त्वम् मत् लोकेषु निवत्स्यसि |
taavat uurdhvam adhaH cha tvam mat lokeshhu nivatsyasi |
“And as long as Rama’s legend authored by you flourishes…till then you will flourish in heavenly, in netherworlds, and even in my abode, namely Abode of Brahma… [1-2-37].
इति उक्त्वा भगवान् ब्रह्मा तत्र एव अन्तरधीयत |
ततः स शिष्यो भगवान् मुनिः विस्मयम् आययौ || १-२-३८
tataH sa shishhyo bhagavaan muniH vismayam aayayau || 1-2-38
On saying thus that Divinity Brahma vanished then and there only, and then that godly sage Valmiki came by astonishment, along with his disciples. [1-2-38].
तस्य शिष्याः ततः सर्वे जगुः श्लोकम् इमम् पुनः |
मुहुर् मुहुः प्रीयमाणाः प्राहुः च भृश विस्मिताः || १-२-३९
muhur muhuH priiyamaaNaaH praahuH cha bhR^isha vismitaaH || 1-2-39
Then all of the disciples of Valmiki sang this verse time and again very delightedly, and muchstonished they also recited this verse, reciprocally. [1-2-39]
समाक्षरैः चतुर्भिः यः पादैः गीतो महर्षिणा |
सः अनुव्याहरणात् भूयः शोकः श्लोकत्वम् आगतः || १-२-४०
saH anuvyaaharaNaat bhuuyaH shokaH shlokatvam aagataH || 1-2-40
Equally lettered, four-footed is that verse when great Sage Valmiki articulated it, and when repetitively recited by one and all, it attained prominence as verse proper. [1-2-40]
Comment: A poet never says poetry to satisfy his own instincts, but to imbue an involuntary imagination or passion in oComment: A poet never says poetry to satisfy his own instincts, but to imbue an involuntary imagination or passion in others when read or heard by the so called others. It is the empathy of that poetry. For Kalidasa it is shR^ingara, passion, for Bhavabhuti it is pity ‘eko rasaH karuNa…’ for Valmiki it is pathos, shoka. For this Kavi Kalidas says: niShaada viddha aNDaja darshanotthaH shlokatvam aapadyata yasya shokaH — raghu va~Nsha 14-60 There are two texts for this one is, shlokaH shlokatam aagataH… meaning that the verse originally structured metrically can now can be sung. Second is shokaH shlokatvam aagataH… the pathos of the poet attained the status of verse that is now being sung by the disciples, thus anyone can recite it..
तस्य बुद्धिः इयम् जाता महर्षेः भावितात्मनः |
कृत्स्नम् रामायणम् काव्यम् ईदृशैः करवाण्यहम् || १-२-४१
kR^itsnam raamaayaNam kaavyam iidR^ishaiH karavaaNyaham || 1-2-41
Born is an intuition in that great sage and contemplated soul asserting that “I will compose entire Ramayana, the epic, in suchlike verses…’ [1-2-41].
उदार वृत्त अर्थ पदैः मनोरमैः
तदा अस्य रामस्य चकार कीर्तिमान् |
सम अक्षरैः श्लोक शतैः यशस्विनो
यशस्करम् काव्यम् उदार दर्शनः || १-२-४२
tadaa asya raamasya chakaara kiirtimaan |
sama aksharaiH shloka shataiH yashasvino
yashaskaram kaavyam udaara darshanaH || 1-2-42
That celebrated sage and magnanimous seer Valmiki then authored the highly renowned Rama’s legend extolling Rama’s renown, with symmetrically worded verses, and words versified to yield meanings semantically, prosody free-flowing, and with hundreds of such verses. [1-2-42].
तद् उपगत समास सन्धि योगम्
सम मधुरोपनत अर्थ वाक्य बद्धम् |
रघुवर चरितम् मुनिप्रणीतम्
दश शिरसः च वधम् निशामय अध्वम् || १-२-४३
sama madhuropanata artha vaakya baddham |
raghuvara charitam munipraNiitam
dasha shirasaH cha vadham nishaamaya adhvam || 1-2-43
That epic contains uncomplicated compounds, conjunctions and conjugations, and has expressive sentences that are well knit and led evenly and sweetly, and that legend pertains to the best one from Raghu’s dynasty, namely Rama, which also includes the extermination of the Ten headed evil named Ravana, and further, it is said by the sage, hence this may now be listened… [1-2-43]
This is balladeers bidding to the audience. The word muni praNiitam reminds that a non-saint cannot tell an epic; na anR^ishi kurute kaavyam and hence it is to be listened attentively..
इति वाल्मिकि रामायणे आदिकाव्ये बाल काण्डे द्वितीयः सर्गः
This concludes the 2nd Sarga (chapter) in Bala Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana Aadikavyam.