Sugreeva sends troops to west side to search for Seetha under the leadership of Sushena, the father of lady Tara. Describing the various and magnificent mountains that are situated at the northwest of India, and also the ocean down south to it, namely the present Arabian Sea and almost up to Persian provinces, he orders monkey troops to return within one month’s time.
ततः प्रस्थाप्य सुग्रीवः तान् हरीन् दक्षिणाम् दिशम् |
अब्रवित् मेघ संकाशम् सुशेषणम् नाम वानरम् | ४-४२-१
abravit megha sa.nkaasham susheShaNam naama vaanaram | 4-42-1
On sending monkeys to southern direction Sugreeva spoke to a vanara named Sushena who looked like a massive cloud. [4-42-1] .
तारायाः पितरम् राजा श्वशुरम् भीम विक्रमम् |
अब्रवीत् प्रांजलिः वाक्यम् अभिगम्य प्रणम्य च || ४-४२-२
abraviit praa.njaliH vaakyam abhigamya praNamya ca || 4-42-2
On approaching and venerating that awesomely valorous Sushena, the father of Lady Tara, thereby his own father-in-law, king Sugreeva spoke this sentence while adjoining palms in supplication. [4-42-2] .
महर्षि पुत्रम् मारीचम् अर्चिष्मन्तम् महाकपिम् |
वृ^इतम् कपिवरैः शूरैः महेन्द्र सदृ^इश द्युतिम् || ४-४२-३
बुद्धि विक्रम सम्पन्नान् वैनतेय सम द्युतिम् |
मरीचि पुत्रान् मारीचान् अर्चिर्माल्यान् महबलान् || ४-४२-४
ऋषि पुत्रान् च तान् सर्वान् प्रतीचीम् आदिशत् दिशम् |
vR^i^itam kapivaraiH shuuraiH mahendra sadR^i^isha dyutim || 4-42-3
buddhi vikrama sampannaan vainateya sama dyutim |
mariici putraan maariicaan arcirmaalyaan mahabalaan || 4-42-4
R^iShi putraan ca taan sarvaan pratiiciim aadishat disham |
Sugreeva ordered the superb monkey son of great-sage Mareecha, called Arcishman, to western direction, who is a surrounded with exceptional and braving monkeys, a coequal to Indra in his resplendence, endowed with brilliance and bravery and whose speed equals that of the son of Vinata, namely Garuda, the Eagle-vehicle of Vishnu. Along with him Sugreeva also ordered the greatly mighty brothers of Arcishman i.e., the other vanara sons of Sage Mareecha, known as Arcishmaalyaa-s, also called as Mareecha-s. [3, 4, 5a] .
द्वाभ्याम् शत सहस्राभ्याम् कपीनाम् कपि सत्तमाः || ४-४२-५
सुशेषण प्रमुखा यूयम् वैदेहीम् परिमार्गथ |
susheShaNa pramukhaa yuuyam vaidehiim parimaargatha |
“Oh, outstanding monkeys, you shall search for Vaidehi proceeding with two hundred thousand monkeys, say two lakhs, and Sushena as your leader.” Thus, Sugreeva started to speak to vanara troops. [4-42-5b, 6a] .
सौराष्ट्रान् सह बाह्लीकान् चंद्रचित्रान् तथैव च || ४-४२-६
स्फीतान् जन पदान् रम्यान् विपुलानि पुराणि च |
पुंनाग गहनम् कुक्षिम् वकुल उद्दालक आकुलम् || ४-४२-७
तथा केतक खँडान् च मार्गध्वम् हरि पुंगवाः |
sphiitaan jana padaan ramyaan vipulaani puraaNi ca |
puMnaaga gahanam kukShim vakula uddaalaka aakulam || 4-42-7
tathaa ketaka kha.NDaan ca maargadhvam hari pu.ngavaaH |
“Oh, best monkeys, conduct search in the Suraashtra, Baahlika and Candracitra provinces, including their extensive and delightful rural areas and spacious cities, as well as in their woods with Punnaaga trees, areas filled with Vakula, and Uddalaka trees and in their interiors, and even in the thickets of Ketaka trees. [4-42-6b, 7, 8a]
The province of Candracitra, the present day Mathura and is also mentioned as shuura desha ‘Shuura province…’ in other mms, and the Suraashtra is identified with present day Sauraashtra, a peninsula in Gujarat.
प्रत्यक् स्रोतो वहाः चैव नद्यः शीतजलाः शिवाः || ४-४२-८
तापसानाम् अरण्यानि कांतारा गिरयः च ये |
तत्र स्थलीः मरुप्राया अति उच्च शिखराः शिलाः || ४-४२-९
गिरि जाल आवृताम् दुर्गाम् मार्गित्वा पश्चिमाम् दिशम् |
ततः पश्चिमम् आगम्य समुद्रम् द्रष्टुम् अर्हथ || ४-४२-१०
तिमि नक्र आकुल जलम् गत्वा द्रक्ष्यथ वानराः |
taapasaanaam araNyaani kaa.ntaaraa girayaH ca ye |
tatra sthaliiH marupraayaa ati ucca shikharaaH shilaaH || 4-42-9
giri jaala aavR^itaam durgaam maargitvaa pashcimaam disham |
tataH pashcimam aagamya samudram draShTum arhatha || 4-42-10
timi nakra aakula jalam gatvaa drakshyatha vaanaraaH |
“Oh, vanara-s, search at the blest rivers in the west whose cool water flows westward, as well as in the forests of sages and on the mountains of those forests, and even in lands that are virtually waterless and on the highly towering mountains that are chilly. On searching such an impassable western quarter encircled with enmeshed mountains, then it will be apt of you to come and see Western Ocean. Having come to Western Ocean, you will see seawater ruffled by sharks and crocodiles. [8b, 9, 10, 11a] .
ततः केतक खँडेषु तमाल गहनेषु च || ४-४२-११
कपयो विहरिष्यन्ति नारिकेल वनेषु च |
kapayo vihariShyanti naarikela vaneShu ca |
“Later the monkeys may ramble in the shrubberies of Ketaka plants, in copses of Tamaala plants and in the boscages of coconut trees. [4-42-11b, 12a] .
तत्र सीताम् च मार्गध्वम् निलयम् रावणस्य च || ४-४२-१२
वेलातल निवेष्टेषु पर्वतेषु वनेषु च |
मुरची पत्तनम् चैव रम्यम् चैव जटा पुरम् || ४-४२-१३
अवंतीम् अंगलेपाम् च तथा च अलक्षितम् वनम् |
राष्ट्राणि च विशालानि पत्तनानि ततः ततः || ४-४२-१४
velaatala niveShTeShu parvateShu vaneShu ca |
muracii pattanam caiva ramyam caiva jaTaa puram || 4-42-13
ava.ntiim a.ngalepaam ca tathaa ca alakShitam vanam |
raaShTraaNi ca vishaalaani pattanaani tataH tataH || 4-42-14
“Seetha shall be searched along with the residency of Ravana on the mountains that are sitting pretty on the seashore, as well as in the forests on those mountains. Further, the delightful cities available alongshore like Muraci, Jaatapura, Avanti and Angalepa are to be searched together with the forest of Alakshita, including the nearby provinces and spacious townships. [4-42-12b, 13, 14]
These are said as cities with names of muralii, jaTiipuram, in other mms, and it is also said to be Maurvi. The said Avanti is not the Avanti already said to the monkeys who were sent to east. is ‘un-cared-for’ as the thick woods at its periphery make the interiors of forest neglected .
सिंधु सागरयोः चैव संगमे तत्र पर्वतः |
महान् हेम गिरिः नाम शत शृंगो महाद्रुमः || ४-४२-१५
mahaan hema giriH naama shata shR^i.ngo mahaadrumaH || 4-42-15
“At the junction of River Sindhu with the ocean, Mouth of Indus, there is a huge mountain named Hemagiri, Golden-Mountain, which is with hundreds of summits and gigantic trees. [4-42-15] .
तत्र प्रस्थेषु रम्येषु सिंहाः पक्ष गमाः स्थिताः |
तिमि मत्स्य गजाम्ब् चैव नीडानि आरोपयन्ति ते || ४-४२-१६
timi matsya gajaamb caiva niiDaani aaropayanti te || 4-42-16
“On the beautiful ridges of that mountain flying-lions are inhibiting and they will be winching sharks, fish and elephant seals to their lairs. [4-42-16] .
तानि नीडानि सिंहानाम् गिरि शृंग गताः च ये |
दृप्ताः तृप्ताः च मातंगाः तोयद स्वन निःस्वनाः || ४-४२-१७
विचरन्ति विशाले अस्मिन् तोय पूर्णे समन्ततः |
dR^iptaaH tR^iptaaH ca maata.ngaaH toyada svana niHsvanaaH || 4-42-17
vicaranti vishaale asmin toya puurNe samantataH |
“The elephants inhibiting on the top of that mountain are contended and conceited, and trumpeting like thunderous clouds they will be moving everywhere in that vast area of the mountain abutted by water and near at the lairs of flying-lions. [4-42-17, 18a].
तस्य शृंगम् दिव स्पर्शम् कांचनम् चित्र पादपम् ||४-४२-१८
सर्वम् आशु विचेतव्यम् कपिभिः काम रूपिभिः |
sarvam aashu vicetavyam kapibhiH kaama ruupibhiH |
“The monkeys who can change their guise by their wish have to quickly and entirely search the golden peak of that Hemagiri which will be touching the sky and which has amazing trees on it. [4-42-18b, 19a] .
कोटिम् तत्र समुद्रे तु कांचनीम् शत योजनम् || ४-४२-१९
दुर्दर्शाम् पारियात्रस्य गता द्रक्ष्यथ वानराः |
durdarshaam paariyaatrasya gataa drakShyatha vaanaraaH |
“On your seagoing there, oh, vanara-s, you will see the golden peak of a waterlogged mountain called Mt. Paariyaatra, which peak will be hundred yojana-s in height, and which is difficult to see as it will be blindingly glittering. [4-42-19b, 20a] .
कोट्यः तत्र चतुर्विंशत् गंधर्वाणाम् तरस्विनाम् || ४-४२-२०
वसन्ति अग्नि निकाशानाम् घोराणाम् काम रूपिणाम् |
vasanti agni nikaashaanaam ghoraaNaam kaama ruupiNaam |
“Twenty four crores of mighty and atrocious Gandharva-s whose glow is similar to the fire and who can change their guise at their wish are living there on that mountain Paariyaatra. [4-42-20b, 21a]
The Gandharva-s said here are not the celestial musicians but human Gandharva-s and the Paariyaatra Mountain may perhaps belong to one in Suleiman Range, now in Pakistan, but not the one among Vindhya Range.
पावक अर्चिः प्रतीकाशाः समवेताः समन्ततः || ४-४२-२१
न अति आसादयित्वाः ते वानरैः भीम विक्रमैः |
na ati aasaadayitvaaH te vaanaraiH bhiima vikramaiH |
“If those Gandharva-s who resemble the tongues of fire are given offence, they will be thronging together from everywhere, as such even awfully courageous vanara-s shall not provoke them. [4-42-21b, 22a] .
न अदेयम् च फलम् तस्मात् देशात् किंचित् प्लवंगमैः || ४-४२-२२
दुरासदा हि ते वीराः सत्त्ववन्तो महाबलाः |
फल मूलानि ते तत्र रक्षन्ते भीम विक्रमाः || ४-४२-२३
duraasadaa hi te viiraaH sattvavanto mahaabalaaH |
phala muulaani te tatra rakShante bhiima vikramaaH || 4-42-23
“And the fly-jumpers shall not pluck at least a fruit in that province. Because those assiduous, highly mighty and valiant Gandharva-s are impossible for overtures, isn’t it. Moreover, those appallingly audacious Gandharva-s will be safeguarding fruits and tubers there. [4-42-22, 23]
This area must be in and around present day Afghanistan because it is famous for dry fruits and it is the age-old practice of Kabuli Walla-s to sell most delicious dry-fruits. When they grow that kind of high-grade fruits which orchardist allows a monkey to pluck and plunder them.
तत्र यत्नः च कर्तव्यो मार्गितव्या च जानकी |
न हि तेभ्यो भयम् किंचित् कपित्वम् अनुवर्तताम् || ४-४२-२४
na hi tebhyo bhayam ki.ncit kapitvam anuvartataam || 4-42-24
“There you have to put yourself in devoir and search for Janaki. In the event of your following just monkey-hood and its antics, without becoming adventuresome, there will be no scare from those Gandharva-s. Then you proceed from that Mt. Paariyaatra to Mt. Vajra. [4-42-24] .
तत्र वैदूर्य वर्णाभो वज्र संस्थान संस्थितः |
नाना द्रुम लता आकीर्णो वज्रः नाम महागिरिः || ४-४२-२५
श्रीमान् समुदितः तत्र योजनानाम् शतम् समम् |
गुहाः तत्र विचेतव्याः प्रयत्नेन प्लवंगमाः || ४-४२-२६
naanaa druma lataa aakiirNo vajraH naama mahaagiriH || 4-42-25
shriimaan samuditaH tatra yojanaanaam shatam samam |
guhaaH tatra vicetavyaaH prayatnena plava.ngamaaH || 4-42-26
“Oh, fly-jumpers, there is a great mountain named Mt. Vajra in that sea beyond Mt. Paariyaatra. It will be with a shine similar to the hue of the gemstone lapis, and it will be standing like a diamond in its shape, hence it is diamondiferous. There that glorious mountain will be soaring high, squarely for a hundred yojana-s, and diverse trees and climbers will be spreading over it. There, on that mountain you have to search pursuantly including its caverns. [4-42-25, 26] .
चतुर् भागे समुद्रस्य चक्रवान् नाम पर्वतः |
तत्र चक्रम् सहस्रारम् निर्मितम् विश्वकर्मणा || ४-४२-२७
tatra cakram sahasraaram nirmitam vishvakarmaNaa || 4-42-27
“In the fourth quarter of that ocean from land a mountain named Cakravaan is there. Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect, constructed a thousand-spoked wheel on it. [4-42-27]
This is not just a wheel with thousand spokes, but said to be a machine of weaponry with thousand parts or sub-weapons. The Divine Architect Vishvakarma constructs such marvellous things not only for to gods, but even to the demons, while coming under duress, as and when demons conquer Indra’s paradise. In the following verses, a connected legend is also touched.
तत्र पंचजनम् हत्वा हयग्रीवम् च दानवम् |
आजहार ततः चक्रम् शंखम् च पुरुषोत्तमः || ४-४२-२८
aajahaara tataH cakram sha.nkham ca puruShottamaH || 4-42-28
puraaNa/Legend: “Once upon a time in the crusades of gods-demons, Vishnu assuming the form of puroSottama ‘Supreme Person’ slew the horse-faced demon named Hayagreeva on that mountain, and snatched away the wheel-weapon from him. Until then, this wheel-weapon existed under the custody of that demon Hayagreeva. Purushottama also put another demon Pancajana to death on that very mountain and took away his backbone, which is a conch-shell. Thus the conch-shell handled by Vishnu is known as paancha janya shankha ‘Paanchajanya conch.’ Thus, this Cakravaan named mountain assumes legendary importance to search for Seetha. [4-42-28] .
तस्य सानुषु रम्येषु विशालासु गुहासु च |
रावणः सह वैदेह्या मार्गितव्यः ततः ततः || ४-४२-२९
raavaNaH saha vaidehyaa maargitavyaH tataH tataH || 4-42-29
“Vaidehi is to be searched on the delightful cliffs of that Mt. Cakravaan and also in its spacious caves, together with Ravana, and search for her here, there, and everywhere. [4-42-29] .
योजनानि चतुः षष्टिः वराहो नाम पर्वतः |
सुवर्ण शृंगः सुमहान् अगाधे वरुण आलये || ४-४२-३०
suvarNa shR^i.ngaH sumahaan agaadhe varuNa aalaye || 4-42-30
“After sixty-four yojana-s another very great mountain with golden peaks is there in abyss of the abode of Rain-god, namely the ocean, and it is named as Mt. Varaaha. [4-42-30].
तत्र प्राक् ज्योतिषम् नाम जातरूपमयम् पुरम् |
यस्मिन् वसति दुष्ट आत्मा नरको नाम दानवः || ४-४२-३१
yasmin vasati duShTa aatmaa narako naama daanavaH || 4-42-31
“A city named Praagjyotisha is there which is completely golden, wherein the evil-minded demon named Naraka is living. [4-42-31]
This Praagjyotisha is held as the present Assam as has been referred by Kalidasa in his works and some say that this place should not have been referred here. The inclusion of this verse is said to be the problem with the copyist. S.M. Ali in ‘The Geography of the Puranas’ says: ‘this was the famous janapada on the fringe of the Eastern country…’ and it corresponds roughly with the middle Brahmaputra valley…’ The name is derived as praak ‘firstly, easterly…’ jyotiSh ‘planet, Sun, and his light” that is to say, ‘the place which takes the first light…’, that is the east of India…’ i.e., Assam. The said demon Naraka is not just “the buffalo-demon”who was eliminated by Goddess Durga.
तत्र सानुषु रम्येषु विशालासु गुहासु च |
रावणः सह वैदेह्या मार्गितव्यः ततः ततः || ४-४२-३२
raavaNaH saha vaidehyaa maargitavyaH tataH tataH || 4-42-32
“There on the delightful cliffs and spacious caves of that Mt. Varaaha, including that city Praagjyotisha, Ravana shall be searched together with Vaidehi. [4-42-32] .
तम् अतिक्रम्य शैलेन्द्रम् कांचनान् अन्तर दर्शनम् |
पर्वतः सर्व सौवर्णो धारा प्रस्रवण आयुतः || ४-४२-३३
parvataH sarva sauvarNo dhaaraa prasravaNa aayutaH || 4-42-33
“On ranging from that best Mt. Varaaha, whose caves are inlaid with gold-deposits apparent to the naked eye, there is an entirely golden mountain containing waterfalls and rapids called Meghavanta. [4-42-33] .
तम् गजाः च वराहाः च सिंहा व्याघ्राः च सर्वतः |
अभिगर्जन्ति सततम् तेन शब्देन दर्पिताः || ४-४२-३४
abhigar.hjanti satatam tena shabdena darpitaaH || 4-42-34
“Listening the sonorous sounds of waterfalls and rapids of that mountain, and construing them to be the roars of their opponent beasts, the elephants, wild boars, lions, and tigers will always be facing that mountain and roaring proud-heartedly all around it, by which that Mt. Meghavanta itself appears to be roaring, proud-heartedly. [4-42-34] .
यस्मिन् हरि हयः श्रीमान् महेन्द्रः पाकशासनः |
अभिषिक्तः सुरै राजा मेघो नाम स पर्वतः || ४-४२-३५
abhiShiktaH surai raajaa megho naama sa parvataH || 4-42-35
“On which mountain the distinguished Mahendra, whose horses are green and who is the controller of demon Paka, is anointed by gods as their king, such a mountain is this named Mt. Megha, or Mt. Meghavanta, which you have to scour. [4-42-35] .
तम् अतिक्रम्य शैलेन्द्रम् महेन्द्र परिपालितम् |
षष्टिम् गिरि सहस्राणि कांचनानि गमिष्यथ || ४-४२-३६
तरुण आदित्य वर्णानि भ्राजमानानि सर्वतः |
जातरूपमयैः वृक्षैः शोभितानि सुपुष्पितैः || ४-४२-३७
ShaShTim giri sahasraaNi kaa.ncanaani gamiShyatha || 4-42-36
taruNa aaditya varNaani bhraajamaanaani sarvataH |
jaataruupamayaiH vR^ikShaiH shobhitaani supuShpitaiH || 4-42-37
“On going further from that best mountain ruled by Mahendra, namely Mt. Meghavanta, you shall go to the range of sixty thousand golden mountains. Those mountains are radiant all around with the tinge of young Sun, and with the resplendence of fully flowered trees which are wholly golden in hue. [4-42-36, 37] .
तेषाम् मध्ये स्थितो राजा मेरुः उत्तम पर्वतः |
आदित्येन प्रसन्नेन शैलो दत्त वरः पुरा || ४-४२-३८
aadityena prasannena shailo datta varaH puraa || 4-42-38
“There is a unique and kingly mountain in the midst of that range of golden mountains, which is called Mt. Meru, or Saavrni Meru, to which mountain generous Sun has once given a boon. [4-42-38] .
तेन एवम् उक्तः शैलेन्द्रः सर्व एव त्वत् आश्रयाः |
मत् प्रसादात् भविष्यन्ति दिवा रात्रौ च कांचनाः || ४-४२-३९
त्वयि ये च अपि वत्स्यन्ति देव गन्धर्व दानवाः |
ते भविष्यन्ति भक्ताः च प्रभया कांचन प्रभाः || ४-४२-४०
mat prasaadaat bhaviShyanti divaa raatrau ca kaa.ncanaaH || 4-42-39
tvayi ye ca api vatsyanti deva gandharva daanavaaH |
te bhaviShyanti bhaktaaH ca prabhayaa kaa.ncana prabhaaH || 4-42-40
“The Sun said to that unique Mt. Meru Saavarni in this way, ‘by my beneficence whatever that is sheltered by you, say trees, climbers, rapids, boulders, all of them will transmute into golden hue, either by day or by night. Even those that reside on you, say gods, gandharva-s, or demons, they too shall thrive as my votaries and as far as their resplendence is concerned they will be glittering like gold, i.e., in the ochry golden hue of the eventide. [4-42-39, 40] .
विश्वेदेवाः च वसवो मरुतः च दिव ओकसः |
आगत्य पश्चिमाम् संध्याम् मेरुम् उत्तम पर्वतम् || ४-४२-४१
आदित्यम् उपतिष्ठन्ति तैः च सूर्यो अभिपूजितः |
अदृश्यः सर्व भूतानाम् अस्तम् गच्छति पर्वतम् || ४-४२-४२
aagatya pashcimaam sa.ndhyaam merum uttama parvatam || 4-42-41
aadityam upatiShThanti taiH ca suuryo abhipuujitaH |
adR^ishyaH sarva bhuutaanaam astam gacchhati parvatam || 4-42-42
“On their coming to that unique mountain Mt. Meru Saavarni at vespers Vishvedeva-s, Vasava-s, Marut-s, and the other celestials will bide their time for the dusking Sun, and when they all have worshipped him, the Sun goes to the Mt. Astagiri, the Dusking Mountain, and evanishes for all beings for that day. [4-42-41, 42]
The above list may not mention others but it is construed to be inclusive of ekaadasha rudra-s, who are twenty-one in number, while the vishvedevaaH are thirteen, vasavaaH are eight, maruts are seven, aadityaa-s ‘the other Suns in other galaxies…’ are twelve .
योजनानाम् सहस्राणि दश तानि दिवाकरः |
मुहूर्त अर्धेन तम् शीघ्रम् अभियाति शिल उच्चयम् || ४-४२-४३
muhuurta ardhena tam shiighram abhiyaati shila uccayam || 4-42-43
“The Sun courses across those ten thousand yojana-s from Mt. Meru Saavarni to Mt. Astaadri in one and half hours, and quickly reaches Mt. Astagiri, or Mt. Dusk. [4-42-43] .
शृंगे तस्य महत् दिव्यम् भवनम् सूर्य संनिभम् |
प्रासाद गण संबाधम् विहितम् विश्वकर्मणा || ४-४२-४४
praasaada gaNa saMbaadham vihitam vishvakarmaNaa || 4-42-44
“On the pinnacle of Mt. Astagiri, or the Mt. Dusk, there is a supreme and heavenly manor-house compacted with multi-storied buildings, which in shine will be similar to Sun and which is arranged by Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect. [4-42-44] .
शोभितम् तरुभिः चित्रैः नाना पक्षि समाकुलैः |
निकेतम् पाश हस्तस्य वरुणस्य महात्मनः || ४-४२-४५
niketam paasha hastasya varuNasya mahaatmanaH || 4-42-45
“That villa is brightened by amazing trees, on which diverse birds will be twittering musically, belongs to the great-souled Varuna, the Rain-god, who wields a tether. [4-42-45].
अन्तरा मेरुम् अस्तम् च तालो दश शिरा महान् |
जातरूपमयः श्रीमान् भ्राजते चित्र वेदिकः || ४-४२-४६
jaataruupamayaH shriimaan bhraajate citra vedikaH || 4-42-46
“In between Mt. Meru and Mt. Astaadri there is a gigantic ten-leaved Date-palm-tree, which is completely golden and shines forth with a marvellous podium. [4-42-46]
This area must be the present day Arabian and the ancient Persian province, because the Date-palm tree is the highly respected tree at there or even throughout south East Asia. The three kinds of Dates trees are called as dry-grass-palm trees, as said in Amara Kosha. kharjuura, ketakii, talii, kharjuurii ca tR^iNa drumaa: amara kosha ‘Date, Pandamus odara tissimus, Corypha Talliera and Wild Date are dry-grass-palms, and these grow in abundance around oases.
तेषु सर्वेषु दुर्गेषु सरस्सु च सरित्सु च |
रावणः सह वैदेह्या मार्गितव्यः ततः ततः || ४-४२-४७
raavaNaH saha vaidehyaa maargitavyaH tataH tataH || 4-42-47
“On all those mountains, lakesides and riversides Vaidehi shall be searched together with Ravana, far and wide. [4-42-47] .
यत्र तिष्ठति धर्मज्ञः तपसा स्वेन भावितः |
मेरु सावर्णिर् इति एष ख्यातो वै ब्रह्मणा समः || ४-४२-४८
meru saavarNir iti eSha khyaato vai brahmaNaa samaH || 4-42-48
“This is where the virtue-knower, an enlightened one by his own asceticism, a selfsame personality to Brahma and one renowned as Sage Merusaavarni indeed resides. [4-42-48] .
प्रष्टव्यो मेरुसावर्णिः महर्षिः सूर्य संनिभः |
प्रणम्य शिरसा भूमौ प्रवृत्तिम् मैथिलीम् प्रति || ४-४२-४९
praNamya shirasaa bhuumau pravR^ittim maithiliim prati || 4-42-49
“And that sage Merusaavarni who is Sun-similar in his shine can be asked, only on your prostration before him in veneration, about the tidings of Maithili, and her whereabouts. [4-42-49] .
एतावत् जीव लोकस्य भास्करो रजनी क्षये |
कृत्वा वितिमिरम् सर्वम् अस्तम् गच्छति पर्वतम् || ४-४२-५०
kR^itvaa vitimiram sarvam astam gacchhati parvatam || 4-42-50
“On effacing the utter darkness of all the mortal world up to here, the illuminator of mortal world and the decliner of night, namely the Sun, will go to the Mt. Astagiri, say Mt. Dusk. [4-42-50] .
एतावत् वानरैः शक्यम् गन्तुम् वानर पुंगवाः |
अभास्करम् अमर्यादम् न जानीमः ततः परम् || ४-४२-५१
abhaaskaram amaryaadam na jaaniimaH tataH param || 4-42-51
“It is possible for the vanara-s to go only up to there, oh, best vanara-s, and we have no knowledge of those sunless and boundless realms available far and beyond. [4-42-51]
In ‘The Ancient Geography of India’ K. Basu records: ‘the reader should notice here that Valmiki makes mention of a few places only, most of which are mountains in the west and ends with the poetic land of the setting Sun. This shows that little was known at that time of the famed nations of the west, in spite of the great antiquity claimed by Egypt, Assyria, and Greece and one might be led to the thinking that these nations had not yet risen to power in the time of Valmiki, or if they existed at all, communication was not yet opened between them and the Indian Aryans…’
The words a+bhaaskaram, a + maryaadam are also taken in the sense, ‘without, enlightenment; without, proper conduct, i.e., propriety…’ ‘Those places are with primitives who are unenlightened and with impropriety, that are incongruous with Ancient Indian principle of living…’ Thus, these cultures west to Persia are held as pre-Babylonian or pre-Assyrian cultures. Moreover, it is assumed that Sugreeva has said this way: ‘because Ravana is a highly educated and cultured demon, in his own way, he too despises those lowly cultures despite of his obstinacy. For sure, he will not be there with Seetha, and hence Seetha need not be searched in those countries.’ .
अवगम्य तु वैदेहीम् निलयम् रावणस्य च |
अस्तम् पर्वतम् आसाद्य पूर्णे मासे निवर्तत || ४-४२-५२
astam parvatam aasaadya puurNe maase nivartata || 4-42-52
“You shall return within a month on knowing about Vaidehi and also about the residency of Ravana, or on your reaching Mt. Astagiri, say Mt. Dusk. [4-42-52] .
ऊर्ध्वम् मासान् न वस्तव्यम् वसन् वध्यो भवेन् मम |
सह एव शूरो युष्माभिः श्वशुरो मे गमिष्यति || ४-४२-५३
saha eva shuuro yuShmaabhiH shvashuro me gamiShyati || 4-42-53
“And none shall stay behind for more than a month, and if anyone stays, I have to exercise coup de grace in his respect. By the way, my valorous father-in-law, namely Sushena, is proceeding along with you. [4-42-53] .
श्रोतव्यम् सर्वम् एतस्य भवद्भिः दिष्ट कारिभिः |
गुरुः एष महाबाहुः श्वशुरो मे महाबलः || ४-४२-५४
guruH eSha mahaabaahuH shvashuro me mahaabalaH || 4-42-54
“As achievers of ordered tasks you shall give heed to all of the orders given by him. He who is highly dextrous and great mighty such a Sushena is my father-in-law, thus he is a venerable to me, as well as to you. [4-42-54] .
भवन्तः च अपि विक्रान्ताः प्रमाणम् सर्वे एव हि |
प्रमाणम् एनम् संस्थाप्य पश्यध्वम् पश्चिमाम् दिशम् || ४-४२-५५
pramaaNam enam saMsthaapya pashyadhvam pashcimaam disham || 4-42-55
“Even all of you are triumphant ones and indeed archetypes by yourselves, but instituting him as your archetype you shall search the western direction. [4-42-55] .
दृष्टायाम् तु नरेन्द्रस्या पत्न्याम् अमित तेजसः |
कृत कृत्या भविष्यामः कृतस्य प्रतिकर्मणा || ४-४२-५६
kR^ita kR^ityaa bhaviShyaamaH kR^itasya pratikarmaNaa || 4-42-56
“We all fulfil ourselves in reciprocating him who has done good to us, only if we can locate Seetha, the wife of the king of humans whose vitality is unlimited, namely Rama. [4-42-56].
अतो अन्यत् अपि यत् कार्यम् कार्यस्य अस्य प्रियम् भवेत् |
संप्रधार्य भवद्भिः च देश काल अर्थ संहितम् || ४-४२-५७
saMpradhaarya bhavadbhiH ca desha kaala artha saMhitam || 4-42-57
“Even if any other task than this is there, that which shall be conducive to this task, and which shall also be conducive to time, place and purpose, you shall undertake that task also on deciding about it among yourselves.” Sugreeva spoke thus to the monkeys going to western direction. [4-42-57] .
ततः सुषेण प्रमुखाः प्लवंगमाः
सुग्रीव वाक्यम् निपुणम् निशम्य |
आमंत्र्य सर्वे प्लवगाधिपम् ते
जग्मुर् दिशम् ताम् वरुण अभिगुप्ताम् || ४-४२-५८
sugriiva vaakyam nipuNam nishamya |
aama.ntrya sarve plavagaadhipam te
jagmur disham taam varuNa abhiguptaam || 4-42-58
On hearing the sentences of Sugreeva sedulously, then Sushena and the other important fly-jumpers took leave of the king of fly-jumpers, namely Sugreeva, and proceeded along with their individual troops to that western direction which is well cloistered by Varuna, the Rain-god. [4-42-58] .