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Śrīmad bhagavad gītā | Dhyan yoga or Atmasanyam yoga ~ Sarga 6 of 18

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Sarga (or) Chapter 6 of 18 : Dhyan yoga or Atmasanyam yoga

śloka (verses): 47

Abstract: Krishna describes the Ashtanga yoga. He further elucidates the difficulties of the mind and the techniques by which mastery of the mind might be gained.

Audio Recitals:

in Sanskrit by Sri Vidyabhushana     
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in Telugu by Ghantasala     
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in English Unknown     
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गीतोपदेश

Gitopadesh (Sanskrit: गीतोपदेश)


Introduction:

In chapter six Lord Krishna reveals astanga yoga, and the exact process of practicing such yoga. He explains in detail the difficulties of the mind and the procedures by which one may gain mastery of their mind through yoga which reveals the spiritual nature of a living entity. Thus this chapter is entitled: The Science of Self-Realization.

Sloka 6.1 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रीभगवानुवाच |
अनाश्रितः कर्मफलं कार्यं कर्म करोति यः |
स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः ||६- १||

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha |
anAshritaH karmaphalaM kArya.n karma karoti yaH |
sa sa.nnyAsI cha yogI cha na niragnirna chAkriyaH || 6-1 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.1

Anvaya: sri-bhagavan uvaca–the Lord said; anasritah–without shelter; karma-phalam–the result of work; karyam–obligatory; karma–work; karoti–performs; yah–one who; sah–he; sannyasi–in the renounced order; ca–also; yogi–mystic; ca–also; na–not; nih–without; agnih–fire; na–nor; ca–also; akriyah–without duty.

Translation: The Blessed Lord said: One who is unattached to the fruits of his work and who works as he is obligated is in the renounced order of life, and he is the true mystic: not he who lights no fire and performs no work.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Even if the mind has been purified it is certain that without being augmented by meditation the chance for moksa or liberation from the material existence cannot be the result by mere renunciation of action, so to remedy this situation Lord Krishna expounds the yoga of meditation in this chapter. In order to further explain the yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by meditation as referred to briefly at the conclusion of the last chapter Lord Krishna begins this chapter. As in chapter five the performance of action preceded by renunciation of action have both been depicted in order to clear up any possible discrepancy regarding the superiority of prescribed Vedic activities over renunciation, Lord Krishna states that one who performs prescribed Vedic activities that are obligatory such as fasting from all grains on Ekadasi which is the 11th day of the waxing and waning moon without hankering for the benefits or rewards is a true renunciate and yogi and not one who has renounced the sacred fire or has renounced purta which are philanthropic activities for the benefit and welfare of society.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Hari OM! In this verse Lord Krishna speaks about meditation which is the principle element of spiritual knowledge. He also explains the method of renunciation by meditation. Sannyasa which is the fourth stage of life and can only be accepted by a male brahmin in the renounced celibate order performs yagna or worship of offerings to the Supreme Lord are recommended along with propitiating the sacred fire. The sacred fire for a sannyasi is the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and the worship for a sannyasi is the performance of Vedic activities such as teaching the Vedas, chanting of mantras, developing devotion and helping the conditioned souls develop devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna. So therefore one not devoted either to yagna or the sacred fire cannot be considered a sannyasi or a yogi being one who is perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness.

Now begins the summation.

In this verse Lord Krishna speaks of meditation by such a sannyasi or yogi as a great soul who residing in the Brahman makes offerings of ghee or clarified butter into the sacred fire. By this and other references from Vedic scriptures renunciation includes even one in the sannyasi order who makes offerings of yagna in all their actions even with the offering of their very self.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Karma yoga or the performance of prescribed Vedic activities and all its separate constituents has so far been expounded by Lord Krishna as well as jnana yoga or the cultivation of Vedic knowledge. Now the method for practicing yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness while being in renunciation will be explained by means of meditation to achieve atma tattva or realisation of the soul. This verse is a brief reassertion of what has already been previously stated that karma yoga unaided has the capability of bestowing atma tattva and that within the performance of atma tattva is the special quality of renunciation and that karma yoga in its mature stage also has for its goal meditation which precedes atma tattva.

Whosoever performs karma yoga without hankering for rewards or desiring results, performing all activities as a matter of duty with no other conception except that it is a humble service rendered to the Supreme Lord Krishna who in every way is the best well wisher and dearest friend. Whether one is a sannyasi or celibate brahmin in the renounced order or a performer of jnana yoga or karma yoga such a person may be considered a renunciate following the path to atma tattva. Its not that a sannyasi is one that simply abstains from activities such as agnihotra or offering ghee or clarified butter and food grains into the fire. Nor is one renounced merely because they do not perform activities enjoined in the Vedic scriptures. One is renounced who engages in prescribed Vedic activities at the same time abandoning desire for rewards while fulfilling the requirements of action and renunciation. The next verse describes how within karma yoga there is found renunciation as well.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In the fifth chapter Lord Krishna described and praised the path of selfless action as well as the path of knowledge. At the very end of chapter five the procedures for meditation were introduced briefly in two verses. Here in this chapter they are elaborated further. One may hypothesise that since actions are of a lower order then renunciation must be superior. To alleviate such ideas Lord Krishna speaks the word anasritah or without expecting. Performance of obligatory prescribed Vedic activities and occasional ones like the appearance celebrations of the Supreme Lord without hankering for rewards or benefits is true renunciation and not for one who has renounced the rituals of the sacred fire and other magnanimous activities. Such a person is neither a renunciate or a yogi. Only the person who performs prescribed Vedic activities renouncing all desires for rewards is regarded as a renunciate and a yogi because they have qualified themselves as competent in both disciplines simultaneously.

Sloka 6.2 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यं संन्यासमिति प्राहुर्योगं तं विद्धि पाण्डव |
न ह्यसंन्यस्तसङ्कल्पो योगी भवति कश्चन ||६- २||

yaM sa.nnyAsamiti prAhuryogaM taM viddhi pANDava |
na hyasa.nnyastasaN^kalpo yogI bhavati kashchana || 6-2 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.2

Anvaya: yam–what; sannyasam–renunciation; iti–thus; prahuh–they say; yogam–linking with the Supreme; tam–that; viddhi–you must know; pandava–O son of Pandu; na–never; hi–certainly; asannyasta–without giving up; sankalpah–self-satisfaction; yogi–a mystic transcendentalist; bhavati–becomes; kascana–anyone.

Translation: What is called renunciation is the same as yoga, or linking oneself with the Supreme, for no one can become a yogi unless he renounces the desire for sense gratification.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Exactly what is a sannyasa or renunciation in abnegation and what is a yogi or one who is perfecting the science of the individual consciousness to attain the ultimate consciousness? To answer this Lord Krishna establishes that karma yoga or the performance of prescribed Vedic activities when matured into egoless actions is the same as renunciation. The Narayana Purana and other Vedic scriptures have extolled the virtues of sannyasa with statements like: Sannyasa alone excels everything and Sannyasa is to be yoga itself. But the question may be raised that if sannyasa is merely the renunciation of the rewards of action which is found also in the mature stages of karma yoga by not hankering for rewards then why should sannyasa be so glorified? It is because with sannyasa one renounces the desire for rewards for action as well as the action itself, whereas in karma yoga one renounces only the desire for reward of the action. As no one can be a renunciate or yogi without first relinquishing the desire to enjoy the rewards of action there is a common factor with both and so either can be considered a renunciate or a yogi by the cessation of craving for results and rewards. According to Pantajali all mental fluctuations become dormant as there is no reason to strive for obtaining anything.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Renunciation is also included within the developed stages of karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities for as Lord Krishna states if desires and cravings are not abandoned then how is equanumity of actions possible? This is the underlying meaning of this verse.

Now begins the summation.

An advanced special attribute of karma yoga is verily the attribute of renunciation of the rewards of action. This is the purport.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is declaring that what is known as sannyasa or renunciation and what is known as yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciouness are all leading to atma tattva or realisation of the soul and are only different forms of karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities. No one can perform yoga who is infatuated by delusion. The words asannyasta-sankalpo means without renouncing the desire for rewards Without renunciation is not possible to be free from delusion for the error is there of mistaking the physical body as the atma or soul. One who by the power of self introspection gleans knowledge by meditation of the atma within the etheric heart of their physical body is freed from this delusion. No one who has failed to shake off the binding fetters of hankering for rewards and desire for sense pleasures is under the sway of delusion is never regarded as performing karma yoga nor considered a real renunciate.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The discussion of the previous verse is augmented here by the statement yogam tam viddhi meaning know that yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, which means performing karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities selflessly without any sense of ego for rewards is the same as sannyasa or renunciation in abnegation. In the Vedic scriptures are seen passages like: Thus go beyond even sannyasa by performing all actions in this manner. This is designated as true renunciation. Why? Because one may not be considered doing yoga without the cessation of desires for reward.

Sloka 6.3 audio recital in Sanskrit     

आरुरुक्षोर्मुनेर्योगं कर्म कारणमुच्यते |
योगारूढस्य तस्यैव शमः कारणमुच्यते ||६- ३||

ArurukShormuneryogaM karma kAraNamuchyate |
yogArUDhasya tasyaiva shamaH kAraNamuchyate || 6-3 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.3

Anvaya: aruruksoh–of one who has just begun yoga; muneh–of the sage; yogam–the eightfold yoga system; karma–work; karanam–the cause; ucyate–is said to be; yoga–eightfold yoga; arudhasya–of one who has attained; tasya–his; eva–certainly; samah–cessation of all material activities; karanam–the cause; ucyate–is said to be.

Translation: For one who is a neophyte in the eightfold yoga system, work is said to be the means; and for one who has already attained to yoga, cessation of all material activities is said to be the means.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Does this mean that one must practice karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities all their life? Apprehending such a question Lord Krishna sets the parameters for it. Karma yoga leads to knowledge because performing Vedic activities purifies the mind. But once the mind has been purified one advances to yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Then one leaves karma yoga and becomes devoted to meditation, absorbed internally with no inclination for external activities which impedes and distracts introspection and reflection. This is said to be the means for spiritual knowledge to mature.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The time parameters of karma yoga or performance of prescribed Vedic activities is explained by Lord Krishna in this verse. For the person who seeks fulfilment in the performance of actions, the means to fulfilment is prescribed Vedic activities itself which gives bliss and leads to the final destination of moksa or liberation. It is seen that even those attaining moksa possess equanimity of mind as the resultant fruit. Equanimity is eliminating all things from the mind that are not related to Lord Krishna. Even while experiencing the prarabdha karmas or the consequential reactions from actions, the all comprehensive and conscious presence of equanimity is seen to manifest in some and weathering out the impact one remains fixed on activities pertaining to the Supreme Lord. It has therefore been stated that only those who have perceived the perception of the Supreme Lord experience supreme bliss and will their minds fixed in equanimity. But until the elimination of the prarabdha karmas has come those of superior spiritual intelligence will immerse themselves in sravanam or hearing and kirtanam or reciting the glories of the Supreme Lord Krishna’s transcendental qualities and pastimes.

Now begins the summation.

The comprehensive path for attaining moksa is equanimity of mind. The compound word yoga-arudhasya are those whose continuous meditation bequeaths equanimity. Those of equanimity in mind meditate on the Supreme Lord Krishna or His authorised incarnations as given in the Vedic scriptures while performing all activities. Even from them prescribed Vedic activities must be performed with a totality of being according to individual ability. One’s individual potency determines the ability to complete an activity or not. Those who are able to complete the activity are called qualified. Those who strive to complete the activity but are unable to complete it are called aspirants. One who is benevolent to all beings makes the Supreme Lord pleased and merciful to that one. Such qualified beings place the Supreme Lord Krishna or His Vedically authorised incarnations firmly in the center of their lives through there consciousness, meditation, words, deeds and every action. There is no contrary activity to this for them. By the performance of such action exclusively the Supreme Lord is elated with that person. Serenity, equanimity of mind, self control, austerity, restraint of the senses, rejection of the rewards of action and renunciation are required for aspirants while performing prescribed Vedic activities in their striving for moksa. But it is also seen that the qualified perform prescribed Vedic activities in devotion to the Supreme Lord even after attaining moksa. So following in their wake it is clear that no one is exempt from performing prescribed Vedic activities according to qualification before attaining moksa or after attaining it.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities is the explained by Lord Krishna as the means for ascending in spiritual knowledge and achieving renunciation in their quest for atma tattva or realisation of the soul. But once a person has actually achieved renunciation and is securely situated then the cessation of activities is the rule and meditation, introspection and reflection becomes the means for attaining atma tattva. Exactly when one is considered to be well established and securely situated in dhyana yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by meditation is next.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

If the previous verse is true then does one have to perform karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities until death? Lord Krishna clarifies this with the word aruruksoh meaning who aspires. If one is aspiring for atma tattva or realisation of the soul then karma yoga is merely a stepping stone until one is established in selfless actions without ego influence. Such actions soon lead to renunciation which culminates in dhyana yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by meditation. The purport is that an aspirant should perform prescribed Vedic activities until they are securely established in renunciation which initiates reflection and introspection, culminating in meditation which leads to the attainment of atma tattva.

Sloka 6.4 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यदा हि नेन्द्रियार्थेषु न कर्मस्वनुषज्जते |
सर्वसङ्कल्पसंन्यासी योगारूढस्तदोच्यते ||६- ४||

yadA hi nendriyArtheShu na karmasvanuShajjate |
sarvasaN^kalpasa.nnyAsI yogArUDhastadochyate || 6-4 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.4

Anvaya: yada–when; hi–certainly; na–not; indriya-arthesu–in sense gratification; na–never; karmasu–in fruitive activities; anusajjate–does necessarily engage; sarva-sankalpa–all material desires; sannyasi–renouncer; yoga-arudhah–elevated in yoga; tada–at that time; ucyate–is said to be.

Translation: A person is said to be have attained to yoga when, having renounced all material desires, he neither acts for sense gratification nor engages in fruitive activities.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

What qualifies a person to be qualified for sannyasa or renunciation in abnegation for whom cessation of activities is prescribed? Lord Krishna explains that when one is no longer enamoured by the pleasures of the senses and the sense objects and is also not even attracted to performing the actions which are the means to obtain them, such a person is qualified for dhyana yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by mediation. This is because one must develop the renunciation habitually until the dross of desires is eradicated along with not the slightest inclination to perform any activity that will lead to enjoyment of sense objects and the opportunity for sense gratification completely neutralising all desires. Then a person is known to be have factually attained dhyana yoga.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

In this verse Lord Krishna tells the signs of one who has established themselves in equanimity of mind. For such a person there is absolute detachment because there is no desire for results. If one is devoted to the Supreme Lord then all imperfections dissolved on their own. If one is not devoted then they are eradicated by special effort.

Now begins the summation.

How does one become detached from one’s actions? The answer is to renounce the desire for the rewards of actions or if one is devoted to the Supreme Lord to offer all the rewards to Him. By acting in either of these ways one is considered performing renunciation for the Supreme Lord.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna uses the compound word yogarudhas which is an adept in dhyana yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by meditation. Such a person from experiencing the sublime bliss of the atma or soul within has ceased to be infatuated by sensual objects and is no longer deluded by the impulses of the senses in relation to such sense objects. The words na anusajjate meaning not enamoured denotes that one is no longer under the influence of such delusions. One is yogarudhas who has abandoned all illusions and false conceptions. Thus for the aspirant of moksa or liberation from material existence who still is under the sway of infatuation and delusion there is no alternative but to perform karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities as the means to relinquish oneself from from dross of bodily association and carnal desires. This being accomplished one has qualified themselves for dhyana yoga and can begin to perfect their meditation. Hence as warning, before this point it is recommended to exclusively perform karma yoga until completely free from the infatuation of desires and sense objects.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

If one wants to understand exactly when performing karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities transforms itself to the heights of dhyana yoga or the science of the individual soul attaining communion with the ultimate soul by meditation is now revealed. Lord Krishna speaks the words: na karmasi anusajjate meaning when one no longer craves or is inclined to make any effort for sense objects. Such a person thinks why should I strive to obtain pleasures which are here today and gone tomorrow being only temporary? Then with constant endeavour one ceases to look for opportunities to facilitate favourable circumstances to enjoy sensual pleasures and evenually evaporates all thoughts of enjoying sense objects along with dissolving the memories of previous enjoyments. Only such a being is considered to be firmly established in yoga or the science of the individual soul attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness.

Sloka 6.5 audio recital in Sanskrit     

उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत् |
आत्मैव ह्यात्मनो बन्धुरात्मैव रिपुरात्मनः ||६- ५||

uddharedAtmanAtmAnaM nAtmAnamavasAdayet.h |
Atmaiva hyAtmano bandhurAtmaiva ripurAtmanaH || 6-5 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.5

Anvaya: uddharet–one must deliver; atmana–by the mind; atmanam–the conditioned soul; na–never; atmanam–the conditioned soul; avasadayet–put into degradation; atma–mind; eva–certainly; hi–indeed; atmanah–of the conditioned soul; bandhuh–friend; atma–mind; eva–certainly; ripuh–enemy; atmanah–of the conditioned soul.

Translation: A man must elevate himself by his own mind, not degrade himself. The mind is the friend of the conditioned soul, and his enemy as well.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

One should exercise discrimination and thereby realise that attachment to sense objects is the cause of bondage and non-attachment to sense objects leads to liberation. So it is mandatory that infatuation with sense objects is renounced. By diligent effort one must elevate their consciousness and become free from the transmigratory existence of samsara or the continuous cycle of birth and death. One should not debase oneself clinging to the lower nature like the animals. Lord Krishna emphasises the changing nature of the mind. When the mind is freed from attachments one becomes lucid and clear and the mind is like one’s best benefactor. When the mind is disturbed by attachments it becomes distracted and distorted and the mind becomes one’s worst malefactor.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Only by constant endeavour with faith and determination is one able to detach themselves from ego sense and misidentification with their bodily activities and be in equiminity.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The word atmana refers to the mind. The mind must detach itself from the infatuation of sense objects by association from those wise in Vedic knowledge who posess spiritual knowledge. In this way the mind will be elevated and gravitate towards spiritual objectives. But if the mind is pointed in the reverse direction subject to worldly pursuits and deluded by sense objects then the mind will become agitated and harassed. Lord Krishna is confirming the truth that the mind has the potential to give the most benefit as the greatest friend to the atma or eternal soul and also that the mind has the potential to be the most destructive as the greatest enemy to the atma or eternal soul depending upon how the mind is influenced.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

It should be clearly comprehend that attachment to worldly pleasures locks one to samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death while contrarily detachment from the infatuation of worldly pleasures frees one from samsara. So everyone should try to elevate themselves with determination by training their mind with constant practice to be unattached to sense objects. Lord Krishna is revealing the method of escaping perpetual incarceration in the material existence. The mind has the propensity to be one’s dearest friend so why not utilise it to uplift oneself out of material darkness and into spiritual light. A controlled mind can accomplish so many beneficial endeavours for one’s wellbeing. Whereas an uncontrolled mind is one’s worst enemy performing base and degrading activities leading to destruction.

Sloka 6.6 audio recital in Sanskrit     

बन्धुरात्मात्मनस्तस्य येनात्मैवात्मना जितः |
अनात्मनस्तु शत्रुत्वे वर्तेतात्मैव शत्रुवत् ||६- ६||

bandhurAtmAtmanastasya yenAtmaivAtmanA jitaH |
anAtmanastu shatrutve vartetAtmaiva shatruvat.h || 6-6 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.6

Anvaya: bandhuh–friend; atma–mind; atmanah–of the living entity; tasya–of him; yena–by whom; atma–mind; eva–certainly; atmana–by the living entity; jitah–conquered; anatmanah–of one who has failed to control the mind; tu–but; satrutve–because of enmity; varteta–remains; atma eva–the very mind; satru-vat–as an enemy.

Translation: For him who has conquered the mind, the mind is the best of friends; but for one who has failed to do so, his very mind will be the greatest enemy.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The question may be raised regarding what type of person is the mind a friend and to what type of person is the mind an enemy. Lord Krishna answers that the living being who by spiritual intelligence and diligent effort has conquered and brought under control the aggregate of the physical body, the senses and the mind; to this being only can the mind be considered a friend as a person following an uncontrolled mind is adverse to their own best interests and is harmful hence their mind is like an enemy.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

To whom is the mind a dear friend has been mentioned by Lord Krishna in this verse. Here the word atma should be understood as being the mind and the word atmana as being the living entity. So the meaning is that the atmana or living entity achieves success by the strength of the atma or mind. In the Brahmavaivartaka Purana states: That the condition of the mind is the sole reason for human beings to be liberated from the material existence or contrarily incarcerated in the material existence. The mind should elevate a human being and not be a source of delusion and distress for the mind has the propensity to be the best friend or the worst enemy of this there is no doubt. When with diligence and determination the mind is well governed it is like a best friend and then there are no other enemies. Therefore one should amiably govern their mind by Vedic knowledge and with devotion to the Supreme Lord. The word atmana refers to one whose mind is fixed and unconquerable. But even so if the mind is not directed towards devotion to the Supreme Lord it is not likely to be helpful in the same way as having a servant who does no work is like not having a servant at all and soon the mind will become antagonistic to restraint and then an enemy.

Now begins the summation.

The individual consciousness elevates itself by the mercy of the ultimate consciousness. Lord Krishna is perpetually the best friend and well-wisher of the righteous and spiritual beings but a perpetual enemy to the perpetrators of evil and unrighteousness. This means that to one who is devoted to the Supreme Lord Krishna or any of His authorised incarnations the mind acts as a dear friend by His grace; but for all others the mind is like an enemy. In the end of the verse it is indicated that the Supreme Being aides within such a person.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The mind is only a friend to those who are able to restrain it from flowing externally outwards after sense objects; but if one is unable to subdue the mind that it will harass and aggravate one to satisfy the senses and is the worst enemy. Lord Krishna is conveying that an ungoverned and uncontrolled mind being attached to sense gratification interposes obstructions and deviations in the way which deviates and hinders one from attainment of atma tatva or realisation of the soul. Sage Parasara the father of Vedavyasa has stated that the mind itself is the sole cause of bondage in the material existence as well as the sole cause of moksa or liberation from the material existence. A mind infatuated with desire for sense objects constitutes a state of bondage and a mind free from the delusion of desire for sense objects constitutes the way to moksa. The preliminary competency to be acquired before one commences meditation will be given in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now a question may asked as to whom is the mind a friend and for whom is the mind an enemy? Lord Krishna clarifies that the mind is the friend to that person who having complete control over the physical body, the senses and the mind has conquered their lower nature. The mind is the enemy to the person who is unable to control the physical body, the senses and the mind due to not having conquered their lower nature. As is stated by the sage Parasara: Man’s mentality is verily the root cause of either their liberation or their bondage. The mind obsessed with sensual pleasures is bondage whereas the mind devoid of the desire to enjoy sensual pleasures leads to moksa or liberation from material existence.

Sloka 6.7 audio recital in Sanskrit     

जितात्मनः प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहितः |
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु तथा मानापमानयोः ||६- ७||

jitAtmanaH prashAntasya paramAtmA samAhitaH |
shItoShNasukhaduHkheShu tathA mAnApamAnayoH || 6-7 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.7

Anvaya: jita-atmanah–of one who has conquered his mind; prasantasya–of who has attained tranquility by such control over the mind; parama-atma–the Supersoul; samahitah–approached completely; sita–cold; usna–heat; sukha–in happiness; duhkhesu–in distress; tatha–also; mana–honor; apamanayoh–and dishonor.

Translation: For one who has conquered the mind, the Supersoul is already reached, for he has attained tranquility. To such a man happiness and distress, heat and cold, honor and dishonor are all the same.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Evidence of the minds friendliness is elucidated now by Lord Krishna. Freedom from all dualities such as heat and cold, praise and ridicule, joy and grief. Continuously poised and serene within meditating on the atma or soul. Another interpretation is that the awakened individual soul has attained communion with the ultimate soul establishing it in his heart.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

When the mind is well governed and under control, when it is incapable of being affected by the dualities such as heat and cold, joy and grief, praise and ridicule, when in equanimity it has become completely tranquil and equipoised; at that time the exalted atma or eternal soul can be realised within. The word samahitah means situated in samadhi or deep meditation and denotes that atma or soul has been realised in its true transcendental essence. Lord Krishna uses the word paramatma meaning in this instance parama or exalted and atma or soul and refers to the individual soul and not the Supreme Soul as normally assumed. Designating the individual soul in this way is to show special deference to one who is endowed with the aforementioned quality of being situated deep in meditation enough to perceive and realise the eternal and transcendental sublime atma.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

After previously describing that a person who has conquered their mind is there own best friend and after explaining the special qualities possessed by one who has climbed the heights and is detached from sense impulses. Lord Krishna now refers to the person who has traversed successfully the path of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness and has become firmly established in their spiritual nature. Such a person has transcended all dualities such as cold and heat, happiness and distress, honour and dishonour. Such persons are serene and peaceful in all situations because they are established in spiritual knowledge from the Vedic scriptures

Sloka 6.8 audio recital in Sanskrit     

ज्ञानविज्ञानतृप्तात्मा कूटस्थो विजितेन्द्रियः |
युक्त इत्युच्यते योगी समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः ||६- ८||

GYAnaviGYAnatR^iptAtmA kUTastho vijitendriyaH |
yukta ityuchyate yogI samaloShTAshmakA~nchanaH || 6-8 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.8

Anvaya: jnana–acquired knowledge; vijnana–realized knowledge; trpta–satisfied; atma–living entity; kuta-sthah–spiritually situated; vijita-indriyah–sensually controlled; yuktah–competent for self-realization; iti–thus; ucyate–is said; yogi–the mystic; sama–equipoised; lostra–pebbles; asma–stone; kancanah–gold.

Translation: A person is said to be established in self-realization and is called a yogi [or mystic] when he is fully satisfied by virtue of acquired knowledge and realization. Such a person is situated in transcendence and is self-controlled. He sees everything–whether it be pebbles, stones or gold–as the same.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The characteristics and superiority of one who has established themselves in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness which have been previously mentioned are now being concluded and substantiated by Lord Krishna. Jnana is knowledge which has been received from instruction. Vijnana is intuitive realisation arising from perception. One who is self-satisfied within needing no external material stimulus is free from agitation and fixed with all the senses under control. Such a person has equal vision towards all and is rapt in meditation on the atam or soul within. Such a person has nothing to acquire and nothing to reject.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna speaks of the benefits of victory over the senses in this verse. Only one who has succeeded in controlling the senses will become equiposed and tranquil. When the mind is no longer inclined to the attraction of sense objects and is turned inward, at that time one becomes qualified for enlightenment and the Supreme Being magnanimously and comprehensively becomes established in the heart. The characteristics of a spiritually enlightened person are being explained. Such a person is not bewildered by the dualities such as heat and cold and perceives Supreme Being everywhere. Being content within due to the spiritual knowledge acquired, having duly subdued the senses with the mind fully controlled, meditation within becomes one’s sole objective. The word vijnana means transcendental knowledge which denotes illumination and realisation. It has been said by Shiva himself: That which the common people are aware about the Supreme Lord is known as jnana or knowledge and that which the self- realised are transcndentally aware of is known as vijnana. What one realises by hearing and reflecting on the Vedic scriptures is jnana. What one realises by direct perception of the atma or the eternal soul is vijnana. Vijnana in special persons can also be transcendental perceptions of the Vedic scriptures. One who meditates on the atma within assumes the qualities of the atma within. A yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness is in equanimity in all activities. The word yuktah denotes a yogi who is in communion with the ultimate consciousness. Constant in such consciousness without any wavering such a person remains immersed in the atma with complete equinimity.

Now begins the summation.

At all times and in all situations the awareness of the Supreme Lord Krishna being the controller, maintainer and energiser of all creation is known as jnana or knowledge. Special realisations and illuminations about confidential topics concerning Lord Krishna is vijnana or transcendental awareness. In the Mundaka Upanisad I.I.IV and V. a distinction is made regarding knowledge. It states that by reading the Vedic scriptures it is possible to become aware of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence whereas such jnana or knowledge will not bestow moksa or liberation from the material existence it will lead to vijnana or transcendental knowledge where upon cognisance of the atma and the Supreme Lord. In conclusion the Vedic scriptures give transcendental perceptions and illuminations of vijnana when the Supreme Lord Krishna or any one of His authorised incarnations is the goal to be realised and when not they merely bestow jnana. The goal of human existence is not to only experience moksa but to eternally perform activities in communion with Him.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The word jnana means knowledge relative to the atma or soul. The word vijnana is transcendental knowledge based on realisation of the atma. The word trptatma means one who is exclusively satisfied with these two forms of knowledge. The word kutastho refers to one who is perpetually consistent and unwavering amidst the variable and ever changing phenomena of material existence. One who is absorbed in the eternal nature of the atma is kutastho and hence vijitendrah or one who has all the senses under complete subjugation. Such a person realising the atma and perceiving its distinct superiority to matter is never again infatuated with the delusion of material pleasures and sense gratification. Thus all material objects whether they are gold or a clod of earth are of equal value and material activities cease to give any pleasure seeking importance. Such a person is known as yuktah meaning one in communion with the ultimate consciousness and is a fit candidate to commence perfection of meditation which leads to realisation of the Supreme Being. This is the purport of the Supreme Lord Krishna.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is emphasising that accompanying spiritual knowledge from the Vedic scriptures there must be personal realisation also. This will occur naturally when one is relieved of all doubts and after adequate reflection and introspection. Such a person is steadfast and serene even if coming upon something extraordinary by chance. This is because such a one is free from all desires and cravings. The external functions of the senses have been mastered and under control. Everything is envisioned equally without considering its external value, hence one neither avoids the unfavourable nor seeks the favourable. Such a person is considered a yogi or whose individual consciousness has attained communion with the ultimate consciousness.

Sloka 6.9 audio recital in Sanskrit     

सुहृन्मित्रार्युदासीनमध्यस्थद्वेष्यबन्धुषु |
साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धिर्विशिष्यते ||६- ९||

suhR^inmitrAryudAsInamadhyasthadveShyabandhuShu |
sAdhuShvapi cha pApeShu samabuddhirvishiShyate || 6-9 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.9

Anvaya: su-hrt–by nature a well-wisher; mitra–benefactor with affection; ari–enemy; udasina–neutral between belligerents; madhya-stha–mediator between the belligerents; dvesya–envious; bandhusu–among relatives or well-wishers; sadhusu–unto the pious; api–as well as; ca–and; papesu–unto the sinners; sama-buddhih–having equal intelligence; visisyate–is far advanced.

Translation: A person is said to be still further advanced when he regards all–the honest well-wisher, friends and enemies, the envious, the pious, the sinner and those who are indifferent and impartial–with an equal mind.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

One who looks equally upon all these persons mentioned well-wisher, enemy etc. is superior to even one who is performing yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciouness. A well-wisher is benevolent towards one, a friend is affectionate, an enemy causes harm and the envious are persons of aversion. The good are those of righteous behaviour and the sinful are those of unrighteous behavior. The person who through strength and clarity of mind is able to look in equanimity upon all without a doubt excels even the yogi.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

That person verily is distinguished among mortals who feels equanimity towards both those who are righteous and those who are unrighteous. They alone understand that the consciousness residing in every living entity is the Ultimate Consciousness which is the all pervasive medium equally present in all beings. The embodied being is literally the manifestation of this consciousness and the distinctiveness is due to the propensity of one’s internal potency. Attributes such as compassion, magnanimity and righteousness are bestowed by the grace of the Supreme Lord as otherwise it is not possible to possess them. This has been confirmed by all the saints and sages.

Essentially all embodied beings are of the form of this consciousness devoid of any defect. The defects that manifest among embodied beings is due to their internal propensity as all are emanations from the Supreme Lord and are dependent solely upon Him. All embodied beings are non- different in their essence and the seeming differences which appear are due to distinctive attributes and any seeming perception of inequality is due to delusion. Thus all human beings are fundamentally and essentially the same. The Brahma Purana states: That the demi-gods in the heavenly dimensions belong to a special category and have special powers and attributes that are natural and eternal in order to regulate universal management throughout creation. The demons possess substantial defects which appear natural to them and are eternal as well. Human being possess both attributes and defects which are also natural and eternal. Only the Supreme Lord Krishna and His authorised incarnations possess eternal attributes always for all time.

It should not be surmised that the righteous ones and the unrighteous one’s should be respected alike and regarded the same for that would be a grave error. The Brahma Purana states: If beings of equal qualification are worshipped unequally and people of unequal gradation are worshipped equally they will be relegated from their position even if they happen to be demi- gods. Manu Samhita states: The wealthy, family members, the elders, the learned and the bonafide spiritual preceptor. All these are considered to be venerable in their places but in gradation the subsequent one is superior to the one preceding it. The Brahma Vaivarta Purana states: Whoever respects all living entities with equal vision knowing that the inner essence is the same for all, pleases the Supreme Lord. The distinctions between people due to the differences in their methods of worship will not be disturbing to one who views all with equanimity. Among the venerable ones who perform worship according to the Vedic scriptures, if there is at any time mistakes or defects in the worship it will be viewed with equanimity. The Garuda Purana states: In whatever manner actions are required to be performed in relation to the venerable ones or an enemy then those activities are considered as situated in equanimity.

The Vishnu Purana states that: One who performs activities without expecting anything in return is known as magnanimous. Even while engaged in turmoil the one who extends protection is the friend and the one who refuses protection is the enemy. One who neither helps or harms is known as passive. One who does not act when things are required to be done is known as irresponsible. One who does hateful things is known as evil. One who performs beneficial activities is known as righteous. Whatever activity one is required to perform according to time and circumstances and the Vedic scriptures that activity is considered to be in equanimity. The Narada Purana specifies that: One who is affectionate without any expectation is the magnanimous one. Seeing suffering the one who extends help is the friend. One who causes pain is evil. One who does not reciprocate friendship even when given friendship is ungrateful. One who does good to others only if good was done for them is known as mediocre. The magnanimous one referred to here is the Supreme Lord.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The word suhru refers to one who taking no umbrage in differences of age wishes one well. The word mitra denotes a friend of equal age who wishes one well. Ary is one who wishes one ill. Udasina is a stranger who has no cause to be a friend or a foe. Madhyastha is neutral one who from birth was never a friend or a foe. Dvesya is one who was born as an enemy and bears ill will from birth. Bandhusu is a relative who bears good will from birth. Sadhusu are the saintly and virtuous who follow the path of righteousness. Papesu are the vile and wicked who follow the path of iniquity. A yuktah as referred to by Lord Krishna in the previous verse is one who has completely abandoned material pursuits and has ceased from all relationships with the world. Such a person has nothing to gain therefore nothing to lose and views all with equal vision in equanimity.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is stating that one who regards equally the well-wishers such as relatives who help due to relations and friends who help due to affection without desiring anything from them and is also nonplussed by those who wish to do harm such as an enemy or the envious, as well as those of righteous conduct and those of unrighteous conduct, such a person excels even the yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness.

Sloka 6.10 audio recital in Sanskrit     

योगी युञ्जीत सततमात्मानं रहसि स्थितः |
एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा निराशीरपरिग्रहः ||६- १०||

yogI yuJNjIta satatamAtmAnaM rahasi sthitaH |
ekAkI yatachittAtmA nirAshIraparigrahaH || 6-10 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.10

Anvaya: yogi–a transcendentalist; yunjita–must concentrate in Krsna consciousness; satatam–constantly; atmanam–himself (by the body, mind and self); rahasi–in a secluded place; sthitah–being so situated; ekaki–alone; yata-citta-atma–always careful in mind; nirasih–without being attracted by anything else; aparigrahah–free from the feeling of possessiveness.

Translation: A transcendentalist should always try to concentrate his mind on the Supreme Self; he should live alone in a secluded place and should always carefully control his mind. He should be free from desires and feelings of possessiveness.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Having thus stated the characteristics of one who has attained yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, Lord Krishna deigns to describe the different components of such yoga by referring to the yogi or one in the process of perfecting yoga and declaring that the best yogi resides alone in a solitary place, devoid of desires, with all mind fluctuations subdued immersed in meditation on the atma or soul.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Here Lord Krishna speaks on the process of equanimity. The word yunjitah means concentrated in meditation and denotes that one should focus the mind on the soul by use of the word atmanam which can refer to the mind as well as the soul.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is stating that a yogi or one who is perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining the ultimate consciousness in this case is by meditation. Satatam means constant, fixed in a daily routine. Yunjita atmanam means attentively concentrating on the soul. Rahasi means in a solitary location away from people. Ekaki means alone by oneself. The compound word yata-cittatma means checking the capricious stream of thoughts that cascade in the mind. Nirasir means to be weaned from every impetus except the impetus for atma tattva or realisation of the soul. Aparigrahah means being devoid of every single possession and conception of possession except the atma or soul.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Such are the characteristics of a person situated in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Now Lord Krishna presents the process by which such yoga is practised. The yogi is one perfecting yoga who has complete control over their mind and senses and is free from desire engaged in meditation in order to attain atma tattva or realisation of the soul. The word ekaki means alone and the word rahasi means solitary place. One should perform this yoga in seclusion by oneself in mountain caves or forest bowers that are not inhabited by others.

Sloka 6.11 and 6.12 audio recital in Sanskrit     

शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरमासनमात्मनः |
नात्युच्छ्रितं नातिनीचं चैलाजिनकुशोत्तरम् ||६- ११||

तत्रैकाग्रं मनः कृत्वा यतचित्तेन्द्रियक्रियः |
उपविश्यासने युञ्ज्याद्योगमात्मविशुद्धये ||६- १२||

shuchau deshe pratiShThApya sthiramAsanamAtmanaH |
nAtyuchchhritaM nAtinIcha.n chailAjinakushottaram.h || 6-11 ||

tatraikAgraM manaH kR^itvA yatachittendriyakriyaH |
upavishyAsane yuJNjyAdyogamAtmavishuddhaye || 6-12 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.11, 6.12

Anvaya: sucau–in a sanctified; dese–in the land; pratisthapya–placing; sthiram–firm; asanam–seat; atmanah–self-dependent; na–not; ati–too; ucchritam–high; na–nor; ati–too; nicam–low; caila-ajina–soft cloth and deerskin; kusottaram–kusa grass; tatra–thereupon; eka-agram–one attention; manah–mind; krtva–doing so; yata-citta–controlling the mind; indriya–senses; kriyah–activities; upavisya–sitting on; asane–on the seat; yunjyat–execute; yogam–yoga practice; atma–heart; visuddhaye–for clarifying.

Translation: To practice yoga, one should go to a secluded place and should lay kusa-grass on the ground and then cover it with a deerskin and a soft cloth. The seat should neither be too high nor too low and should be situated in a sacred place. The yogi should then sit on it very firmly and should practice yoga by controlling the mind and the senses, purifying the heart and fixing the mind on one point.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The rule regarding the sitting place for meditation is being given by Lord Krishna. The word sucau means clean and sanctified and that is the conditions to begin. The reason why a deer skin or tiger skin or other skins are used is because when one sits upon them poisonous creatures such as scorpions and snakes do not like to wander upon such skins and thus will not bite when one is in meditative trance performing yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

If one has not yet developed equanimity of mind then one should undertake the practice of meditation given previously and gradually achieve such equanimity.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna begins with the words sucau dese means pure or sanctified place. Purity is to be found in nature due to its being unoccupied and unfrequented by unclean and contaminated persons. The word sthiram means firm infers the asana or seat should not be overly soft neither should it be so high that one may fall from it nor too low as in a hole. One should by all means have a mat of kusa grass which is sacred in Vishnu tattva and then should be covered by a deerskin which deters poisonous pests like snakes and scorpions from approaching one while in concentrated meditation. On top should be placed a wool or cotton cloth. Such a seat should be aesthetic to look at and inviting. Sitting upon such a seat one should one should withdraw the senses and freeing the mind from all external distractions one should focus the mind exclusively upon the atma or soul within until upon its realisation one is freed from samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death. By every means realise the atma.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The appropriate place to sit is given here by Lord Krishna beginning with the word sucau dese pratisthapya meaning established in a clean and sanctified place and ending with yogam atma-visuddhaye meaning one should purify their mind in meditation by practicing yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness.

Sloka 6.13 and 6.14 audio recital in Sanskrit     

समं कायशिरोग्रीवं धारयन्नचलं स्थिरः |
सम्प्रेक्ष्य नासिकाग्रं स्वं दिशश्चानवलोकयन् ||६- १३||

प्रशान्तात्मा विगतभीर्ब्रह्मचारिव्रते स्थितः |
मनः संयम्य मच्चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्परः ||६- १४||

samaM kAyashirogrIvaM dhArayannachalaM sthiraH |
samprekShya nAsikAgraM svaM dishashchAnavalokayan.h || 6-13 ||

prashAntAtmA vigatabhIrbrahmachArivrate sthitaH |
manaH sa.nyamya machchitto yukta AsIta matparaH || 6-14 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.13, 6.14

Anvaya: samam–straight; kaya-sirah–body and head; grivam–neck; dharayan–holding; acalam–unmoved; sthirah–still; sampreksya–looking; nasika–nose; agram–tip; svam–own; disah–all sides; ca–also; anavalokayan–not seeing; prasanta–unagitated; atma–mind; vigata-bhih–devoid of fear; brahmacari-vrate–in the vow of celibacy; sthitah–situated; manah–mind; samyamya–completely subduing; mat–upon Me (Krsna); cittah–concentrated; yuktah–the actual yogi; asita–being so; mat–unto Me; parah–the ultimate goal.

Translation: One should hold one’s body, neck and head erect in a straight line and stare steadily at the tip of the nose. Thus, with an unagitated, subdued mind, devoid of fear, completely free from sex life, one should meditate upon Me within the heart and make Me the ultimate goal of life.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The posture of the body that is optimal for concentration of the mind in meditation is being described by Lord Krishna. The word samam means straight. The back, neck and head which is the seat of the muladhara or sacred plexus in the top of the head must be perfectly straight while at the same time sitting with legs crossed in a lotus position or half lotus position keeps them straight. Furthermore being firmly situated in celibacy is essential and then one is then able to properly meditate on the Supreme Lord immersing oneself in Him.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The word saman means straight this denotes that the back, neck and body should be erect and balanced in a straight posture. By sitting with legs crossed in the lotus position or half lotus position assists in keeping this straight position. The word sthira means firm this denotes that the seat while being comfortable should not be overly soft. The eyes should not be allowed to flit hither and thither in different directions on objects near or far but should fix their focus either on the tip of the nose or on the space between the eyebrows. That was the discipline for the body now Lord Krishna gives the discipline for the mind. The mind being tranquil connotes contentment along with freedom from all fears. The compound word brahmacari-vrate means total celibacy and is an indispensable component insuring the containment and preservation of the vital energy of the physical body which is so essential for development. Keeping the mind attentive and fixed internally one should meditate on the Supreme Lord.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

After the description of the seat Lord Krishna speaks of the posture of the body. The word samam means straight and this is how the back, neck and head should be. They should never be bent or hunched. The compound word bramacari-vrate means one must be observing strict celibacy which controls the eightfold emotions related to the generating organ. The Agni Purana states that the eightfold emotions regarding sexual congress are: thinking about it, talking about it, joking about it, envisioning it, desiring to do it, wooing to get one interested for it, enticing one interested to do it and finally engaging with another in sexual congress. All these things must be thoroughly scourged and completely purged if one is to be considered celibate. In this way one should yukta asita mat-parah meaning to sit with legs crossed in a lotus position or half lotus position and engage themselves in meditation of the Supreme Lord, becoming immersed in Him, who bestows ultimate bliss and who is the ultimate goal of human endeavour and existence.

Sloka 6.15 audio recital in Sanskrit     

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी नियतमानसः |
शान्तिं निर्वाणपरमां मत्संस्थामधिगच्छति ||६- १५||

yuJNjannevaM sadAtmAnaM yogI niyatamAnasaH |
shAnti.n nirvANaparamAM matsa.nsthAmadhigachchhati || 6-15 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.15

Anvaya: yunjan–practicing like this; evam–as mentioned above; sada–constantly; atmanam–body, mind and soul; yogi–the mystic transcendentalist; niyata-manasah–regulated mind; santim–peace; nirvana-paramam–cessation of material existence; mat-samstham–in the spiritual sky (the kingdom of God); adhigacchati–does attain.

Translation: Thus practicing control of the body, mind and activities, the mystic transcendentalist attains to the kingdom of God [or the abode of Krsna] by cessation of material existence.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna states the results of concentrated meditation is the cessation of worldly existence and promotion to the effulgent eternal realms where one abides beyond the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna uses the compound word nirvana-paramam meaning the supreme bliss which commences for an embodied being after the cessation of birth and death in the physical body in the material existence and the attainment of the eternal spiritual nature.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Attaining communion with the Supreme Lord means linking one’s consciousness in constant concentration on Him, who is the most sacred reality and the highest divinity for which the mind can concentrate upon. Discipline of mind means being fixed and equiposed by dint of the purification one’s mind receives from association with devotees of the Supreme Lord and their contact with Him. Such a person assumes that peace and understanding which has nirvana-paramam or the supreme bliss of moksa or liberation for its result. This moksa is only resulting from contact with the Supreme Being. Thus after declaring how one who would want to commence meditation should meditate upon the Supreme Being, this holy of holiest subject is further explained by Lord Krishna with supplement directions in order to aid one in concentration, purification and meditation.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna speaks of the results one reaps meditating on the Supreme Lord by practising yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The result is one achieves moksa or liberation from the material existence.

Sloka 6.16 audio recital in Sanskrit     

नात्यश्नतस्तु योगोऽस्ति न चैकान्तमनश्नतः |
न चातिस्वप्नशीलस्य जाग्रतो नैव चार्जुन ||६- १६||

nAtyashnatastu yogo.asti na chaikAntamanashnataH |
na chAtisvapnashIlasya jAgrato naiva chArjuna || 6-16 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.16

Anvaya: na–never; ati–too much; asnatah–of one who eats so; tu–but; yogah–linking with the Supreme; asti–there is; na–nor; ca–also; ekantam–very low; anasnatah–abstaining from eating; na–nor; ca–also; ati–too much; svapna-silasya–of one who sleeps too much; jagratah–or one who keeps night watch too much; na–not; eva–ever; ca–and; arjuna–O Arjuna.

Translation: There is no possibility of one’s becoming a yogi, O Arjuna, if one eats too much, or eats too little, sleeps too much or does not sleep enough.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The regulations regarding the eating of food and the regimen of sleep that are to be followed by those practising yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness are now being given by Lord Krishna. By not following these injunctions it is not possible to even commence practising any form of yoga.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Abstention from performing regulatory fasting such as Ekadasi which is the 11th day of the waxing or waning moon is sanctioned only for the weak and invalid. In the Narada Purana it states: That one who is strong having given up sleep, food, fear, lethargy and actions, meditates within on the Supreme Lord Krishna or His authorised incarnations with eyes half-closed focused on the tip of the nose or the space between the eyebrows attains equanimity of mind.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

After describing the results of meditation Lord Krishna gives the regulations regarding the eating of food and the regimen of sleep habits. One who eats like a glutton or sleeps like a sloth as well as one who fasts too much and sleeps to little are never qualified to practise yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. In regard to food it is described by Pantajali that the stomach should be filled one-half with food, one-quarter with liquid and one-quarter should be kept free for the movement of air.

Sloka 6.17 audio recital in Sanskrit     

युक्ताहारविहारस्य युक्तचेष्टस्य कर्मसु |
युक्तस्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवति दुःखहा ||६- १७||

yuktAhAravihArasya yuktacheShTasya karmasu |
yuktasvapnAvabodhasya yogo bhavati duHkhahA || 6-17 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.17

Anvaya: yukta–regulated; ahara–eating; viharasya–recreation; yukta–regulated; cestasya–of one who works for maintenance; karmasu–in discharging duties; yukta–regulated; svapna-avabodhasya–regulated sleep and wakefulness; yogah–practice of yoga; bhavati–becomes; duhkha-ha–diminishing pains.

Translation: He who is temperate in his habits of eating, sleeping, working and recreation can mitigate all material pains by practicing the yoga system.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

What kind of person is able to begin the practice of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness? The answer is the person who is moderate, restrained and regulated in all activities. Thus Lord Krishna states that such persons are eligible to practice yoga.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna uses the compound word yuktahara-viharasya means one who is temperate and regulated in their eating habits so that the efforts to feed oneself are minimised allowing the effort to achieve perfection in meditation to be maximised.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is stating that over eating and too little eating as well as extreme activity and complete inactivity are all detrimental to yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The same applies for excessive sleep and not enough sleep as well as over indulgence in work which causes exhaustion and hence idleness. To that person who is disciplined in eating habits and exercise, who is regulated in sleep and waking then meditation becomes the panacea for life’s afflictions and the royal path out of samsara or the endless cycle of birth and death.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna declares that those who are moderate, restrained and regulated are eligible candidates to practice yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness.

Sloka 6.18 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यदा विनियतं चित्तमात्मन्येवावतिष्ठते |
निःस्पृहः सर्वकामेभ्यो युक्त इत्युच्यते तदा ||६- १८||

yadA viniyata.n chittamAtmanyevAvatiShThate |
niHspR^ihaH sarvakAmebhyo yukta ityuchyate tadA || 6-18 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.18

Anvaya: yada–when; viniyatam–particularly disciplined; cittam–the mind and its activities; atmani–in the transcendence; eva–certainly; avatisthate–becomes situated; nisprhah–devoid of desire; sarva–all kinds of; kamebhyah–material desires; yuktah–well situated in yoga; iti–thus; ucyate–is said to be; tada–at that time.

Translation: When the yogi, by practice of yoga, disciplines his mental activities and becomes situated in Transcendence–devoid of all material desires–he is said to have attained yoga.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

When does a person perfect the practise of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness? The answer is when the mind becomes fixed and focused exclusively on the atma or soul within. Lord Krishna declares that at this time a person can be considered as having perfected yoga.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The word atmany is used by Lord Krishna to indicate the eternal transcendental abode of the Supreme Lord.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The words atmany evavatisthate means exclusively established in the atma or soul. This means the atma has become the highest goal and only object of endeavour. When the mind has been so tutored and regimented to be fixed and riveted to the atma so that it never strays away; it is simultaneously and automatically weaned from all desires for sense gratification having not the slightest interest to enjoy the objects of the senses. Lord Krishna is stating that at this time an aspirant is considered to possess the necessary qualifications to begin practising mediation.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

When will the persons qualified to practice yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with then ultimate consciousness become established in yoga reaching perfection. Lord Krishna declares that when the mind refrains and abstains from all external mental activity and becomes exclusively riveted internally on the atma or soul within. Then it has been determined by experts that the mind is established in yoga.

Sloka 6.19 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यथा दीपो निवातस्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता |
योगिनो यतचित्तस्य युञ्जतो योगमात्मनः ||६- १९||

yathA dIpo nivAtastho neN^gate sopamA smR^itA |
yogino yatachittasya yuJNjato yogamAtmanaH || 6-19 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.19

Anvaya: yatha–as; dipah–a lamp; nivata-sthah–in a place without wind; na–does not; ingate–waver; sa upama–compared to that; smrta–likened; yoginah–of the yogi; yata-cittasya–whose mind is controlled; yunjatah–constantly engaged in; yogam–meditation; atmanah–on transcendence.

Translation: As a lamp in a windless place does not waver, so the transcendentalist, whose mind is controlled, remains always steady in his meditation on the transcendent Self.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

A simile is given in this verse by Lord Krishna in His comparison of a candle flame that never wavers in a windless place and the mind of a yogi or one perfected in the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, rapt in concentrated meditation, bright and steady like a flame never flickering away from the atma or soul.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Here Lord Krishna uses the word atmanah to indicate the eternal, resplendent Supreme Lord Himself.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

As a candle flame when sheltered from the wind will not flicker but burns bright and steady. The word smrta means evidenced and is cited by those who are experienced in the science of meditation and used as a simile to illustrate how meditation on the atma or soul becomes steady and effulgent to that yogi or one perfected in the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness who concentrates upon the atma after with drawing the mind from every other objects of attention. Lord Krishna is stating that the atma shines steady and radiant in the light of meditative spiritual intelligence by reason that all extraneous and miscellaneous distractions of the mind have been sequestered out exactly as a candle flame shines constant and bright when all wind has been sequestered out from around it.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In this manner Lord Krishna describes the characteristics of one established in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Now He gives a simile comparing an unwavering flame in a windless place with the mind of a yogi rapt in concentrated mediatation on the atma or soul. The purport is as a candle flame is sheltered from the wind, the mind of a yogi shines bright by the unflickering effulgence of the atma.

Sloka 6.20 to 6.23 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया |
यत्र चैवात्मनात्मानं पश्यन्नात्मनि तुष्यति ||६- २०||

सुखमात्यन्तिकं यत्तद् बुद्धिग्राह्यमतीन्द्रियम् |
वेत्ति यत्र न चैवायं स्थितश्चलति तत्त्वतः ||६- २१||

यं लब्ध्वा चापरं लाभं मन्यते नाधिकं ततः |
यस्मिन्स्थितो न दुःखेन गुरुणापि विचाल्यते ||६- २२||

तं विद्याद् दुःखसंयोगवियोगं योगसंज्ञितम् |
स निश्चयेन योक्तव्यो योगोऽनिर्विण्णचेतसा ||६- २३||

yatroparamate chittaM niruddhaM yogasevayA |
yatra chaivAtmanAtmAnaM pashyannAtmani tuShyati || 6-20 ||

sukhamAtyantikaM yattad.h buddhigrAhyamatIndriyam.h |
vetti yatra na chaivAyaM sthitashchalati tattvataH || 6-21 ||

yaM labdhvA chAparaM lAbhaM manyate nAdhikaM tataH |
yasminsthito na duHkhena guruNApi vichAlyate || 6-22 ||

taM vidyAd.h duHkhasa.nyogaviyogaM yogasa.nGYitam.h |
sa nishchayena yoktavyo yogo.anirviNNachetasA || 6-23 ||



Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.20 to 6.23

Anvaya: yatra–in that state of affairs; uparamate–when one feels transcendental happiness; cittam–mental activities; niruddham–restrained from matter; yoga-sevaya–by performance of yoga; yatra–in that; ca–also; eva–certainly; atmana–by the pure mind; atmanam–the self; pasyan–realizing the position; atmani–in the self; tusyati–becomes satisfied; sukham–happiness; atyantikam–supreme; yat–in which; tat–that; buddhi–intelligence; grahyam–accessible; atindriyam–transcendental; vetti–knows; yatra–wherein; na–never; ca–also; eva–certainly; ayam–in this; sthitah–situated; calati–moves; tattvatah–from the truth; yam–that which; labdhva–by attainment; ca–also; aparam–any other; labham–gain; manyate–does not mind; na–never; adhikam–more than that; tatah–from that; yasmin–in which; sthitah–being situated; na–never; duhkhena–by miseries; guruna api–even though very difficult; vicalyate–becomes shaken; tam–that; vidyat–you must know; duhkha-samyoga–miseries of material contact; viyogam–extermination; yoga-samjnitam–trance in yoga.

Translation: The stage of perfection is called trance, or samadhi, when one’s mind is completely restrained from material mental activities by practice of yoga. This is characterized by one’s ability to see the self by the pure mind and to relish and rejoice in the self. In that joyous state, one is situated in boundless transcendental happiness and enjoys himself through transcendental senses. Established thus, one never departs from the truth and upon gaining this he thinks there is no greater gain. Being situated in such a position, one is never shaken, even in the midst of greatest difficulty. This indeed is actual freedom from all miseries arising from material contact.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The meaning of yoga is the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The primary meaning to be discerned here is the perfection of attainment by focused meditation in the etheric heart resulting in atma tattva or realisation of the soul which automatically connects one to the Supreme Lord. This is the primary meaning of the word yoga in these four verses. That superior level of consciousness wherein a purified mind is guided to perpetually meditate upon the atma or soul is designated as yoga and is defined by its result as the primary characteristic of yoga.The Yoga Sutras by Pantajali state that: Yoga is controlling the modifications of one’s mentality. The same is defined for meditation by its result being the attainment of what was desired to be achieved. That superior level of consciousness where one perceives the atma alone within but distinct from the physical body and becoming completely satisfied and content no longer infatuated by the delusion of sense gratification is known as this yoga. The word yatra in the first three verses meaning which and the word tam in the fourth verse meaning that are both used to refer to this yoga.

The reason for satisfaction in the atma exclusively is also being stated by Lord Krishna. Referring to that superior level of consciousness where one experiences absolute, unsurpassed and everlasting. Bliss. At this time there is no relationship with the senses and no contact with sense objects yet one experiences bliss. How is this to understand. Lord Krishna reveals that it is transcendental and independent of material nature and is only perceived by spiritual intelligence that has realised the reality of the atma. Established thus one never wavers from the eternal truth which is the reality of the atma. The steadiness and non wavering on the atma is being validated as well by the statements that there is nothing greater than attaininment of the atma which is itself of the nature of infinite bliss. Being thus established in atma tattva one is not affected, influenced or overcome by the dualities of heat and cold or pleasure and pain. It must be noted that a result of this is the cessation of all inauspicious things and by this yoga is also defined. The word dukhena means suffering and refers also to the pleasure derived from sense objects as they are mixed with suffering also. That superior level of consciousness which is completely untouched by any contact with any type of pain or suffering should be known as yoga. The science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness is called yoga. The application of the word yoga to mean action as in karma yoga is only figurative being that by performing prescribed Vedic activities such actions constitute a method of achieving yoga. Since yoga bequeaths such phenomenal results it should be exclusively practised with diligence and determination which is fortified by the conviction and commitment derived from the knowledge of the Vedic scriptures taught by the bonafide spiritual preceptor in the authorised parampara or disciplic succession. Although the results from this assuredly reach fruition in due course of time it should be engaged in with enthusiasm. One should be patient and hopeful and not be subjected to a lackadaisical attitude. A lackadaisical attitude in practise is considered a sickness of spirit.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

In verse twenty Lord Krishna uses the word atmani to indicate the body and the word atmana to indicate the mind and atmanam refers to the resplendent Supreme Lord. In verse twenty-one the word tattvatah means the form of the Supreme Lord. In verse twenty-four the compound words dukha-samyoga-viyogam means that which severs the connection to misery. The word samyoga insures that not only all connection to misery is severed but also the possibility of misery arising in the future is severed as well. The words niscayena yoktavyo means practised with firm determination.

Now begins the summation.

The word atmanam means the Supreme Lord and atmana is indicative to the Supreme Lord’s grace experienced through the mind.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is revealing the superior meditation wherein as a result of dedicated effort one completely immerses their mind in the delight of spiritual transcendence, wherein as the mind perceiving the atma or soul receives the greatest satisfaction and contentment realising there is nothing else to be desired for, wherein the consciousness experiences that sublime and ineffable bliss beyond the scope of the senses to comprehend, wherein once established one never for a moment has the desire to relinquish the exquisite bliss experienced, wherein perfection of meditation is even once achieved one desires nothing else even in the times of not meditating, and wherein once established whether immersed in meditation or on the way to perfection one does not become shaken by adversity or disturbed by afflictions even as grave and devastating as the premature death of a beloved family member, One should learn this superior meditation which severs all connection with sorrow and misery. Knowing the intrinsic nature of meditation to be thus one should perform meditation with full trust and faith, free from all doubts with the mind happy and content.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

After presenting the process such as the sitting place and the diet required while practising dhyana yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by meditation. Lord Krishna reveals the results of such endeavours in these verses. He places emphasis on this superior level of consciousness where the purified mind fully controlled by yoga becomes completely detached from worldly objectives and achieves atma tattva or realisation of the soul. From this point on the yogi becomes perfected in yoga and experiences transcendental bliss independent of all contact with the senses. This transcendental bliss is perceived by the spiritual intelligence of the atma and the yogi established in this superior level of consciousness remains fixed in the atma never digressing from it even for a moment. Lord Krishna states the words na eva calati meaning one never deviates, even in times of great adversity. This is because the transcendental bliss experienced emanates from within one’s own inner self. How can one deviate from themselves for after having become established in this transcendence one realises that the immortal atma is the only thing worthy of attainment and that there is nothing greater to be gained. After explaining the condition of steadiness and non-deviation in general terms. Lord Krishna presents further in specific terms. That superior level of consciousness which brings about a total state of contentment and tranquillity without ever having even the slightest contact with sorrow and misery is known as yoga. The word dukhena means misery and includes the consequence of suffering which is induced as a result of the senses contacting sense objects and this includes pleasure as well. This superior level of consciousness should be resolutely engaged in with firm faith and dedication by an aspirant seeking moksa or liberation from material existence. And if there appears to be a delay in its accomplishment one should not become distraught or disappointed as by perseverance the goal will assuredly be attained. Disappointment is the impotent propensity to doubt and lose faith for the success in one’s efforts and should not be harboured.

Sloka 6.24 audio recital in Sanskrit     

सङ्कल्पप्रभवान्कामांस्त्यक्त्वा सर्वानशेषतः |
मनसैवेन्द्रियग्रामं विनियम्य समन्ततः ||६- २४||

saN^kalpaprabhavAnkAmA.nstyaktvA sarvAnasheShataH |
manasaivendriyagrAmaM viniyamya samantataH || 6-24 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.24

Anvaya: sah–that yoga system; niscayena–with firm determination; yoktavyah–must be practiced; yogah–in such practice; anirvinna-cetasa–without deviation; sankalpa–material desires; prabhavan–born of; kaman–sense gratification; tyaktva–giving up; sarvan–all; asesatah–completely; manasa–by the mind; eva–certainly; indriya-gramam–the full set of senses; viniyamya–regulating; samantatah–from all sides.

Translation: One should engage oneself in the practice of yoga with undeviating determination and faith. One should abandon, without exception, all material desires born of false ego and thus control all the senses on all sides by the mind.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Having renounced all desires which arise due to infatuation of the mind for sense objects as well as renouncing the impressions within the mind from past sense experiences which are tangible obstructions to the achievement of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Controlling the senses from meandering in all directions by the strength of the purified mind which views sense gratification as a detrimental activity for spiritual development. This verse is a continuation of the previous verses and Lord Krishna is encouraging the practice of this superior yoga.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In verse eighteen Lord Krishna already explained that fixed concentration in the atma or soul frees one from the craving of sense enjoyments. Now reflecting that these enjoyments are the primary oppressors against the practice of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, and are very difficult to eradicate due to latent impressions from past activities; Lord Krishna gives advice how to abandon them with the words sankalpa-prabhavan meaning desires of the world. The word sankalpa is the conceived images of one’s desires. In the minds of the ignorant they are the forms of worldly objects yearned for. They also include the latent desires in the memory from the remembrance of past experiences of sensual pleasures and enjoyments in the thinking of: I enjoyed that and I want to enjoy this. These ideas and mentality are detrimental obstructions in the furtherance of yoga and are veritably the root cause of misery and suffering. One should reflect that they arise from the interactions of the sense objects in material existence and contemplating their banal and mundane nature develop a healthy aversion to engaging the body and the mind in their sense desires.

Sloka 6.25 audio recital in Sanskrit     

शनैः शनैरुपरमेद् बुद्ध्या धृतिगृहीतया |
आत्मसंस्थं मनः कृत्वा न किञ्चिदपि चिन्तयेत् ||६- २५||

shanaiH shanairuparamed.h bud.hdhyA dhR^itigR^ihItayA |
Atmasa.nsthaM manaH kR^itvA na ki~nchidapi chintayet.h || 6-25 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.25

Anvaya: sanaih–gradually; sanaih–step by step; uparamet–hesitated; buddhya–by intelligence; dhrti-grhitaya–carrying the conviction; atma-samstham–placed in transcendence; manah–mind; krtva–doing so; na–not; kincit–anything else; api–even; cintayet–be thinking of.

Translation: Gradually, step by step, with full conviction, one should become situated in trance by means of intelligence, and thus the mind should be fixed on the Self alone and should think of nothing else.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

If the mind should become unfocused due to the influence of latent impressions in the mind from past activities; then one unperturbed should firmly bring the mind back by concentration and refocusing meditate on the atma or soul while withdrawing the mind away from the external impressions of the subtle body. This will manifest gradually by degrees and should not be expected to happen immediately. The way of confirming if the external impressions of the subtle body have been evaporated is being given by Lord Krishna with the words na kincid api cintayet meaning one will think of nothing but the atma. Having attained communion with the ultimate consciousness perceived spontaneously by a focused and tranquil mind one should desist even from all conceptions of meditation that present the person meditating as different form the object of meditation or otherwise as the individual consciousness being different from the atma.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The word sarvan means all desires in every sphere of endeavour. The word asesatah means complete cessation of all desires. The word manasaiva means by the sole strength of the mind only is restraint possible. Spiritual intelligence is the instrument for restraining the mind as well as restraining the sense. This is what Lord Krishna is indicating.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Desires are of a two-fold nature. Sparsa-ja which arise from the impulses of the physical body or and sankalpa-ja which arise from the impulses of the mind or mental origin. Sparsa-ja includes desires for cold or for hot, or for sweet or for salty, or the lack of such. Sankalpa-ja includes desires for wealth, fame, dominion, progeny and such. With great effort it is possible to abandon the desires of the mind by avoiding to think about them. It is also possible to resist the sensations of pleasure and pain with an attitude of indifference; but between the two the desires of the mind are more easy to abandon because it is not possible to avert the sensations of the body. Thus it is necessary to comprehensively and systematically neutralise the senses from their external corresponding sense objects. This should be undertaken gradually by degrees with determination and a resolute will. Then in due course of time the mind will be weaned from all things except the eternal atma or soul and absorbed exclusively in the atma, one thinks of nothing else. This is the meaning Lord Krishna intended.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna uses the words sanaih sanair meaning gradually by degrees one who has completely withdrawn their senses from all external distractions fixes the unflickering mind on the atma or soul with firm and resolute determination that they will in due course of time most assuredly become established in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. By thinking in this way there will be no slackness in their practice or diversion in their enthusiasm although on occasion there might arise delays and obstructions on their way still they should think only on the atma.

Sloka 6.26 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यतो यतो निश्चरति मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् |
ततस्ततो नियम्यैतदात्मन्येव वशं नयेत् ||६- २६||

yato yato nishcharati manashcha~nchalamasthiram.h |
tatastato niyamyaitadAtmanyeva vashaM nayet.h || 6-26 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.26

Anvaya: yatah–whatever; yatah–wherever; niscalati–verily agitated; manah–the mind; cancalam–flickering; asthiram–unsteady; tatah–from there; tatah–and thereafter; niyamya–regulating; etat–this; atmani–in the self; eva–certainly; vasam–control; nayet–must bring in.

Translation: From whatever and wherever the mind wanders due to its flickering and unsteady nature, one must certainly withdraw it and bring it back under the control of the Self.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna a specific example that if the mind losing its equilibrium begins to waver due to the influence of rajas or passion. Then the mind should be apprehended and brought securely under control guided back to focus on the atma or soul in a serene meditative state. So the conclusion is that whatever object tempts the unsteady mind to pursue it; from that very same object one must withdraw the restless mind and steady solely in the eternal atma.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Whatever also means wherever. Wherever the mind turns to in pursuit of any external object whatever it should be diverted back and re-routed within to the atma or soul inside and exclusively installed reside there. This is Lord Krishna’s meaning.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is explaining that whither ever so ever the fickle mind flutters and flickers about to wander in infatuation away from the atma or soul in pursuit of the objects of the senses, let all efforts be made to withdraw the mind therefrom and guide it back persuading it convincingly the fact that the atma itself is the supreme goal of happiness.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

A question may be raised that if the controlled mind becomes suddenly tempestuous and restless what should be done? Lord Krishna answers this question here. The mind must be immediately rescued back from whatever sense object that caused the mind to deviate and this should be done again and again until the mind becomes fixed in the atma or soul.

Sloka 6.27 audio recital in Sanskrit     

प्रशान्तमनसं ह्येनं योगिनं सुखमुत्तमम् |
उपैति शान्तरजसं ब्रह्मभूतमकल्मषम् ||६- २७||

prashAntamanasaM hyenaM yoginaM sukhamuttamam.h |
upaiti shAntarajasaM brahmabhUtamakalmaSham.h || 6-27 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.27

Anvaya: prasanta–mind fixed on the lotus feet of Krsna; manasam–of one whose mind is so fixed; hi–certainly; enam–this; yoginam–the yogi; sukham–happiness; uttamam–the highest; upaiti–attains; santa-rajasam–pacified passion; brahma-bhutam–liberation by identification with the Absolute; akalmasam–freed from all past sinful reaction.

Translation: The yogi whose mind is fixed on Me verily attains the highest happiness. By virtue of his identity with Brahman, he is liberated; his mind is peaceful, his passions are quieted, and he is freed from sin.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

To the person who again and again brings their mind under control by the process of withdrawal from all external designations the bliss of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness manifests as soon as all remnants of rajas of passion have been eliminated. So Lord Krishna is declaring that for this superior yoga for whom rajas is no longer an influence and whose mind is completely tranquil and content. To this peerless yogi who has achieved atma tattva or realisation of the soul, it is without a doubt that the supreme bliss comes of its own accord and the ultimate consciousness is attained.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna states brahma-bhutam which means endowed with the realisation of the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

A peaceful mind means a mind immovably situated in constant mediation on the atma or soul. Once this is accomplished it is quite natural that the yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by dhyana or meditation soon has all blemishes and sins completely purged. The words santa-rajasam means the quality of rajas or passion has become santa or peaceful. Hence one becomes imbued with the qualities of the Brahmam or spiritual substratum pervading all existence and which also refers to the atma and re- establishs one into their true essence of spiritual splendour. To such a yogi comes atma tattva or realisation of the soul and exquisite and phenomenal transcendental felicity. The word used by Lord Krishna hi meaning verily, is an indeclinable particle which gives a reason denoting that by the reason of atma tattva being essentially blissful the yogi becomes blissful as well.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

After the yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness has withdrawn the mind from sense objects and secured it in the atma; then the mind becoming utterly serene achieves the supreme bliss that is sublime as a matter of course. Lord Krishna speaks of two alternatives: one is santa-rajasam or free from passion and the second is akalmasam or free from the blemishes of desire in other words sinless. Such a person is brahma-bhutam or endowed with the realisation of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence.

Sloka 6.28 audio recital in Sanskrit     

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी विगतकल्मषः |
सुखेन ब्रह्मसंस्पर्शमत्यन्तं सुखमश्नुते ||६- २८||

yuJNjannevaM sadAtmAnaM yogI vigatakalmaShaH |
sukhena brahmasa.nsparshamatyantaM sukhamashnute || 6-28 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.28

Anvaya: yunjan–thus being engaged in yoga practice; evam–thus; sada–always; atmanam–self; yogi–one who is in touch with the Supreme Self; vigata–is freed from; kalmasah–all material contamination; sukhena–in transcendental happiness; brahma-samsparsam–being in constant touch with the Supreme; atyantam–highest; sukham–happiness; asnute–attains.

Translation: Steady in the Self, being freed from all material contamination, the yogi achieves the highest perfectional stage of happiness in touch with the Supreme Consciousness.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Then by possessing such blessed felicity such a yogi becomes blessed and achieves easily communion with the ultimate consciousness which destroys all sins and ignorance and which in itself is infinite bliss and attains moksa or liberation from the perpetual cycle of birth and death is while still living.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Topics discussed in previous verses are more fully explained here by Lord Krishna.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Exclusively dedicated to the atma or soul the yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by dhyana or meditation is relieved from all the vast, past accumulation of sins and receives infinite bliss arising from directly experiencing contact with the atma. Lord Krishna speaks the words brahma-samsparsam which means communion with paramatma the supreme soul and ultimate consciousness, by this one becomes liberated from the material existence. The words atyantam means endless, sukham means ecstasy and asnute means easily. The yogi who gives constant attention to the transcendental inner nature reachs perfection easily. Next the four levels of mature meditation will be described in the following four verses.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna speaks of the boundless happiness experienced by such a yogi or one perfected in the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The sinless yogi whose accumulative reactions have all evaporated by continuous meditation on the atma or soul within the etheric heart and easily achieves moksa or liberation from the material existence and is blest with the eternal bliss of communion with paramatam the supreme soul.

Sloka 6.29 audio recital in Sanskrit     

सर्वभूतस्थमात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मनि |
ईक्षते योगयुक्तात्मा सर्वत्र समदर्शनः ||६- २९||

sarvabhUtasthamAtmAnaM sarvabhUtAni chAtmani |
IkShate yogayuktAtmA sarvatra samadarshanaH || 6-29 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.29

Anvaya: sarva-bhuta-stham–situated in all beings; atmanam–the Supersoul; sarva–all; bhutani–entities; ca–also; atmani–in the self; iksate–does see; yoga-yukta-atma–one who is dovetailed in Krsna consciousness; sarvatra–everywhere; sama-darsanah–seeing equally.

Translation: A true yogi observes Me in all beings, and also sees every being in Me. Indeed, the self-realized man sees Me everywhere.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The necessity of realisation of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence is being given by Lord Krishna. The mature yogi whose mind is spiritually enlightened by the practice of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by dhyana or meditation. Who perceives the Brahman everywhere and who sees omniscience and omnipresence of the atma or soul without any limitations equally existing in all beings from the highest demigod to an inanimate tree. Such a person realises the Supreme Being existing within himself and himself existing within the Supreme Being.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The objective and goal to be gained is given here by Lord Krishna. The atma or eternal soul residing within all beings is the omnipresent and omniscient Supreme Lord. All creatures also exist within the Supreme Lord as the atma as well. One who perceives this sees the Supreme Lord equally in everything from a blade of grass to the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence. Therefore it has been said that one sees the Supreme Lord abiding in all creatures and all creatures abiding in the Supreme Lord.

Now begins the summation.

The Supreme Lord abides in equal measure in all beings along with the atma or soul and is known as paramatma the Supreme Soul.

Ramanuja’s Commentary

The words sarvatra sama-darsana means equal vision everywhere. This means realising the atma or soul that abides in oneself and abides in other beings is of the same transcendental essence in all beings equally. This is perceived by spiritual consciousness and this transcendental essence is an attribute equally present in all atma’s. The equality, sameness and luminosity of the atma has been perceived by those recipients of moksa or liberation when the atma is divested of its connection with the physical body and material nature. Inequality as well as indifference and indolence arise from designating the atma as being non-different from the myriad of multifarious physical manifestations the atma is embodied by. The yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness, who mature in dhyana or meditation has achieved atma tattva or realisation of the soul, does not discern any differences in the myriad of multifarious physical manifestations but perceives the atma wherever it may reside in whatever physical or subtle body it manifests in. This is perceived by the atma’s inherent and essential attribute of transcendental consciousness existing equally in all beings. Such is actual equal vision and one who perceives the atma abiding within oneself is of exactly the same essence, nature and quality as the atma perceived abiding in other beings realises that such beings are equal in this respect. The conclusion of what Lord Krishna is stating is that all atma’s are eternal, from one eternal essence and that when one’s own atma has been realised and perceived then every beings atma is realised and be perceived.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna presents the four-fold divisions of the subsequent results of such a firmly established yogi or one perfected in the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Such a very advanced being has become united with the atma or soul thus perceiving the atma in all beings of multifarious, diverse natures and variegated physical and subtle bodies. This applies from the highest demigod known as Brahma down to an inanimate tree. How is it that such a yogi can perceive his atma existing in all beings and all beings existing in his atma. The words yoga-yuktatma meaning united with the nature of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence, one sees all things with equal vision, without any distinction between them knowing that all forms are veritable products of prakriti or material nature. The purport is such a yogi sees all forms, even his own as manifestation of the Brahman and therefore there is no distinctive difference in his atma and the atma of others. The atma is eternal and pure and distinctly different from the physical body. So firmly adhering to self-realisation such a yogi becomes enlightened in all respects. Yet even the physical bodies are equal as well as they all manifest from the same primordial matter and all have a beginning and an end. So in this way there is no contradiction if the yogi perceives his atma existing in all beings and all beings existing in his atma.

Sloka 6.30 audio recital in Sanskrit     

यो मां पश्यति सर्वत्र सर्वं च मयि पश्यति |
तस्याहं न प्रणश्यामि स च मे न प्रणश्यति ||६- ३०||

yo mAM pashyati sarvatra sarva.n cha mayi pashyati |
tasyAhaM na praNashyAmi sa cha me na praNashyati || 6-30 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.30

Anvaya: yah–whoever; mam–Me; pasyati–sees; sarvatra–everywhere; sarvam–everything; ca–and; mayi–in Me; pasyati–he sees; tasya–his; aham–I; na–not; pranasyami–am lost; sah–he; ca–also; me–to Me; na–nor; pranasyati–is lost.

Translation: For one who sees Me everywhere and sees everything in Me, I am never lost, nor is he ever lost to Me.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Worshipping Lord Krishna as the atma or soul within all naturally created beings is the foremost means for direct inner realisation of one’s own inherent atma. One is more matured who perceives the Supreme Lord in all beings and all beings within the Supreme Lord is never disconnected from Him nor does the Supreme Lord ever disconnect Himself from them. This is to say that the Supreme Lord personally manifests Himself within their hearts and graciously bestows blessings on them.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna reveals the results of perceiving Him everywhere. For such a person He is never lost nor is such a person ever lost to Him meaning such a person ever remains devoted to Him. It is indeed the master who protects the servant and it is certain that it is the Supreme Lord only who protects all the living entities. But it is also well known that if the master is not offered proper respect by the servant or fails to be obedient then the master ceases to be the master. In the Garuda Purana it is stated: One who always perceives the Supreme Lord equally within all beings will always possess unshakeable devotion and for such a person the Supreme Lord Himself will personally maintain them.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

One advanced in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by dhyana or meditation is the person who gravitates in proximity to Lord Krishna’s eternal and divine, transcendental nature in the manner as prescribed in the Vedic scriptures. Impeccable without a blemish such a one attains to supreme equanimity. Whosoever realises that the nature of the eternal atma or soul is identical in essence and purity, transcendental to all dualities and is comparable to the Supreme Lord Krishna and who so perceiving realises that Lord Krishna is the essence of the atma as well and that all atma’s are in Him and seeing one’s own atma in oneself as well as the atma’s in all other beings have realised the ultimate truth and Lord Krishna is no longer veiled from them because one’s nature has become the same as His and He accepts them as His own Self and always reveals Himself to them in their hearts.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The yogi or one perfected in the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness who perceives the Supreme Lord in all beings is comparatively more advanced then the yogi described in the previous verse. One who established in yoga perceives Lord Krishna presence within all created beings as paramatma the supreme soul and ultimate controller of all beings from the highest demigod down to an inanimate tree and sees all created beings as existing within Him in His independent external energy the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence which all beings depend on and are controlled by for their very existence. Such a yogi perceiving in this way is never disconnected from the Supreme Lord nor is the Supreme Lord ever disconnected from them. The purport is that the Supreme Lord bestows His grace on such yogis and they are empowered by spiritual knowledge to behold Him in all His splendour.

Sloka 6.31 audio recital in Sanskrit     

सर्वभूतस्थितं यो मां भजत्येकत्वमास्थितः |
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि स योगी मयि वर्तते ||६- ३१||

sarvabhUtasthitaM yo mAM bhajatyekatvamAsthitaH |
sarvathA vartamAno.api sa yogI mayi vartate || 6-31 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.31

Anvaya: sarva-bhuta-sthitam–situated in everyone’s heart; yah–he who; mam–unto Me; bhajati–serves in devotional service; ekatvam–oneness; asthitah–thus situated; sarvatha–in all respects; varta-manah–being situated; api–in spite of; sah–he; yogi–transcendentalist; mayi–unto Me; vartate–remains.

Translation: The yogi who knows that I and the Supersoul within all creatures are one worships Me and remains always in Me in all circumstances.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Such a mature being as mentioned in the previous verse is even more advanced when developed in unalloyed devotion to Lord Krishna for they have transcended the need to adhere to scriptural injunctions to develop unalloyed devotion because they have already achieved this realisation. Such a person is a yogi or one perfected in the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness and is always situated in oneness with the Supreme Lord and as such has reached perfection.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

One should respect all living entities by honouring the Supreme Lord residing within each and every being as confirmed by Lord Krishna in this verse. The words ekatvam asthtitah means singularly existing and the Supreme Lord exists in all places as the One Lord. So it should always be acknowledged that In all respects and situations in the present and in the future the individual should perform all activities for the Supreme Lord. Such spiritual intelligence always leads to spiritual enlightenment. If one by chance omits or due to circumstances fails to perform obligatory activities as prescribed in the Vedic scriptures one may have to suffer a reaction if it was important. This has already been explained previously but for the sake of clarification it is stated that the steps of those who worship and adore Lord Krishna will never deviate from the path of righteousness. If unknowingly an offence is incurred from not following some injunction of the Vedic scriptures or an ordinance is not performed correctly then by the strength of one’s sadhana or spiritual practices all reactions will be dissolved away. Historically many ancient kings, rishis and even demi-gods have committed great offences but due to the strength of their sadhana the reactions received were minimally experienced until they dissolved.

Now begins the summation.

Everywhere the omnipresent Supreme Lord Krishna can be perceived to be residing.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

A yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, who is more advanced in dhyana o meditation is being described here by Lord Krishna. The words ekatvam asthithah means established in singular unity. This means eschewing the conception of differences arising from the appearance of material conditions and designations. It also infers the expansion of consciousness during meditation to realise the reality of Lord Krishna’s omnipresence everywhere in everything. The word sarvatha means in all circumstances. This means whether consciously performing prescribed Vedic activities or immersed in mediatation, Whatever condition one happens to be situated in the yogi who is far advanced perceiving paramatma or the Supreme Soul in himself as well as all beings is always perceiving and relishing the presence of the Supreme Lord and worshipping Him at all times. The words mayi varttate meaning exists within Lord Krishna. This means by dint of always meditating solely on Him, one experiences their own atma or soul as well as the atma or soul of all beings and perceives that all atma’s are of the same eternal essence as the Supreme Lord’s.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna declares even higher states for the established yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The yogi who perceives the Supreme Lord existing in all beings as well as his very self is certainly advanced but here Lord Krishna is stating that the one who worships Him as paramatma the indwelling supreme soul within all living entities is even more superior. In the Vishnu Purana it states: O Lord it is Your nature only which indicates Your Supreme power of encompassing all living beings in creation and because You are omni-present, You are infinite and upon reaching you the liberated beings also assume these qualities. The yogi although engaged in all forms of activities like eating, teaching, traveling, meditating still achieves similar nature to the Supreme Lord due to inseparable communion with Him at all times in all situations.

Sloka 6.32 audio recital in Sanskrit     

आत्मौपम्येन सर्वत्र समं पश्यति योऽर्जुन |
सुखं वा यदि वा दुःखं स योगी परमो मतः ||६- ३२||

Atmaupamyena sarvatra samaM pashyati yo.arjuna |
sukhaM vA yadi vA duHkhaM sa yogI paramo mataH || 6-32 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.32

Anvaya: atma–self; aupamyena–by comparison; sarvatra–everywhere; samam–equally; pasyati–sees; yah–he who; arjuna–O Arjuna; sukham–happiness; va–or; yadi–if; va–or; duhkham–distress; sah–such; yogi–transcendentalist; paramah–perfect; matah–considered.

Translation: He is a perfect yogi who, by comparison to his own self, sees the true equality of all beings, both in their happiness and distress, O Arjuna!

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna specifies that among the different yogis or those perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, those who worship the Supreme Lord and who are compassionate to all living entities are the most exalted. Such a yogi who empathises with all living entities regarding them as oneself and by this vision wishes only the best for all created beings.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna here explains equal vision differently then He did in previous verses.

Now begins the summation.

Those who are devotees of the Supreme Lord treat everyone as they would treat themselves.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

One even more advanced in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by dhyana or meditation realises the intrinsic uniqueness and sublime sameness of all atma’s or souls as having the nature of omniscience and omnipresence although residing in unlimited variegated physical and subtle bodies. Fully comprehending that the atma has no connection with material nature the yogi looks upon all dualities such as happiness and affliction like one is the same as the other and this applies whether circumstances befall unto such a yogi or befall unto others such as the happiness of an infant being born or the affliction of a parent dying. This means it is one and the same for such a yogi regarding their own offspring and parents as it is regarding other peoples offspring and parents. Such a yogi who is so far advanced as to regard both happiness and affliction equally with the same sublime indifference is qualified to be known as the best of yogi’s.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna speaks of the most exalted yogi’s who perceiving the atma in all created beings view them as non-different from himself. Just as a person does not like to create difficulties for themselves and at all times wishes the best for themselves. In the same way such a yogi does not want difficulties created for any being and at all times wishes the best for all beings. Such a yogi is completely free from passion and desire and is the most exalted of all yogi’s. All persons due to their previous actions are caught in the current of reactions of merits and demerits that create obstacles in achieving communion with the Supreme Lord. Those whose knowledge is veiled by nescience birth after birth since time immemorial have no idea that the highest goal of human existence is first atma tattva or realisation of the soul within the etheric heart and second the perception of the atma or soul in all created beings and the ultimate unity of all created beings. This unity is absolute inseparable unity with the Supreme Lord.

By chance a fortunate individual receives the unconditional mercy of the Supreme Lord, reflects on the purpose of human existence and gaining the association of pious people comes into contact with a qualified spiritual preceptor and following their instructions concerning realisation of the atma and the path to moksa or liberation from the material existence they purify their mind and very existence. Then such a person engages themselves wholeheartedly in the practice of meditation which culminates into realisation of the embodied self being the atma or soul and paramatma the Supreme Soul both residing within the etheric heart. From this time on one only experiences the actions dictated by destiny and until all past accumulated reactions are finished. One comprehends that both happiness and unhappiness are temporary and caused by merits and demerits from past actions and present obstacles on the path to moksa or liberation to the Supreme Lord. Just as those fettered in golden chains or iron chains are both in bondage and each feel the same type of relief when released and freed. So in the same way the pleasure one receives causing obstacles due to merits and the pain one receives causing obstacles due to demerits both have the same effect of relief when they are finally exhausted and a person is set free by achieving moksa. This mentality one applies also to all created beings because one sees everything with the same equal vision as one perceives themselves.

Sloka 6.33 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अर्जुन उवाच |
योऽयं योगस्त्वया प्रोक्तः साम्येन मधुसूदन |
एतस्याहं न पश्यामि चञ्चलत्वात्स्थितिं स्थिराम् ||६- ३३||

arjuna uvAcha |
yo.ayaM yogastvayA proktaH sAmyena madhusUdana |
etasyAhaM na pashyAmi cha~nchalatvAtsthiti.n sthirAm.h || 6-33 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.33

Anvaya: arjunah uvaca–Arjuna said; yah–the system; ayam–this; yogah–mysticism; tvaya–by You; proktah–described; samyena–generally; madhu-sudana–O killer of the demon Madhu; etasya–of this; aham–I; na–do not; pasyami–see; cancalatvat–due to being restless; sthitim–situation; sthiram–stable.

Translation: Arjuna said: O Madhusudana, the system of yoga which You have summarized appears impractical and unendurable to me, for the mind is restless and unsteady.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness spoken previously by Lord Krishna was considered in the mind of Arjuna to be almost impossible to achieve. Equanimity, fixing the mind exclusively on the atma or soul, regarding all living entities as oneself are difficult to maintain with permanence due to the nature of the mind.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Some doubts are spoken to Lord Krishna by Arjuna who exclaims that he is unable to become established in equanimity due to the restless nature of the tempestuous mind. In the Vyasa Yoga it states that in the absence of regulated practice and subsequently gradual renunciation it is not possible to become firmly establishes in the sate of equanimity.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

It is considered by Arjuna that this yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness instructed by Lord Krishna and the beholding of all living entities with the same equal vision is next to impossible. Such yoga characterised by fixed mental discipline he could not comprehend as being steady and stable due to the nature of the mind.

Sloka 6.34 audio recital in Sanskrit     

चञ्चलं हि मनः कृष्ण प्रमाथि बलवद् दृढम् |
तस्याहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोरिव सुदुष्करम् ||६- ३४||

cha~nchalaM hi manaH kR^iShNa pramAthi balavad.h dR^iDham.h |
tasyAhaM nigrahaM manye vAyoriva suduShkaram.h || 6-34 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.34

Anvaya: cancalam–flickering; hi–certainly; manah–mind; krsna–O Krsna; pramathi–agitating; bala-vat–strong; drdham–obstinate; tasya–its; aham–I; nigraham–subduing; manye–think; vayoh–of the wind; iva–like; su-duskaram–difficult.

Translation: For the mind is restless, turbulent, obstinate and very strong, O Krsna, and to subdue it is, it seems to me, more difficult than controlling the wind.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The previous verse is being elucidated further. The mind is by nature restless and fickle. Also it is tempestuous, capable of agitating the body and the senses and very hard to control. From what the mind has become accustomed to be attached to like sense objects it is very difficult to remove it. Therefore just as it is impossible to confine within a pot the wind blowing hither and thither in the air in the same way it is almost impossible to control and restrain the turbulent mind. Lord Krishna answers this doubt in the next verse.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Revealing his heart to Lord Krishna some questions are asked by Arjuna to be clarified as he does not fully comprehend this yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness as done in dhyana or meditation which allows equanimity in reality and which enables one to perceive the atma or soul in all beings and envision the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence in all situations. Specifically it could be understood regarding the sameness of the atma in all living entities and that the atma is residing equally within all living entities as well as the reality of the liberated beings possessing a portion of the qualities of the Supreme. But to maintain such lofty conceptions in the midst of the demanding, periodically changing interactions of daily life seems to be in direct conflict with our vision of the phenomenal world we live in seeing external differences everywhere we look. As well there are an unlimited variety of differences in the nature of beings as represented by the divine nature, the human nature, the demoniac nature and various combinations of all three. Not being to understand how the results of such yoga can be sustained a predicament arises and Arjuna surmises that the fault must be due to the constraints of the mind being unable to fully manifest them. This is true as it can be experienced that in even normal mundane matters of ordinary activities the naturally restless mind eludes all attempts to focus it on a specific idea for too long. The mind exerting itself powerfully will twist and turn itself loose without delay and irresistibly fly off in whatever direction it fancies. So if such is the case in ordinary activities what is to be assumed in regard to the difficulty of focusing the mind exclusively on the atma. Arjuna was thinking that to control the mind is as difficult and daunting as trying to thwart the winds of a hurricane with a hand fan. So in conclusion Arjuna is requesting Lord Krishna to instruct him how to control the tempestuous mind.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Everyone can understand that the mind is restless and fickle by the proof of observing one’s own mind. The mind is turbulent in its actions and tenacious in its selections. It is extremely difficult to control because it is strongly bound to desire for habituated sense gratification. It is also powerful and hard to withdraw once it is out in pursuit of desired sense objects. Considering all these things Arjuna expresses to Lord Krishna that trying to control the mind is like trying to control the wind. It is like trying to confine a violently blowing cyclone in a pot. By using the vocative case O’ Lord Krishna denotes that Lord Krishna who removes the illusion of His devotees should also remove all delusions regarding controlling the mind.

Sloka 6.35 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रीभगवानुवाच |
असंशयं महाबाहो मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् |
अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते ||६- ३५||

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha .
asa.nshayaM mahAbAho mano durnigraha.n chalam.h |
abhyAsena tu kaunteya vairAgyeNa cha gR^ihyate || 6-35 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.35

Anvaya: sri-bhagavan uvaca–the Personality of Godhead said; asamsayam–undoubtedly; maha-baho–O mighty-armed one; manah–mind; durnigraham–difficult to curb; calam–flickering; abhyasena–by practice; tu–but; kaunteya–O son of Kunti; vairagyena–by detachment; ca–also; grhyate–can be so controlled.

Translation: The Blessed Lord said: O mighty-armed son of Kunti, it is undoubtedly very difficult to curb the restless mind, but it is possible by constant practice and by detachment.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Responding in regard to Arjuna’s queries about control of the mind, Lord Krishna states that the mind is almost impossible to control; yet by constant practice, abdication from sense objects by dispassion and repeated meditation on the atma or soul it is possible to restrain and control the mind. With the senses withdrawn, being free from the obstacles of lethargy and distractions by means of incessant practice and dispassion, the mind remains immersed in the Supreme Self. It is stated in the Vedic scriptures that the tranquil mind in equanimity resides in the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence. Free from all conceptions and modifications is what is known as samadhi.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Then Lord Krishna responding to Arjuna’s queries concurs that without a doubt the mind is extremely difficult to control and similar to confining a cyclone in a pot; but Arjuna should shake off his trepidation and make the effort, for the mind can be brought under control by the repeated practice of meditation. One should first withdraw the mind from the influence of sense objects and then focus the mind in concentration internally on the atma or soul. By practising indifference towards sense objects, dispassion will arise in the senses and the mind will show no interest and will not gravitate to anything else other than the atma. This is accomplished by reflecting on the transient nature of anything other than the atma and contemplating on the inherent defects in such transient objectives. The vocative words maha-bahu meaning mighty armed one indicates in a general sense that only a superior person trained in such practice will meet with success whereas a normal person will not be able to. In the specific sense maha-bahu means one whose arms are mighty enough to control an enemy should be mighty enough to control the enemy knows as the turbulent mind. The particle tu meaning but denotes there should be no lethargy in effort.

Sloka 6.36 audio recital in Sanskrit     

असंयतात्मना योगो दुष्प्राप इति मे मतिः |
वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्योऽवाप्तुमुपायतः ||६- ३६||

asa.nyatAtmanA yogo duShprApa iti me matiH |
vashyAtmanA tu yatatA shakyo.avAptumupAyataH || 6-36 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.36

Anvaya: asamyata–unbridled; atmana–by the mind; yogah–self-realization; dusprapah–difficult to obtain; iti–thus; me–My; matih–opinion; vasya–controlled; atmana–by the mind; tu–but; yatata–while endeavoring; sakyah–practical; avaptum–to achieve; upayatah–appropriate means.

Translation: For one whose mind is unbridled, self-realization is difficult work. But he whose mind is controlled and who strives by right means is assured of success. That is My opinion.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Here Lord Krishna is emphasising the importance of the mind regarding yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. For one whose mind is uncontrolled it is not possible to practice yoga but that person who has controlled their mind by dispassion and regular practice and meditation can succeed in yoga by striving repeatedly.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

It should not be thought that the mind of its own accord becomes controlled because that is not the case. For those who are unrighteous, who do not desire what is good for other created beings, who hate, who are debauchers, who are non-believers of the Vedic scriptures and other such persons, the opportunity for moksa or liberation from the endless cycle of birth and death in the material existence never manifests. This has been categorically confirmed in the Brahma Purana.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

That the mind is difficult to control and direct due to its fickle and tempestuous nature is a fact unable to deny. But the possibility of taming it depends upon generating in the mind a feeling of affection and attachment by accustoming the mind to regularly reflect on the sublime, transcendental qualities of the atma or soul and then meditating upon the atma daily. In this way very soon an aversion will arise to focus on anything that does not facilitate atma tattva or realisation of the soul. This will happen naturally when the discerning mind perceives the imperfections inherent in all other topics and subjects. Lord Krishna is reiterating that for one who has not subjugated their mind this yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by dhyana or meditation is extremely difficult to realise; but it is possible to achieve by one who has the vision of equanimity towards all beings and understands that the same fundamental spiritual basis is present everywhere as the atma existing in all living entities. Controlling the mind has already been elucidated by Lord Krishna in the process of selfless karma yoga as offerings of worship to the Supreme Lord. Lord Krishna has also instructed in chapter II.XXXX that there is no loss or diminution by the performance of this yoga; but the greatness of karma yoga there described is certainly that which embodies atma tattva and culminates in communion with paramatma the Supreme Soul by meditation.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is confirming that it is not possible to become established in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by dhyana or meditation. To behold all with equanimity and dispassion is not possible for one whose mind is restless and uncontrolled. But through ceaseless striving and constantly practising of meditation it is possible to be successful in controlling it.

Sloka 6.37 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अर्जुन उवाच |
अयतिः श्रद्धयोपेतो योगाच्चलितमानसः |
अप्राप्य योगसंसिद्धिं कां गतिं कृष्ण गच्छति ||६- ३७||

arjuna uvAcha |
ayatiH shraddhayopeto yogAchchalitamAnasaH |
aprApya yogasa.nsiddhi.n kA.n gati.n kR^iShNa gachchhati || 6-37 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.37

Anvaya: arjunah uvaca–Arjuna said; ayatih–unsuccessful transcendentalist; sraddhaya–with faith; upetah–engaged; yogat–from the mystic link; calita–deviated; manasah–of one who has such a mind; aprapya–failing; yoga-samsiddhim–highest perfection in mysticism; kam–which; gatim–destination; krsna–O Krsna; gacchati–achieves.

Translation: Arjuna said: What is the destination of the man of faith who does not persevere, who in the beginning takes to the process of self-realization but who later desists due to worldly-mindedness and thus does not attain perfection in mysticism?

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

What is the destination of one who fails to achieve atma tattva or realisation of the soul, due to inability to cultivate dispassion and practice of meditation? Where does one end up who in the very beginning was endowed with firm faith and practice but later due to weakness of mind, cessation of practice and attraction to sense gratification was unable to achieve realisation? This is the meaning of the question submitted to Lord Krishna.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

The word ayatih means one who does not earnestly endeavour.

Now begins the summation.

The special meaning Lord Krishna is giving is denoted by the word ayatih or one who does not endeavour by the regulated practice of meditation or contrarily one who abstains from the practise of meditation that was already begun. The words aprapya yoga-samsiddhim mean without achieving the complete potential of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with ultimate consciousness. Although for the word yoga there is the established meaning, perfection in meditation is the inferred meaning here. Thus failure in perfecting meditation is not contradictory.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now the question arises. What happens to a practitioner of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness who becomes established in yoga with firm faith experiencing some realisations but later in life due to negligence and lethargy in their practices fail to achieve perfection in yoga? This could also be due to being unable to control the mind and thus incapable of controlling the senses with their passions. Such an aspirant although practising and endowed with faith does not have by the potency to maintain the process and therefore the mind is diverted into pursuing the objects of the senses and thus deviated from yoga at the crucial time of death. What will such a persons destination be who like this fails to reach the goal of moksa or liberation after commencing the yoga in life. This is the question being beseeched for Lord Krishna to answer.

Sloka 6.38 audio recital in Sanskrit     

कच्चिन्नोभयविभ्रष्टश्छिन्नाभ्रमिव नश्यति |
अप्रतिष्ठो महाबाहो विमूढो ब्रह्मणः पथि ||६- ३८||

kachchinnobhayavibhraShTashchhinnAbhramiva nashyati |
apratiShTho mahAbAho vimUDho brahmaNaH pathi || 6-38 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.38

Anvaya: kaccit–whether; na–not; ubhaya–both; vibhrastah–deviated from; chinna–fallen; abhram–cloud; iva–like; nasyati–perishes; apratisthah–without any position; maha-baho–O mighty-armed Krsna; vimudhah–bewildered; brahmanah–of transcendence; pathi–on the path.

Translation:O mighty-armed Krsna, does not such a man, being deviated from the path of Transcendence, perish like a riven cloud, with no position in any sphere?

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The import of the question is now being delineated. Firstly an aspirant having exclusively offered all activities unto the Supreme Lord without having performed any activities for attaining svarga loka or the heavenly spheres does not arrive there. Secondly failing to obtain success in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness by dhyana or meditation one does not attain moksa or liberation from the material existence either. Thus not qualified for both and deluded on the path leading to the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence and atma tattva or realisation of the soul. Does such a one perish or does such a one escape death? This is the question posed to Lord Krishna. A metaphor concerning the destrution of such a one is given by the example of a detached cloud in the sky being disconnected from the mass and unable to attach to another is dissolved in the interval is it not so for such a one.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now before Lord Krishna answers him. Arjuna also wishes to know what becomes of the person who is performing actions for the Supreme Lord without any consideration of personal gains and does not succeed in perfecting yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Because such a person was not performing any actions for entering heaven they will subsequently be unqualified for access to heaven and hence not connected anywhere. This is what Arjuna is meaning in his analogy of a cloud split off from a greater cloud but unable to join an even greater cloud. The purport is that the yogi abandoned karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities to become established in the highest path of yoga by dhyana or meditation; but subsequently failed to perfect it in their life. So missing the chance to enter svarga loka or the heavenly worlds and also failing to attain atma tattva or realisation of the soul do they perish?

Sloka 6.39 audio recital in Sanskrit     

एतन्मे संशयं कृष्ण छेत्तुमर्हस्यशेषतः |
त्वदन्यः संशयस्यास्य छेत्ता न ह्युपपद्यते ||६- ३९||

etanme sa.nshayaM kR^iShNa chhettumarhasyasheShataH |
tvadanyaH sa.nshayasyAsya chhettA na hyupapadyate || 6-39 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.39

Anvaya: etat–this is; me–my; samsayam–doubt; krsna–O Krsna; chettum–to dispel; arhasi–requested to do; asesatah–completely; tvat–than You; anyah–without; samsayasya–of the doubt; asya–of this; chetta–remover; na–never; hi–certainly; upapadyate–to be found.

Translation: This is my doubt, O Krsna, and I ask You to dispel it completely. But for Yourself, no one is to be found who can destroy this doubt.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna is being beseeched by Arjuna to definitely dispel his doubts as other than the omniscient and omnipotent Supreme Lord there is no one else who can remove it.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

No matter how much one may ever so enthusiastically embark on the path of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness; if one lacks the sufficient determination to maintain the persistent application of regulated discipline the mind will inevitably be distracted and deviate and one will fail to succeed in reaching perfection in yoga. What will be the fate of such a person? Will they perish like a divided cloud in the sky leaving the rest behind while failing to unite with the cloud in front of it in the distance? What is meant by double loss? The word apratistho means unfixed situation and the words vimudho brahmanah pathi means baffled due to ignorance of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence which is the first cognition on the way to achieving enlightenment.

The first loss is failure to secure svarga loka or the heavenly planets for executing the appropriate actions. Prescribed Vedic activities performed with the goal of residing in svarga loka liberally reward one’s efforts and allows one to enjoy heavenly delights for as long a time as one’s merits warrant. But actions performed by persons without such intent do not enable a person to reside there hence one forfeits the opportunity for heavenly pleasures. The second loss is ignorance of the path of the Brahman which includes performing selfless actions without desire for reward while contemplating on the atma or soul. But the person who fails to pursue it consistently and steadfastly will deviate and stray away and will lose in both instances. So Arjuna wants Lord Krishna to alleviate his doubts.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is being requested to dispel all doubts concerning the destination of one who does not succeed in their life in perfecting yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. All embodied beings are perishable and devoid of omniscience so as the omniscient Supreme Lord and most affectionate friend it would behove Him to completely clear up this question.

Sloka 6.40 audio recital in Sanskrit     

श्रीभगवानुवाच |
पार्थ नैवेह नामुत्र विनाशस्तस्य विद्यते |
न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद् दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति ||६- ४०||

shrIbhagavAnuvAcha |
pArtha naiveha nAmutra vinAshastasya vidyate |
na hi kalyANakR^itkashchid.h durgati.n tAta gachchhati || 6-40 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.40

Anvaya: sri-bhagavan uvaca–the Supreme Personality of Godhead said; partha–O son of Prtha; na eva–never is it so; iha–in this material world; na–never; amutra–in the next life; vinasah–destruction; tasya–his; vidyate–exists; na–never; hi–certainly; kalyana-krt–one who is engaged in auspicious activities; kascit–anyone; durgatim–degradation; tata–thereafter; gacchati–goes.

Translation: The Blessed Lord said: Son of Prtha, a transcendentalist engaged in auspicious activities does not meet with destruction either in this world or in the spiritual world; one who does good, My friend, is never overcome by evil.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Destruction in this world is caused by diminution due to failure to secure neither the goal of svarga or heaven nor the goal of moksa or liberation from material existence. Failure to accomplish one or the other results in a destructive situation in the hereafter. This means a hellish destination in the worlds after death in the next life. Lord Krishna answers the previous verse by assuring that for the righteous who perform virtuous activities it is not possible to ever have a destructive situation and hellish destination. This is due to the reality that one is on the path of righteousness by just commencing with faith the process of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Lord Krishna addresses Arjuna by the word tata meaning dear one like He would be speaking to a family member.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.
Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is unconditionally confirming that there is no loss or diminution in their present life or in their next life for one who sincerely and earnestly engages themselves in yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness; but who later discontinues the practice due to weakness of mind and lack of dispassion. The word vinasas means destruction. It denotes forfeiture of material enjoyment in svarga loka or the heavenly planets and it also denotes the loss of spiritual accomplishments as well, both which an aspirant could have achieved. Destruction also infers the intervention of undesirable obstacles in the form of negative activities. But when one has performed even a little yoga in meditation one is automatically insured that there will be no diminution either in the present or in the future. How this is so is answered next.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

In order to dispel all doubts Lord Krishna answers this question by addressing Arjuna in a very affectionate way by use of the word tata meaning dear one. Then He confirms to him that there is no downfall or setback in the present life or in the next life for an aspirant of moksa or liberation from the material existence who has abandoned the path of karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities for attaining heaven in exchange for the sake of cultivating meditation and atma tattva or realisation of the soul. Even if one fails to reach perfection due to digressing from the path by negligence in dispassion or lethargy in practice still there is no demerits or diminution because there was no hankering for rewards and thus no reactions to suffer. If a person is worshipping the demigods with a desire to obtain some rewards and does not get it, then that person has to accept a reaction anyway because they deviated from the path right from the very start. Hence in their present life they feel censure and infamy because the reward could not be gained to be enjoyed. But in the next life after death one must still receive the reaction for seeking to enjoy independently of the Supreme Lord regardless of receiving it or not and the reaction will not be pleasant in the next life maybe even taking a birth as an animal. It is like a thief who goes to the market to steal and get caught before getting away still the thief is bound to be punished for attempting the action without having succeeded. But this will never be the situation for one who begins the practice of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. One who treads the path of yoga and righteousness never meets with an inauspicious or evil destiny.

The word tata is derived from the word tan meaning to expand. One who expands himself further is known as tat and one who expands himself as the son is the father. Thus the father himself is tata expanding himself as the son. So both the father and the son are addressed as tata. As an analogy the disciple is also accepted as the son by the guru or spiritual master and thus the use of the word tata illustrates the extreme mercy the guru gives to the disciple as Lord Krishna is giving to Arjuna.

Sloka 6.41 audio recital in Sanskrit     

प्राप्य पुण्यकृतां लोकानुषित्वा शाश्वतीः समाः |
शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योगभ्रष्टोऽभिजायते ||६- ४१||

prApya puNyakR^itA.n lokAnuShitvA shAshvatIH samAH |
shuchInA.n shrImatA.n gehe yogabhraShTo.abhijAyate || 6-41 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.41

Anvaya: prapya–after achieving; punya-krtam–of those who performed pious activities; lokan–planets; usitva–after dwelling; sasvatih–many; samah–years; sucinam–of the pious; sri-matam–of the prosperous; gehe–in the house of; yoga-bhrastah–one who is fallen from the path of self-realization; abhijayate–takes his birth.

Translation: The unsuccessful yogi, after many, many years of enjoyment on the planets of the pious living entities, is born into a family of righteous people, or into a family of rich aristocracy.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

So what destination does one obtain who practices yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness but fails to achieve perfection? Lord Krishna confirms that such a one attains the worlds of the righteous where after residing in happiness and peacefulness for a long duration of time one takes birth again in a righteous, virtuous and prosperous family.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna is declaring that whatever desire diverted one from continuing on the path of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Such desire will find its fulfilment and be exquisitely enhanced manifold in the delightful spheres of those who performed virtuous deeds. There one enjoys to the utmost limit of their capacity extending over a long duration of time. This all happens by virtue of the yoga one began but was unable to finish. When one’s time limit for enjoyment has come to an end one incarnates and takes birth in a pious and wealthy family already practising yoga at the stage where one discontinued in their previous life. To be thus born in such a favourable environment is due to the potency and efficacy of the this yoga which was commenced but not completed.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now it may be wondered that if a person who abandons the path of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness never meets with an evil destiny, then exactly what is the destination of such a person? Lord Krishna answers this by revealing that after death such a person by the power of yoga resides for a long duration of time on the higher planets of the righteous to reap the results which one has merited. After which the results reaped are exhausted, one takes birth in a pious and wealthy family

Sloka 6.42 audio recital in Sanskrit     

अथवा योगिनामेव कुले भवति धीमताम् |
एतद्धि दुर्लभतरं लोके जन्म यदीदृशम् ||६- ४२||

athavA yoginAmeva kule bhavati dhImatAm.h |
etaddhi durlabhataraM loke janma yadIdR^isham.h || 6-42 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.42

Anvaya: atha va–or; yoginam–of learned transcendentalists; eva–certainly; kule–in the family of; bhavati–takes birth; dhi-matam–of those who are endowed with great wisdom; etat–this; hi–certainly; durlabha-taram–very rare; loke–in this world; janma–birth; yat–that which; idrsam–like this.

Translation: Or he takes his birth in a family of transcendentalists who are surely great in wisdom. Verily, such a birth is rare in this world.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The destination of one who after a short time has abandoned the practice of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness was given in the previous verse. Now Lord Krishna describes the destination of the person who has been practising yoga for a long time and almost perfected it before expiring their life. They are born in families of enlightened yogis and sages, perfecting yoga and in possession of Vedic knowledge which leads to moksa or liberation from the material existence. Birth in this family is more advanced than birth in the families of the previous verse which although virtuous and prosperous had not yet engaged in the process of yoga.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

If one somehow or other was diverted and diverged almost at completion from the path of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness; then they would be born in a family of enlightened sages or those illuminated within from the perfection of yoga. In both these cases it is extremely rare for one to take birth in either situation but when it does occasionally manifest it is the result of the efficacy of yoga that had been almost perfected in the previous life and was not possible to complete due to expiration of life.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

The destination referred to in the previous verse applies to a person who has deviated after a short time from the practice of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Now Lord Krishna reveals the destination of that praiseworthy person who has digressed from yoga after having practised it for a long time. A person who has dissipated the strong desires of the senses for sensual pleasures by the knowledge of the Vedic scriptures as taught by the spiritual preceptor and is endowed with qualities like detachment and renunciation; if by fate such a person is deviated from yoga somehow or other such as due to the loss of the spiritual preceptor before one was fully matured, then such a person takes birth in a family of enlightened Brahmins; but not in the family of wealthy Brahmins or royal Vedic kings performing opulent ceremonies because riches and opulence give the opportunity to cause distraction to yoga. Although being born in a royal Vedic family or a wealthy family of Brahmins is extremely difficult to receive due to the requirement of many meritorious deeds; it is not deemed to be more beneficial than taking birth in a family of spiritually enlightened Brahmins wedded to yoga because such a birth is bereft of all possibilities for distraction and digression which obstruct and impede progress towards atma tattva realisation of the soul and moksa or liberation from the material existence.

Sloka 6.43 audio recital in Sanskrit     

तत्र तं बुद्धिसंयोगं लभते पौर्वदेहिकम् |
यतते च ततो भूयः संसिद्धौ कुरुनन्दन ||६- ४३||

tatra taM buddhisa.nyogaM labhate paurvadehikam.h |
yatate cha tato bhUyaH sa.nsiddhau kurunandana || 6-43 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.43

Anvaya: tatra–thereupon; tam–that; buddhi-samyogam–revival of such consciousness; labhate–regains; paurva–previous; dehikam–bodily consciousness; yatate–he endeavors; ca–also; tatah–thereafter; bhuyah–again; samsiddhau–for perfection; kuru-nandana–O son of Kuru.

Translation: On taking such a birth, he again revives the divine consciousness of his previous life, and he tries to make further progress in order to achieve complete success, O son of Kuru.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

What happens then to such a person as described in the two previous verses. Lord Krishna declares that in both types of birth the person comes into contact with the level of spiritual knowledge which one acquired in the previous life and impelled by the impressions from it strives harder then ever before to reach the perfection of moksa or liberation from material existence.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

In the very next reincarnation such a practicer of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness is propelled by the impressions of the previous birth and is drawn by the habits cultivated in their previous existence. Like one who while performing a task slumbers briefly but when roused from sleep enthusiastically continues onwards to finishing it. In the same way in their next birth such a practicer of yoga enthusiastically continues onwards in perfecting yoga from where they left off in the previous life. Lord Krishna is declaring that the influence of yoga and the past life habits involving yoga are so potent that they impel such a person in their next life to gravitate towards yoga instinctively and intuitively as if it were not in one’s power to resist. Verily the majesty and greatness of yoga is well known to be such.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna states the qualifications of the yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness and why such a birth mentioned in the preceding verse is so rare. It is because the potent impression of one’s past life yoga practices has such efficacy that one regains their spiritual insight and an awakening occurs regarding meditation on the atma or soul. It is exactly like waking up in the morning after sleeping during the night. After such an awakening a person recognises the place where they left off last life and wholeheartedly and determinedly strives for perfection in yoga in their present life without reservation.

Sloka 6.44 audio recital in Sanskrit     

पूर्वाभ्यासेन तेनैव ह्रियते ह्यवशोऽपि सः |
जिज्ञासुरपि योगस्य शब्दब्रह्मातिवर्तते ||६- ४४||

pUrvAbhyAsena tenaiva hriyate hyavasho.api saH |
jiGYAsurapi yogasya shabdabrahmAtivartate || 6-44 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.44

Anvaya: purva–previous; abhyasena–practice; tena–by the influence of that; eva–certainly; hriyate–is attracted; hi–surely; avasah–helpless; api–also; sah–he; jijnasuh–willing to know; api–so; yogasya–of yoga; sabda-brahma–ritualistic principles of scripture; ativartate–transcends.

Translation: By virtue of the divine consciousness of his previous life, he automatically becomes attracted to the yogic principles–even without seeking them. Such an inquisitive transcendentalist, striving for yoga, stands always above the ritualistic principles of the scriptures.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The reason why such a person comes in contact with spiritual knowledge is because of the practice of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness is because the potency of it irresistibly propels one towards realising the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence and even if one is oblivious or is beset by obstacles the efficacy of the yoga automatically makes it happen. Thus although one may be struggling from the reactions of previous activities still they will gradually in subsequent births attain moksa or liberation from the material existence. Lord Krishna makes the meaning even more clear in the second half of the verse with the words jijnasur api meaning even a mere inquirer or novice who has interest in the nature of yoga but falls from it due to desires and material attachments still transcends the results of ritualistic activities for fruitive results prescribed in the Vedic scriptures and achieves greater results and in a future birth wil have the opportunity for moksa or liberation from material existence.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Even one who is merely an aspirant seeking the process of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness, even such a one will be invariably attracted to moksa or liberation from the material existence and transcend the ritualistic ordinances in the Vedas and achieve the Brahman or spiritual substratum pervading all existence. This is the meaning Lord Krishna is conveying.

Now begins the summation.

This verse clarifies that even the aspirant seeking the process of yoga is superior to one who only studies the Vedic scriptures without actual realisation of them. What is the special need of knowing about being established in yoga? This was from the Parama Yoga scripture.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Even one who has not embarked upon it but is merely enquiring about yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness , such a person resumes such inquiries in their very next birth that they had discontinued in their previous lifetime. Gradually one advances on the path of yoga and transcends sabda-brahma or the fruitive ordinances of the Vedic scriptures. Sabda-brahma signifies matter and from this matter in its manifested modifications comes sabdita or all things having namea and forms such humans, demigods, earth, sky, heaven, etc. Hence all things nameable and all things of matter. Even the mere inquirer about yoga acquires enough merit to ultimately transcend beyond the sabda-brahma. This means one becomes unfettered from the bondage of material existence and attains atma-tattva or realisation of the soul which is the sole harbour of spiritual intelligence and unlimited bliss or that which cannot be defined by a name as material objects which are composed of matter such as demigod or human etc.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Now Lord Krishna explains that one digressing from yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness who subsequently takes birth in a humble family of enlightened Brahmins may regain their previous spiritual insight early on in life. This is because by such a birth which they had acquired by dint of their spiritual insight from the previous birth, the everyday environment would be conducive to spiritual development right from the beginning of one’s life. How could an aspirant to perfect yoga enhance their development which they had acquired being born in the home of the rich and wealthy where one would be distracted by abundant pleasures or diverted due to exorbitant opulence? The words purvabhyasena means by the prenatal impressions from the previous life and by this even one born in a rich family will feel drawn to the practice of yoga and seek enlightenment easily transcending the ordinances of the duties laid out in karma yoga or prescribed Vedic activities for fruitive results. The understanding is that due to prenatal impressions one will be indifferent to performing actions and will strive by jnana yoga or cultivation of Vedic knowledge for atma tattva or realisation of the soul.

Sloka 6.45 audio recital in Sanskrit     

प्रयत्नाद्यतमानस्तु योगी संशुद्धकिल्बिषः |
अनेकजन्मसंसिद्धस्ततो याति परां गतिम् ||६- ४५||

prayatnAdyatamAnastu yogI sa.nshuddhakilbiShaH .
anekajanmasa.nsiddhastato yAti parAM gatim.h || 6-45 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.45

Anvaya: prayatnat–by rigid practice; yatamanah–one who endeavors; tu–but; yogi–such a transcendentalist; samsuddha–washed off; kilbisah–all kinds of sins; aneka–many, many; janma–births; samsiddhah–so achieved perfection; tatah–thereafter; yati–attains; param–highest; gatim–destination.

Translation: But when the yogi engages himself with sincere endeavor in making further progress, being washed of all contaminations, then ultimately, after many, many births of practice, he attains the supreme goal.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

If even a novice or beginner yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness can eventually attain moksa or liberation from material existence. it goes without saying that what can be said for a yogi who practices diligently and wholeheartedly purifying themselves more and more in mind and bodily activities will soon attain perfection and atma tattva or realisatio of the soul through accumulated merits of performing yoga for many lifetimes and attain moksa..


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

Lord Krishna states the words aneka-janma meaning after many births the aspirant by spiritual experience acquires spiritual knowledge and accumulated merit after many lifetimes and achieves moksa or liberation from the material existence. If one exerts themselves sincerely and intensely one becomes endowed with devotion to the Supreme Lord. In the Narada Purana it states: Knowing, perceiving and meditating for many lives in the mood of devotion a person invariably attains the immaculate Supreme Lord and not by any other manner or means.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

Such is the greatness and virtue of this yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining merit with the ultimate consciousness, that one’s merit increases and accumulates as a person incarnates through many births and ultimately purifies one by disengaging them from all attachments and impurities. In this way one becomes more and more competent and qualified for perfecting yoga and by enthusiastic effort despite any chance interruptions one eventually achieves perfection and attains moksa or liberation from material existence. The superiority above all others of the yogi who has chosen the highest of human ambitions atma tattva or realisation of the soul is revealed by Lord Krishna in the next verse.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Does such a yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness become finally established in yoga in their present birth after transcending prescribed Vedic activities for rewards? Is such a person qualified for moksa or liberation from material existence in this life or the next? Lord Krishna uses the words prayatmad yatmanas meaning endeavouring diligently. Because a person deviated from yoga in the past life due to negligence and distraction they must pick up where they left off with even more effort than before as to not be deviated again. One should sincerely and determinedly make up their mind to attain perfection in this very life purging themselves of all impurities and neutralising all obstructions from self realisation with diligent endeavour so the opportunity for development is not lost in this birth or in future births until at last one attains moksa.

Sloka 6.46 audio recital in Sanskrit     

तपस्विभ्योऽधिको योगी ज्ञानिभ्योऽपि मतोऽधिकः |
कर्मिभ्यश्चाधिको योगी तस्माद्योगी भवार्जुन ||६- ४६||

tapasvibhyo.adhiko yogI GYAnibhyo.api mato.adhikaH |
karmibhyashchAdhiko yogI tasmAdyogI bhavArjuna || 6-46 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.46

Anvaya: tapasvibhyah–than the ascetic; adhikah–greater; yogi–the yogi; jnanibhyah–than the wise; api–also; matah–considered; adhikah–greater than; karmibhyah–than the fruitive worker; ca–also; adhikah–greater than; yogi–the yogi; tasmat–therefore; yogi–a transcendentalist; bhava–just become; arjuna–O Arjuna.

Translation: A yogi is greater than the ascetic, greater than the empiricist and greater than the fruitive worker. Therefore, O Arjuna, in all circumstances, be a yogi.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

The result of yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness verifies that the yogi is greater than the ascetics who perform ritualistic penance’s like Chandrayana or fasting with the cycles of the moon, the jnani’s or knowers of Vedic scripture without the requisite realisation and the karmi’s or those who perform prescribed Vedic activities for fruitive results and rewards such as Ishta’s or rites and rituals for attaining material gains in the present life or in svarga loka the heavenly spheres in the afterlife and Purta or acts of charity such as well digging for public use, giving food in charity etc. Therefore Lord Krishna is encouraging Arjuna to be a yogi.


There is no commentary for this verse. Awaiting contributions.
Ramanuja’s Commentary:

As yoga or the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciouness leads to the highest aspiration of human existence. It is known that yoga is greater what is attainable by ascetics living austerities, greater than what is attainable by Vedic knowledge that is bereft of knowledge of the soul and greater than what is attained by the performance of ritualistic ceremonies prescribed in the Vedas concerning fruitive rewards. Hence the yogi is superior to all these. Thus Lord Krishna encourages Arjuna to become a yogi. This verse is a eulogy on higher theosophy and it relates to the acquisition of atma tattva or realisation of the soul as the preliminary step to God realisation.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

Therefore a person sincerely seeking their eternal well being should rely on yoga more than any other means for accomplishing the fundamental purpose of human existence. The yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness with the ultimate consciousness is superior to the ascetics who practice ritualistic austerities like the fasting vows which follow the cycle of the moon. The yogi is regarded to be superior to those who are well versed and knowledgeable of the Vedic scriptures and a yogi is also superior to those who perform prescribed Vedic activities for fruitive results like an Agnihotra or fire sacrifice. Therefore Lord Krishna is encouraging Arjuna to be a yogi.

Sloka 6.47 audio recital in Sanskrit     

योगिनामपि सर्वेषां मद्गतेनान्तरात्मना |
श्रद्धावान्भजते यो मां स मे युक्ततमो मतः ||६- ४७||

yoginAmapi sarveShAM mad.hgatenAntarAtmanA |
shraddhAvAnbhajate yo mA.n sa me yuktatamo mataH || 6-47 ||


Show Translation, Anvaya and Commentaries: Sloka 6.47

Anvaya: yoginam–of all yogis; api–also; sarvesam–all types of; mat-gatena–abiding in Me; antah-atmana–always thinking of Me within; sraddha-van–in full faith; bhajate–renders transcendental loving service; yah–one who; mam–Me (the Supreme Lord); sah–he; me–Mine; yukta-tamah–the greatest yogi; matah–is considered.

Translation: And of all yogis, he who always abides in Me with great faith, worshiping Me in transcendental loving service, is most intimately united with Me in yoga and is the highest of all.

Commentaries of the four authorized Vaisnava Sampradayas


Sridhara Swami’s Commentary:

Amongst all yogi’s or those perfected in the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness who are engaged in yama, niyama or self control etc. Lord Krishna is declaring that His devotee is superior to even the greatest yogi. One who is possessed of full faith in Him as the Supreme Lord of all, with their mind focused within and relishing meditation on Him is the greatest yogi of all. Therefore be Lord Krishna’s devotee is the purport.

I worship the Supreme Lord Krishna, the embodiment of supreme bliss, the treasure of those following the path of devotion, who taught the yoga of the atma or soul to the greatest of devotees.


Madhvacarya’s Commentary:

From the previous verse the word yogi means one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. The word jnanibhyo means the worshipers of the Brahman or the spiritual substratum pervading all existence. The word tapasvibhyo means the performers of rituals and austerities. Superior even to these different types of yogis is one who has achieved atma tattva or realisation of the soul. The Garuda Purans states that: In comparison to all yogis and aspirants, meditation on Lord Krishna or His Vedically authorised incarnations is 100,000 times superior to meditation on others. In the Narada Purana it states: Meditation with knowledge of the Supreme Lord Krishna is infinitely superior to meditation without knowledge of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Better than even meditation with knowledge of the Supreme Lord Krishna is direct perception of the Supreme Lord Krishna. Better than even direct perception of the Supreme Lord Krishna is communion with devotion to the Supreme Lord Krishna.

Now begins the summation.

Superior to austerities and penance is meditation. Better than meditation without realisation is meditation with realisation. For those who meditate with realisation that are not devotees of Lord Krishna or His Vedically authorised incarnations, whatever they meditate on has no efficacy. The persons who see similarity between other gods and the Supreme Lord Krishna, the persons who do not see Lord Krishna as superior to all other gods, the persons who believe other gods to be more elevated than the Supreme Lord Krishna, those person who are indifferent to the Supreme Lord Krishna and those persons who are irreverent and spiteful to the Supreme Lord Krishna are all classified as non-devotees. Among the devotees who do not possess the offensive mentality previously elucidated. Those special devotees who worship the Supreme Lord Krishna exclusively with love and devotion are the most elevated of all. Sri Dattatreya a lila avatar or incarnation of the Supreme Lord Krishna states: The Supreme Lord is installed directly in the center of a Vaisnava or Brahmana family as the leading member and is thus lovingly and devotedly worshipped as such.

Ramanuja’s Commentary:

The genitive case of the word yoginam has the force of the ablative case yogibhyah iwhich means of all types of yogis or those perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness. Thus yoginam means more than just being a yogi, it means being a special yogi above and beyond and superior to all other yogi’s including the four yogi’s described in verse twenty-nine beginning with sarva-bhuta-stham atmanam which refers to the yogi who perceives the soul in all beings. Verse thirty beginning with yo mam pasyati sarvatra which refers to the yogi who sees the Supreme Lord in everything. Verse thirty-one beginning with sarva-bhuta-sthitam which refers to the yogi who realises the Supreme Lord as non-different from the atma or soul. Verse thirty-two beginning with atmaupamyena sarvatra which refers to the yogi who perceives the atma as all pervading consciousness activating everything. As the yogi indicated in this verse does not fall into one of the four mentioned classifications the genitive case does not have the power to place this yogi into one of those classes. The words api sarvesam meaning amongst all types refers to those additional yogis indicated in this verse which follow the yoga paths of karma, jnana, tapasya, astanga etc. Likewise also the genitive case of the word sarvesam meaning of all types, has the force of the ablative case which indicates this special yogi is a bhakta or loving devotee of the Supreme Lord and thus greater than all other yogis. In comparison with this special yogi all other yogi’s being inferior can be grouped into a single class. The comparison between that special yogi and the single class of all the other yogi’s is like designating the special yogi as the Himmalaya’s and all other yogi’s as a handful of mustard seeds. Between one seed and another upon close introspection differences certainly exist; but such differences between seeds cannot be compared to the difference between the seeds and the Himmalaya’s. In the word atmana is the word manas meaning giving one’s heart, mind, body and soul in devotion over flowing with love to the Supreme Lord. This dedication is extraordinary and glorifies and distinguishes one from out of all other yogi’s.

Antar-atmana equates to the innermost manas being the atma which monitors all internal and external experiences. So over powered by love of God this special yogi is unable to even maintain his very existence without the assistance of the Supreme Lord. In this way he is always one with Him.

Sraddhavan means with earnestness and faith in the Vedic scriptures taught by the spiritual master. The earnestness of desire to worship the Supreme Lord Krishna comes from an intrinsic impulse which impels this special yogi to find Him. The intensity of yearning love that this special yogi has for the Supreme Lord is such that one is unable to tolerate even a moments separation from Him.

The Supreme Lord to whom the emanations, sustenations and immanations of the cosmos abounding in unlimited, diverse variegated objects of enjoyments and enjoyers through the medium of the physical body and the senses is but creative sport.

The Supreme Lord the treasure chest of myriad groups of glorious attributes, who possesses all jnana or knowledge meaning cognition in all things in every respect every moment, all bala or power meaning supports, maintains and controls everything, all aisvarya or dominion means unaided and undaunted the most powerful, all tejas or luster means self manifested effulgence, all virya or energy means never exhausted or ending, all saktis or potencies means phenomenal miracles and pastime and on an on, etc. etc. etc.

The Supreme Lord whose Divine rupa or form is a synthesis of everything which is glorious and beautiful. Who is inconceivable, transcendental, eternal, imperishable, phenomenal, possessing phenomenal qualities such as aujjvalya or full radiance, sundarya or full beauty, gandhya or full fragrance, lavanya or full grace and yauvana or full youth and who is the antithesis to all that is evil.

The Supreme Lord’s essence, qualities and attributes are beyond the ability of the mind to conceive in vision and extol in speech.

The Supreme Lord is the unlimited, majestic and resplendent ocean of compassion, magnanimity, mercy and love.

The Supreme Lord is the sole saviour and refuge of all the worlds, who mitigates and relieves the oppression of distress for those who make supplication to Him, who is the only object of total love from His devotees, who can become theophanous and ocularly visible to all persons.

The Supreme Lord who appeared incarnate in the material existence in His own original divine and spiritual form, who illuminates all of creation by the infinitely sublime glory of His bodily effulgence, who maintains and preserves all of creation and fills all with gladness by the resplendent glory of His Divine self.

Whosoever meditates on the Supreme Lord Krishna in this manner He keeps most near to Him as they are most dear to Him and are the most estimable and elevated above all others.

Because the Supreme Lord Krishna is eternally omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent knowing past, present and future what He speak is always the absolute truth for all eternity.


Kesava Kasmiri’s Commentary:

After declaring that a yogi or one perfecting the science of the individual consciousness attaining communion with the ultimate consciousness is the best of all ascetics and others mentioned in the previous verse. Lord Krishna concludes this chapter by declaring that the yogi which is best of all is the one who is endowed with faith implicitly following the instructions of the bonafide spiritual master in Vedically authorised disciplic succession and devoted wholeheartedly to worshipping internally and externally Lord Krishna, the Supreme Lord above all Lords, the ocean of unlimited auspicious attributes such eternity, knowledge and bliss as well as affection, compassion and mercy, who is the refuge of all, the bestower of all benedictions and auspiciousness, the destroyer of all obstacles and impediments , who incarnated as Himself in His original spiritual form. Lord Krishna is the primal cause of all creation and the ultimate controller of all living beings. Lord Krishna is described by names like Paramesvara the Supreme Controller, Bhagavan the possessor of all opulences and potencies, Purusa the highest personality etc. as well as names like Govinda meaning He who is the object of delight for the cows and the senses, and Vasudeva or He who is all pervading and from whom everything manifests, and Hari meaning He who dissolves all inauspiciousness and captures by love the hearts of His devotees. Lord Krishna Incarnates to fulfil the aspirations of His devotees who are constantly worshipping Him by adoration, salutation, meditation etc. with their minds concentrated solely in exclusive devotion to the omniscient and omnipotent Supreme Lord Krishna without ever any desire for anything in return for their devotion. Such thoughts spontaneously arise in the mind by the teachings of the bonafide spiritual master in authorised disciplic succession, whom one has the grace to serve as a result of abundant meritorious activities performed in innumerable previous births. This person is immersed internally upon the Supreme Lord Krishna with exclusive devotion. Such a person is considered to be the most elevated and the best of all yogis. The understanding is that Lord Krishna is advising Arjuna to also become the best of all yogis.

Thus ends the first group of six chapters of the Karma Yoga section comprised of the teachings on the nature of the atma or soul, meditation on the atma after controlling the senses and the mind while developing detachment and renunciation. In this sixth chapter Lord Krishna spoke of detachment leading to renunciation and the cessation of activities with desire for rewards through yoga as the means to moksa. Also instructions were given regarding the atma’s relation to all other atma’s as well as to the Supreme Lord because to become the best of all yogis, atma tattva or realisation of the soul is essential being the most intimate and exclusive means to attain the Supreme Lord. Finally in conclusion Lord Krishna revealed the unassailable superiority of His devotee,

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